Daily Archives: February 22, 2014

Seriousness of Debt (Hadith No. 1832)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 1831 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 336 :
Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He who buys foodstuff should not sell it till he is satisfied with the measure with which he has bought it.

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 337 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Haram (radiallaahu `anhu) died and was in debt to others. I asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to intercede with his creditors for some reduction in the debts. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) requested them (to reduce the debts) but they refused. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to me, “Go and put your dates (In heaps) according to their different kinds. The Ajwa on one side, the cluster of Ibn Zaid on another side, etc.. Then call me.” I did that and called the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He came and sat at the head or in the middle of the heaps and ordered me. Measure (the dates) for the people (creditors).” I measured for them till I paid all the debts. My dates remained as it nothing had been taken from them. In other narrations, Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) said; The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He (i.e. ‘Abdullah) continued measuring for them till he paid all the debts.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to ‘Abdullah), “Cut (clusters) for him (i.e. one of the creditors) and measure for him fully.”

Why was Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) keen on paying this guy’s debt? Because Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) was his father.

We have to realize the seriousness of debt. It’s not something encouraged in Islam. When a person takes a debt from another, he becomes like his prisoner. The linguistic meaning of the word dayn (debt) in Arabic has to do with submission and humiliation. The connection between the shar’i meaning and the linguistic meaning is clear. The debtor is a prisoner, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Your companion is being detained by his debt.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 3341; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

Islam takes the matter of debt very seriously and warns against it and urges the Muslim to avoid it as much as possible.

It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say in his prayer: “Allaahumma inni a’oodhi bika min al-ma’tham wa’l-maghram (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from sin and heavy debt).” Someone said to him: “How often you seek refuge from heavy debt!” He said: “When a man gets into debt, he speak and tells lies, and he makes a promise and breaks it.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (832) and Muslim (589).

Al-Nasaa’i (4605) narrated that Muhammad ibn Jahsh (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

We were sitting with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when he raised his head towards the sky, then he put his palm on his forehead and said: “Subhaan-Allaah!  What a strict issue has been revealed to me!” We remained silent and were afraid. The following morning I asked him, “O Messenger of Allaah, what is this strict issue that has been revealed?” He said, “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, if a man were killed in battle for the sake of Allaah, then brought back to life, then killed and brought back to life again, then killed, and he owed a debt, he would not enter Paradise until his debt was paid off.” Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i, 4367.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) refrained from offering the funeral prayer for one who had died owing two dinars, until Abu Qataadah (may Allaah be pleased with him) promised to pay it off for him. When he saw him the following day and said, I have paid it off, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Now his skin has become cool for him.” Musnad Ahmad (3/629); classed as hasan by al-Nawawi in al-Khalaasah (2/931) and by Ibn Muflih in al-Adaab al-Shar’iyyah(1/104).

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Fath al-Baari(4/547):

This hadeeth indicates how difficult the issue of debt is, and that it should not be undertaken except in cases of necessity. End quote.

It was narrated from Thawbaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

Whoever dies free from three things – arrogance, cheating and debt – will enter Paradise.

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1572); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

The soul of the believer is suspended because of his debt until it is paid off.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1078).

Al-Mubaarakfoori said in Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi (4/164):

The words “the soul of the believer is suspended” – al-Suyooti said: i.e., it is detained and kept from reaching its noble destination. Al-‘Iraaqi said: i.e., no judgement is passed as to whether it will be saved or doomed until it is determined whether his debt will be paid off or not. End quote.

Read more on it here.

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Muhammad (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in Torah (Hadith No. 1830)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 335 :
Narrated by Ata bin Yasar
I met Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Al-‘As (radiallaahu `anhu) and asked him, “Tell me about the description of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) which is mentioned in Torah (i.e. Old Testament.”) He replied, ‘Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Quran as follows: “O Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah’s True religion), and a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), And a warner (to the unbelievers), and guardian of the illiterates. You are My slave and My messenger (i.e. Apostle). I have named you “Al-Mutawakkil” (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh, nor a noise-maker in the markets. And you do not do evil to those who do evil to you, but you deal with them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: “None has the right to be worshiped but Allah,” with which will be opened blind eyes and deaf ears and enveloped hearts.”

