Seriousness of Debt (Hadith No. 1832)
Hadith no. 1831 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 336 :
Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He who buys foodstuff should not sell it till he is satisfied with the measure with which he has bought it.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 337 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Haram (radiallaahu `anhu) died and was in debt to others. I asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to intercede with his creditors for some reduction in the debts. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) requested them (to reduce the debts) but they refused. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to me, “Go and put your dates (In heaps) according to their different kinds. The Ajwa on one side, the cluster of Ibn Zaid on another side, etc.. Then call me.” I did that and called the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He came and sat at the head or in the middle of the heaps and ordered me. Measure (the dates) for the people (creditors).” I measured for them till I paid all the debts. My dates remained as it nothing had been taken from them. In other narrations, Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) said; The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He (i.e. ‘Abdullah) continued measuring for them till he paid all the debts.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to ‘Abdullah), “Cut (clusters) for him (i.e. one of the creditors) and measure for him fully.”
Why was Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) keen on paying this guy’s debt? Because Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) was his father.
We have to realize the seriousness of debt. It’s not something encouraged in Islam. When a person takes a debt from another, he becomes like his prisoner. The linguistic meaning of the word dayn (debt) in Arabic has to do with submission and humiliation. The connection between the shar’i meaning and the linguistic meaning is clear. The debtor is a prisoner, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Your companion is being detained by his debt.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 3341; classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.
Islam takes the matter of debt very seriously and warns against it and urges the Muslim to avoid it as much as possible.
It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say in his prayer: “Allaahumma inni a’oodhi bika min al-ma’tham wa’l-maghram (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from sin and heavy debt).” Someone said to him: “How often you seek refuge from heavy debt!” He said: “When a man gets into debt, he speak and tells lies, and he makes a promise and breaks it.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (832) and Muslim (589).
Al-Nasaa’i (4605) narrated that Muhammad ibn Jahsh (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:
We were sitting with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when he raised his head towards the sky, then he put his palm on his forehead and said: “Subhaan-Allaah! What a strict issue has been revealed to me!” We remained silent and were afraid. The following morning I asked him, “O Messenger of Allaah, what is this strict issue that has been revealed?” He said, “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, if a man were killed in battle for the sake of Allaah, then brought back to life, then killed and brought back to life again, then killed, and he owed a debt, he would not enter Paradise until his debt was paid off.” Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i, 4367.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) refrained from offering the funeral prayer for one who had died owing two dinars, until Abu Qataadah (may Allaah be pleased with him) promised to pay it off for him. When he saw him the following day and said, I have paid it off, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Now his skin has become cool for him.” Musnad Ahmad (3/629); classed as hasan by al-Nawawi in al-Khalaasah (2/931) and by Ibn Muflih in al-Adaab al-Shar’iyyah(1/104).
Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Fath al-Baari(4/547):
This hadeeth indicates how difficult the issue of debt is, and that it should not be undertaken except in cases of necessity. End quote.
It was narrated from Thawbaan (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
“Whoever dies free from three things – arrogance, cheating and debt – will enter Paradise.”
Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1572); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
“The soul of the believer is suspended because of his debt until it is paid off.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1078).
Al-Mubaarakfoori said in Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi (4/164):
The words “the soul of the believer is suspended” – al-Suyooti said: i.e., it is detained and kept from reaching its noble destination. Al-‘Iraaqi said: i.e., no judgement is passed as to whether it will be saved or doomed until it is determined whether his debt will be paid off or not. End quote.
Read more on it here.