Monthly Archives: June 2012
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet said, “A woman should not travel for more than three days except with a Dhi-Mahram (i.e. a male with whom she cannot marry at all, e.g. her brother, father, grandfather, etc.) or her own husband.)”
The Prophet said, “A woman should not travel for more than three days except with a Mahram.”
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to travel for one day and night except with a Mahram.”
The saheeh (authentic) Sunnah indicates that it is not permissible for a woman to travel except with a mahram. This travelling is not defined by a specific distance, as is the case with shortening the prayers or breaking the fast, rather everything that is called travelling, whether it is long or short, is not permitted for a woman unless she has a mahram with her.
Al-Bukhaari (1729) and Muslim (2391) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel except with a mahram.”
The fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that it is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram, except in a few exceptional cases, such as travelling for the obligatory Hajj, for which some of them have permitted a women to travel with trustworthy companions. Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: al-Baghawi said: They did not differ concerning the fact that a woman may not travel for anything but the obligatory Hajj except with a husband or mahram, except a kaafir woman who becomes Muslim in daar al-harb or a female captive who escapes. Others added: or a woman who becomes separated from her group and is found by a trustworthy man, in which case it is permissible for him to accompany her until he brings her back to her group. End quote from Fath al-Baari (4/76).
For a very detailed and satisfactory answer, including the wisdom and reasons behind this ruling, read this.
Narrated Ibn Abbas:
The Prophet and his companions reached Mecca in the morning of the 4th Dhul-Hijja reciting Talbiya (O Allah! We are obedient to Your orders, we respond to Your call) intending to perform Hajj. The Prophet ordered his companions to assume the lhram for Umra instead of Hajj, excepting those who had Hadi (sacrifice) with them.
Prophet (SAW) stayed in Makkah for 10 days for Hajj, according to Hadith no. 187.
Why did Prophet (SAW) order some people to assume Ihraam for Umrah instead of Hajj? Background information on Hajj needed.
There are three types of Hajj: Tamattu’, Ifraad and Qiraan.
Tamattu’ means entering ihraam for ‘Umrah only during the months of Hajj (the months of Hajj are Shawwaal, Dhu’l-Qi’dah and Dhu’l-Hijjah; see al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 7/62). When the pilgrim reaches Makkah he performs tawaaf and saa’i for ‘Umrah, and shaves his head or cuts his hair, and exits ihraam. Then when the day of al-Tarwiyah, which is the 8th of Dhu’l-Hijjah, comes, he enters ihraam for Hajj only, and does all the actions of Hajj. So Tamattu’ involves a complete ‘Umrah and a complete Hajj.
Ifraad means entering ihraam for Hajj only. When the pilgrim reaches Makkah he performs tawaaf al-qudoom (tawaaf of arrival) and saa’i for Hajj, but he does not shave or cut his hair and does not exit ihraam, rather he remains in ihraam until he exits ihraam after stoning Jamarat al-‘Aqabah on the day of Eid. If he delays the saa’i of Hajj until after the tawaaf of Hajj, there is nothing wrong with that.
Qiraan means entering ihraam for ‘Umrah and Hajj both together. Or entering ihraam for ‘Umrah first then including Hajj in that before starting the tawaaf of Hajj. That is done by intending that his tawaaf and saa’i will be for both Hajj and ‘Umrah.
The actions done in Qiraan are the same as those done in Ifraad, except that the pilgrim doing Qiraan has to offer a hadiy (sacrifice) whereas the pilgrim doing Ifraad does not.
The best of these three types of Hajj is Tamattu’. This is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined upon his companions and urged them to do. Even if a person enters ihraam for Qiraan or Ifraad, then it is strongly recommended for him to change his intention to ‘Umrah, then complete ‘Umrah and exit ihraam, so that he will then be doing Tamattu’. He may do that after doing tawaaf al-qudoom and saa’i – because when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did tawaaf and saa’i during his Farewell Pilgrimage, and his companions were with him, he told everyone who did not have a sacrificial animal (hadiy) to change his intention and make his ihraam for ‘Umrah and to cut his hair and exit ihraam, and he said, “Were it not that I have brought the hadiy with me, I would do what I have commanded you to do.”
So, the ones who had brought animals along for sacrifice were doing Qiraan, and the rest were ordered to intend for Tamattu`.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:
I offered the prayer with the Prophet, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar at Mina and it was of two Rakat. ‘Uthman in the early days of his caliphate did the same, but later on he started praying the full prayer.