Ibn Kathir mentions this Hadith under the following ayah in his tafsir:

﴿الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِىَّ الأُمِّىَّ الَّذِى يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِى التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَـهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَـتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَـئِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالاٌّغْلَـلَ الَّتِى كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُواْ النُّورَ الَّذِى أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ﴾

“Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write whom they find written of with them in the Tawrah and the Injil, — he commands them to do good; and forbids them from evil; he makes lawful for them the good things, and forbids them from the evil things, he releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters that were upon them. So those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.” [7:157]

He comments:

﴿الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِىَّ الأُمِّىَّ الَّذِى يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِى التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ﴾

(Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write whom they find written with them in the Tawrah and the Injil,) This is the description of the Prophet Muhammad in the Books of the Prophets. They delivered the good news of his advent to their nations and commanded them to follow him. His descriptions were still apparent in their Books, as the rabbis and the priests well know. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sakhr Al-`Uqayli said that a bedouin man said to him, “I brought a milk-producing camel to Al-Madinah during the life time of Allah’s Messenger. After I sold it, I said to myself, `I will meet that man (Muhammad) and hear from him.’ So I passed by him while he was walking between Abu Bakr and `Umar, and I followed them until they went by a Jewish man, who was reading from an open copy of the Tawrah. He was mourning a son of his who was dying and who was one of the most handsome boys. The Messenger of Allah asked him (the father),

«أَنْشُدُكَ بِالَّذِي أَنْزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ هَلْ تَجِدُ فِي كِتَابِكَ هَذَا صِفَتِي وَمَخْرَجِي؟»

(I ask you by He Who has sent down the Tawrah, do you not find the description of me and my advent in your Book) He nodded his head in the negative. His son said, `Rather, yes, by He Who has sent down the Tawrah! We find the description of you and your advent in our Book. I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah. ‘ The Prophet said (to the Companions),

«أَقِيمُوا الْيَهُودِيَّ عَنْ أَخِيكُم»

(Stop the Jew (the father) from (taking care of) your brother (in Islam).) The Prophet then personally took care of the son’s funeral and led the funeral prayer on him.”’ This Hadith is sound and is supported by a similar Hadith in the Sahih narrated from Anas. Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Muthanna said that `Ata’ bin Yasar said, “I met `Abdullah bin `Amr and asked him, `Tell me about the description of Allah’s Messenger in the Tawrah.’ He said, `Yes, by Allah! He is described in the Tawrah, just as he is described in the Qur’an,

﴿يأَيُّهَا النَّبِىُّ إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَـكَ شَاهِداً وَمُبَشِّراً وَنَذِيراً ﴾

(O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as a witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner.) ﴿33:45﴾ as a safe refuge for the unlettered ones. `You are My servant and Messenger. I have called you `Al-Mutawakkil’ (who trusts in Allah), not hard or harsh.’ Neither uttering foul speech in the markets nor returning evil deed with one in kind. Rather, he forgives and forgoes. Allah will not end his life until He straightens through him the crooked religion, so that they might proclaim, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ He will open through him sealed hearts, deaf ears and blind eyes.”’ `Ata’ then said, “I also met Ka`b and asked him the same question, and his answer did not differ from `Abdullah’s answer, even concerning one letter. ” Al-Bukhari recorded it from `Abdullah bin `Amr. It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari ﴿up to the word﴾ forgoes. And he mentioned the narration of `Abdullah bin `Amr then he said; “It was common in the speech of our Salaf that they describe the Books of the People of the Two Scriptures as the Tawrah, as some Hadiths concur. Allah knows best.

Question: Why did Imam Bukhari bring this Hadith in the Book of Sales and Trade?
Answer: The phrase “nor a noise-maker in the markets” suggests that it is disliked to raise voices in the market.

SubhanAllah, the intricacy of Imam Bukhari!

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