Daily Archives: December 20, 2012

Selling Unripe Fruit (Ahadith 1262 – 1264)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 563:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the sale of dates till they were good (ripe), and when it was asked what it meant, the Prophet said, “Till there is no danger of blight.”

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 564:

Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the sale of fruits till they were ripe (free from blight).

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 565:

Narrated Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the selling of fruits until they were ripe. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, “It means that they become red .”

It is not permissible to sell fruits before their condition is known, according to scholarly consensus, because it is proven from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that that is forbidden.

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade selling fruits before their condition is known, and he forbade both the seller and the buyer. Narrated by al-Bukhaari (2194) and Muslim (1534).

So it is more appropriate that it is not permissible to sell fruits before they appear. The scholars are also unanimously agreed that this is forbidden.

The reason why it is forbidden to sell fruits before their condition is known is the fear that the crop may be destroyed and stricken with blight before its condition is known. Fruits are often destroyed before their condition is known, and it is proven in the hadeeth of Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do you think that if Allaah withholds the crop, why would you regard your brother’s wealth as permissible?” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1488) and Muslim (1555).

What is meant by their condition becoming known is when the fruit first appears and becomes fit to eat. It does not mean when it is fully ripe. Hence it says in the hadeeth, “until their condition is known” and it does not say, “until they become fully fit to eat.”

Muslim (1536) narrated from Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade selling produce until it is fit to eat, and according to another report, until it is ripe.

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Majmoo’ (11/150):

Its condition becoming known has to do with a change in the produce, so it varies from one type to another. Despite the differences between them, it comes down to one thing which they all have in common, which is when it is fit to be eaten. End quote.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (4/33):

The guideline is when it can be eaten and becomes palatable, because when it reaches that point it can be benefited from, but before that it cannot be benefited from except with difficulty, When it reaches that point of ripeness, it is less likely to be affected by blight. End quote.

But some exceptions may be made to the ruling that it is haraam to sell crops until their condition is known, in which case it may be permissible to sell the crops even though they are not yet fit to eat.

1 – When the fruits are sold along with the trees. This is permissible, whether the condition of the fruits is known or not, and there is no difference of opinion among the fuqaha’ concerning this, because the sale of the fruit in this case is connected to the trees, and the basic principle according to the scholars is that rules may be relaxed when an item is sold along with another item, but not when it is sold on its own.

2 – The fruits may be sold before their condition is known so long as the purchaser cuts them down straight away, and does not wait until they ripen. This sale is valid according to scholarly consensus, and the scholars gave the reason that the prohibition on selling before the condition of the fruits is known is due to the fear that the fruits may be destroyed by blight before they are picked, but there is no risk of that if they are cut down straight away.

The condition of cutting them down straight away applies in some cases where the fruits may be used before they ripen, such as if they may be used as animal feed and other ways of benefiting from them.

Read full post on IslamQA here.

As for zakah on unripe fruit, read this.

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Literature [Contd.]

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

السلام علیکم ورحمته اللہ وبرکاته

Musnad:

A Musnad (plural: masaaneed) is a book in which the author has placed the ahadeeth narrated by each companion in separate chapters, each of them under the name of the relevant companion. Among the Masaneed are the Musnad of Abdu bin Humaid, the Musnad of Ad­ Darimi, the Musnad of Abu Yala, the Musnad of Al­ Bazzar, the Musnad of Abu Dawood, the Musnad of Al­ Hasan bin Sufyan, the Musnad of Ishaq bin Rahawaih, the Musnad of Ubaidullah bin Musa and the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad.

