Seek Refuge from Debt! [Du`aas Included] (Ahadith 2070 – 2071)
Volume 3, Book 41, Number 573 :
Narrated by Abu Dhar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once, while I was in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), he saw the mountain of Uhud and said, “I would not like to have this mountain turned into gold for me unless nothing of it, not even a single Dinar remains of it with me for more than three days (i.e. I will spend all of it in Allah’s Cause), except that Dinar which I will keep for repaying debts.” Then he said, “Those who are rich in this world would have little reward in the Hereafter except those who spend their money here and there (in Allah’s Cause), and they are few in number.” Then he ordered me to stay at my place and went not far away. I heard a voice and intended to go to him but I remembered his order, “Stay at your place till I return.” On his return I said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! (What was) that noise which I heard?” He said, “Did you hear anything?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “Gabriel came and said to me, ‘Whoever amongst your followers dies, worshipping none along with Allah, will enter Paradise.’ ” I said, “Even if he did such-and-such things (i.e. even if he stole or committed illegal sexual intercourse)” He said, “Yes.”
Volume 3, Book 41, Number 574 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If I had gold equal to the mountain of Uhud, it would not please me that it should remain with me for more than three days, except an amount which I would keep for repaying debts.”
Allah says in the Quran:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا
“Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due.” [4:58]
Ibn Katheer comments:
Allah commands that the trusts be returned to their rightful owners. Al-Hasan narrated that Samurah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«أَدِّ الْأَمَانَةَ إِلى مَنِ ائْتَمَنَكَ، وَلَا تَخُنْ مَنْ خَانَك»
(Return the trust to those who entrusted you, and do not betray those who betrayed you.) Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith. This command refers to all things that one is expected to look after, such as Allah’s rights on His servants: praying, Zakah, fasting, penalties for sins, vows and so forth. The command also includes the rights of the servants on each other, such as what they entrust each other with, including the cases that are not recorded or documented. Allah commands that all types of trusts be fulfillled. Those who do not implement this command in this life, it will be extracted from them on the Day of Resurrection. It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَتُؤَدَّنَّ الْحُقُوقُ إِلى أَهْلِهَا حَتَّى يُقْتَصَّ لِلشَّاةِ الْجَمَّاءِ مِنَ الْقَرْنَاء»
(The rights will be rendered back to those to whom they are due, and even the sheep that does not have horns will take revenge from the horned sheep.)
Seek refuge from debt!
It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say in his prayer: “Allaahumma inni a’oodhi bika min al-ma’tham wa’l-maghram (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from sin and heavy debt).” Someone said to him: “How often you seek refuge from heavy debt!” He said: “When a man gets into debt, he speak and tells lies, and he makes a promise and breaks it.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (832) and Muslim (589).
In the Sunnah there are a number of du’aa’s which specifically seek the help of Allaah in praying off debts. They are:
1 – It was narrated that Suhayl said: Abu Saalih used to tell us, when one of us wanted to sleep, to lie down on his right side and say:
“Allaahumma Rabb al-samawaati wa’l-ard wa Rabb al-‘arsh il-‘azeem, Rabbaanaa wa Rabba kulli shay’in, Faaliq al-habb wa’l-nawa wa munzil al-Tawraati wa’l-Injeeli wa’l-Furqaan, a’oodhu bika min sharri kulli shay’in anta aakhidhun bi naasiyatihi. Allaahumma anta al-awwal fa laysa qablaka shay’un, wa anta al-aakhir fa laysa ba’daka shay’un, wa anta al-zaahir fa laysa fawqaka shay’un wa anta al-baatin fa laysa doonaka shay’un. Iqdi ‘annaa al-dayna wa aghninaa min al-faqri (O Allaah, Lord of the seven heavens and the exalted Throne, our Lord and Lord of all things, splitter of the seed and the date-stone, Revealer of the Tawraat and the Injeel and the Furqaan [Qur’aan], I seek refuge in You from the evil of all things You shall seize by the forelock [have total mastery over]. O Allaah, You are the First so there is nothing before You, and You are the Last so there is nothing after You. You are al-Zaahir [the greatest and highest] so there is nothing above You, and You are al-Baatin [aware of the subtlest secrets] so there is nothing closer than You. Settle our debt for us and spare us from poverty).”
He narrated that from Abu Hurayrah, from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Narrated by Muslim (2713).
اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ والأرضِ وَرَبَّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ، رَبَّنَا وَرَبَّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ، فَالِقَ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَى، وَمُنْزِلَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ، وَالْفُرْقَانِ، أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ أّنْتَ آخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتهِ. اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الأَوَّلُ فَلَيْسَ قَبْلَكَ شَيْءٌ، وَأَنْتَ الْآخِرُ فَلَيْسَ بَعْدَكَ شَيْءٌ، وَأَنْتَ الظَّاهِرُ فَلَيْسَ فَوْقَكَ شَيْءٌ، وَأَنْتَ الْبَاطِنُ فَلَيْسَ دُونَكَ شَيْءٌ، اقْضِ عَنَّا الدَّيْنَ وَأَغْنِنَا مِنَ الْفَقْرِ
2 – It was narrated from ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) that a mukaatib (slave who had entered into a contract of manumission) came to him and said: “I am unable to pay off my manumission; help me.” He said: “Shall I not tell you some words which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught me? And if you have debt like the mountain of Seer, Allaah will pay it off for you. He said: ‘Say: Allaahumma akfini bi halaalika ‘an haraamika wa aghnini bi fadlika ‘amman siwaaka (O Allaah, suffice me with what You have permitted so that that I have no need of that which You have forbidden, and make me independent of means by Your bounty so that I have no need of anyone besides You).’”
Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (2563) who said: This is a hasan ghareeb hadeeth. It was also classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.
3 – It was narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered the mosque and saw an Ansaari man whose name was Abu Umaamah. He said: “O Abu Umaamah, why do I see you sitting in the mosque when it is not the time for prayer? He said: Worries and debts, O Messenger of Allaah. He said: “Shall I not teach you some words which, if you say them, Allaah will take away your worries and pay off your debts?” He said: Yes, O Messenger of Allaah. He said:
“Say, morning and evening, ‘“Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika min al-hammi wa’l-hazani, wa a’oodhi bika min al-‘ajzi wa’l-kasali, wa a’oodhu bika min al-jubni wa’l-bukhli, wa a’oodhi bika min ghalabat il-dayn wa qahri al-rijaal (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from worry and grief, and I seek refuge with You from incapacity and laziness, and I seek refuge with You from cowardice and miserliness, and I seek refuge with You from being heavily in debt and from being overcome by men).”
He said; I did that, and Allaah took away my worry and paid off my debt.
Narrated by Abu Dawood (1555). Its isnaad includes Ghassaan ibn ‘Awf; al-Dhahabi said: he is not strong. Hence Shaykh al-Albaani classed the hadeeth as weak in Da’eef Abi Dawood. But the du’aa’ mentioned – “Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika min al-hammi wa’l-hazani…” – is proven in al-Saheehayn in a report other than this story of Abu Umaamah.
Taken from IslamQA.