Daily Archives: February 24, 2012
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
InshaAllah today we’ll discuss a little about the “Classification of Hadith”.
As time passed, more reporters were involved in each isnad, and so the situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of Ahadith; the rules regulating this discipline are known as Mustalah al-Hadith (the Classification of Hadith).
One of the earliest writings to attempt to cover Mustalah comprehensively, using standard (i.e. generally-accepted) terminology, was the work by Al-Ramahurmuzi (d. 360).
Before proceeding towards the classification we should know about some basic component of Hadith which can be shown by simple flow chart:
Mustalah al-Hadith (Classification of Hadith)
Mustalah books speak of a number of classes of Hadith in accordance with their status. The following broad classifications can be made, each of which is explained in the later sections:
- According to the reference to a particular authority,
e.g. the Prophetﷺ, a Companion, or a Successor; such Ahadith are called Marfu’ (elevated), Mauquf (stopped) and Maqtu’ (severed) respectively .
- According to the links in the Isnad, i.e. whether the chain of reporters is interrupted or uninterrupted,
e.g. Musnad (supported), Muttasil (continuous), Munqati’ (broken), Mu’allaq (hanging), Mu’dal (perplexing) and Mursal (hurried).
- According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the Isnad,
e.g. Mutawatir (consecutive) and Ahad (isolated), the latter being divided into Gharib (scarce, strange), ‘Aziz (rare, strong), and Mashhur (famous).
- According to the manner in which the Hadith has been reported, such as using the (Arabic) words ‘an (“on the authority of”), Haddathana (“he narrated to us”), Akhbarana (- “he informed us”) or sami’tu (“I heard”).
- According to the nature of the Matn and Isnad,
e.g. an addition by a reliable reporter, known as Ziyadatu Thiqah, or opposition by a lesser authority to a more reliable one, known as Shadhdh (irregular).
- According to a hidden defect found in the Isnad or text of a Hadith. Although this could be included in some of the previous categories, a hadith mu’allal (defective hadith) is worthy to be explained separately. The defect can be caused in many ways; e.g. two types of hadith mu’allal are known as maqlub (overturned) and mudtarib (shaky).
- According to the reliability and memory of the reporters; the final judgment on a Hadith depends crucially on this factor: verdicts such as Sahih (sound), Hasan (good), Da’if (weak) and Maudu‘ (fabricated, forged) rest mainly upon the nature of the reporters in the isnad.
Once Allah’s Apostle delayed the ‘Isha’ prayer till ‘Umar informed him that the women and children had slept. The Prophet came out and said, “None except you from amongst the dwellers of earth is waiting for this prayer.” In those days, there was no prayer except in Medina and they used to pray the ‘Isha’ prayer between the disappearance of the twilight and the first third of the night.
Proves that women used to go to mosques in Prophet (SAW)’s time. Similar Hadih here.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet said, “If your women ask permission to go to the mosque at night, allow them.”
Very clear-cut. Concentrate on the ‘asking permission’ part, women! :P
Narrated Um Salama (the wife of the Prophet):
In the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle the women used to get up when they finished their compulsory prayers with Taslim. The Prophet and the men would stay on at their places as long as Allah will. When the Prophet got up, the men would then get up.
Men wait for the women to leave, and then they leave. It’s better to separate pathways. Similar Hadith here.
Women should leave for homes immediately after the prayer. Lurking around uselessly is not appreciated.
When Allah’s Apostle finished the Fajr prayer, the women would leave covered in their sheets and were not recognized owing to the darkness.
Women ‘covered in sheets’.. A Muslim women should cover herself, well enough. Use sheets (read: long pieces) of cloth, sewn or un-sewn.
Women may go to the mosques in dark as well.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Abi Qatada Al-Ansari:
My father said, “Allah’s Apostle said, “Whenever I stand for prayer, I want to prolong it but on hearing the cries of a child, I would shorten it as I dislike to put its mother in trouble.”
Aww-ness. Women deserve that and so much more. :)
Had Allah’s Apostle known what the women were doing, he would have forbidden them from going to the mosque as the women of Bani Israel had been forbidden. Yahya bin Said (a sub-narrator) asked ‘Amra (another sub-narrator), “Were the women of Bani Israel forbidden?” She replied “Yes.”
I don’t know what `Aisha (RA) meant when she said “had Allah’s Apostle known what the women were doing..”, so can’t comment on that.
But yeah, Jewish women weren’t allowed to go to mosques. Poor creatures!
Alhamdulillah for Islam! <3
Narrated Um Salama:
Whenever Allah’s Apostle completed the prayer with Taslim, the women used to get up immediately and Allah’s Apostle would remain at his place for someone before getting up. (The sub-narrator (Az-Zuhri) said, “We think, and Allah knows better, that he did so, so that the women might leave before men could get in touch with them).”
Repeat: “women used to leave immediately”.
The Prophet prayed in the house of Um Sulaim; and I, along with an orphan stood behind him while Um Sulaim (stood) behind us.
Women CAN pray directly behind men. Screen not required, essentially.
Allah’s Apostle used to offer the Fajr prayer when it was still dark and the believing women used to return (after finishing their prayer) and nobody could recognize them owing to darkness, or they could not recognize one another.
Narrated Salim bin ‘Abdullah:
My father said, “The Prophet said, ‘If the wife of any one of you asks permission (to go to the mosque) do not forbid her.”
Umar (RA) disliked her wife going to the masjid, but he never stopped her if she asked him permission to go. Because Prophet (SAW) ordered men not to forbid their wives from going.
P.S. Book of Characteristics of Prayer ends here. Book of Friday Prayer starts after it inshaAllah.