Musnad of Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:

The most important and exhaustive of all the Musnad works available to us is that of Imaam Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal al-Marwazee ash-Shaybaanee. Ibn Hanbal, may Allaah be pleased with him, was descended from the Arab Shaybaanee tribe. He was born in Marw, where his father had gone for the purpose of Jihaad in 780 CE and was carefully brought up by his pious mother, Safiyyah bint Maymoonah in Baghdad. His father died at the age of 30, while Ahmad was quite young. He received his early education from the leading scholars of the region, and began the serious study of hadeeth at the age of 15 under Ibraaheem ibn ‘Ulayyah. After studying with all the major hadeeth experts of the capital, he began to travel in search of knowledge in 799. He wandered through Basra, Kufa, the Yemen, the Hijaaz, and other centers of hadeeth learning, attending the lectures of the traditionists, taking notes, and discussing them with scholars and fellow students. He finally returned to Baghdad in 810, where he met Imaam al-Shaafi‘ee and with whom he studied fiqh and usooI al-fiqh.

He made the service and teaching of the Prophet’s message the sole object of his life, and continued doing that until 833, when a storm of persecution erupted against the orthodox theologians throughout the ‘Abbaasid Empire. Caliph al-Ma’moon, under the influence of his philosophically minded associates, publicly accepted the Mu‘tazilite creed, including the notion that the Qur’aan was created. When most scholars refused to join him in his conversion, he first threatened, and then persecuted them. Many scholars, including Imaam Ahmad May Allaah be pleased with him, refused to yield. The Caliph, who was then at Tarsus, ordered that they should be put in chains and sent to him. Although these orders were carried out, al-Ma’moon died before his devout prisoners had reached their destination.The Caliph had made a will wherein he asked his successor to carry out his wishes with regard to the propagation of the doctrine on the creation of the Qur’aan. His two immediate successors, al Mu‘tasim and al-Waathiq, fiercely carried out this policy. This Mihnah (persecution) continued with varying vigour until the third year of the reign of al-Mutawakkil, who, in the year 848, finally put a stop to it and returned to mainstream Sunni belief.

Imam Ahmad was being punished, and its narrated:

تقدم إليه ابن أبي دؤاد، وقال له: يا أحمد قل في أذني القرآن مخلوق حتى أخلصك من يد الخليفة؛ فقال له الإمام أحمد: يا بن أبي دؤاد قل في أذني القرآن كلام الله وليس بمخلوق حتى أخلصك من عذاب الله عز وجل

Ibn Abi Du’ad came to him and said, ‘O Ahmad, say in my ear: ‘The Qur’an is created,’ so that I may save you from the hand of the Caliph.’ So Imam Ahmad said to him, “O Ibn Abi Du’ad, say in my ear: ‘The Qur’an is the Speech of Allaah, it is not created,’ so that I save you from the punishment of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic!!”

[“Al-Manhaj Al-Ahmad”, 1/35]

After the mihnah was over, Imaam Ahmad lived for about eight years. Most of this period, he devoted to teaching, while the rest he spent in prayers and the remembrance of Allaah. Throughout his life Ibn Hambal inspired those who knew him with his pious character. He boycotted his sons, Saalih and ‘Abdullaah, because they had accepted stipends from the caliph.

Ibn Hambal’s Musnad occupies an important place in hadeeth literature, and has served as an important source for various writers on the different genres of Arabic literature.

Satan talking to Imam Ahmed on his death bed

Abdullah bin Ahmed said:

“When death approached my father, I sat with him and in my hand was a scrap of cloth with which I wanted to tie his beard and he began to drift in and out of consciousness, then he opened his eyes and said, indicating with his hand: “No, not yet. No, not yet” And he repeated it three times. After the third repetition ,I said to him: Oh, my father! What is this thing which you have said at this time? You fall into unconsciousness so that we say that you have gone,then you return (to consciousness) and say: “No, not yet. No, not yet”

He said to me : Oh, my son! Do you not know?” I said: “No”.

He said :” Satan – May Allah’s curse be upon him – stood before me, he lowered himself on his knuckles and said to me:”Oh, Ahmad! You have eluded me.” But I replied: “No, not yet, not yet until I die.”

May Allaah Subhanahu wa tal’aa give us Hidaya and Emaan. Aameen.

Assalaamu’alaykum!

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