Narrated Haritha bin Wahab:
The Prophet (SAW) led us in the prayer at Mina during the peace period by offering two Rakat.
Prophet (SAW) shortened prayer in Mina. In the description of hajj on IslamQA, it says:
..Then the pilgrim should go out to Mina and pray Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Isha’ and Fajr there, shortening the prayers but not joining them, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to shorten his prayers in Mina but he did not join them. Shortening the prayers means making the four-rak’ah prayers two raka’ahs. The people of Makkah and others should shorten their prayers in Mina, ‘Arafah and Muzdalifah because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to lead the people in prayer during the Farewell Pilgrimage and there were people from Makkah with him, but he did not tell them to offer their prayers in full. If it had been obligatory for them to do so, he would have told them to do so as he did on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. But since the city has spread and incorporated Mina so that it is like one of the quarters of Makkah, then the people of Makkah should not shorten their prayers there.
Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman bin Yazid:
We offered a four Rakat prayer at Mina behind Ibn ‘Affan . ‘Abdullah bin Masud was informed about it. He said sadly, “Truly to Allah we belong and truly to Him we shall return.” And added, “I prayed two Rakat with Allah’s Apostle at Mina and similarly with Abu Bakr and with ‘Umar (during their caliphates).” He further said, “May I be lucky enough to have two of the four Rakat accepted (by Allah).”
Why did Usman (RA) pray four rak`aat in Mina, instead of two? Scholars have given different opinions on this. Before I list them down, UNDERSTAND that taqseer (shortening Salah) is a Sunnah, not fard (obligatory). It’s a relaxation for travelers, not mandatory for them. Now the list:
- According to Usman (RA), taqseer was for travel only. One should pray complete Salah upon reaching the destination.
- He thought that Prophet (SAW) shortened Salah in Mina to make it easy for the Ummah. But the real hukm (ruling) is to pray the complete Salah.
- He was planning to stay in Makkah after Hajj, so he wasn’t a ‘traveler’.
- A lot of A`raab (Arab Bedouins) had come for Hajj that year. Usman (RA) feared that they might think that the original ruling is to pray two rak`aat, so he prayed four.
- He was of the opinion that taqseer is for travelers only. Since his wife lived in Makkah, he considered himself a resident. So he did not shorten his Salah.
(This narration collected in Musnad Ahmad is weak. Ikrimah ibn Ibrahim is the weak narrator.)
Throughout the previous class, and the study sessions after it, the one thing that struck me the most was the realization that I am to blame. It’s `ajeeb, really.
ورحمة الله لنا مشروطة برحمة جميع من في الأرض، وكيف نكون رحمة للعالمين وقد تركنا الكفار والمشركين والعصاة تائهين ضالين، منحدرين في أودية الكفر والفسق والفساد؟.
Roughly translated: “..and Allah’s Mercy for us is conditional on mercy for everyone in the Earth. And how can we be a mercy for the worlds when we’ve left the disbelievers, the polytheists and the disobedient deceived and lost in the valleys of infidelity, immorality and corruption?”
Simply put, Allah will show mercy to us only if we show mercy to others. And how can we ever claim that we do show mercy to others when we’re doing the exact opposite by letting the disbelievers and deniers of Allah wander in the valleys of
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Narrated Yahya bin Ishaq:
I heard Anas saying, “We travelled with the Prophet from Medina to Mecca and offered two Rakat (for every prayer) till we returned to Medina.” I said, “Did you stay for a while in Mecca?” He replied, “We stayed in Mecca for ten days.”
Distance between Makkah and Madinah = 338.9 km (approx.)
The majority of scholars defined the distance at which a traveller may shorten his prayers; and some of them did not set a limit, rather they left that to be decided by custom (al-‘urf) – what is customarily regarded by the people as travelling is where the concession is granted allowing the traveller to shorten his prayers and break his fast.
According to the majority of scholars, the distance is defined as being approximately eighty kilometers.
It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (8/99): The distance in which the concession of traveling is allowed is that which is customarily regarded as travelling, which is approximately eighty kilometers. Whoever is going to travel this distance or more is allowed to avail himself of the concessions granted to travellers, namely wiping over the socks for three days and nights, and joining and shortening prayers, and not fasting in Ramadaan.
..And there is no difference between travel by land or by sea.
[Taken from IslamQA]
So travelling within a city or close by does not mean you can shorten prayers. Minimum distance defined above.