Monthly Archives: December 2014

Levels of Martyrdom (Hadith No. 2439)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 46 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
I heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “The example of a Mujahid in Allah’s Cause– and Allah knows better who really strives in His Cause—-is like a person who fasts and prays continuously. Allah guarantees that He will admit the Mujahid in His Cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty.”

Shahaadah in Arabic has several meanings: definitive news, being present, seeing something, openness, and dying for the sake of Allaah.

In Islamic terminology it refers to those Muslims who die fighting the kuffaar and because of the fighting. With regard to the Hereafter, it may refer to other things as well,  as we shall see below.

See: al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (26/214, 272).

Martyrs are of different types.

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

It should be noted that martyrs are of three types:

1 – The one who is killed in a war against the kuffaar by any means of fighting. He comes under the heading of martyrs who are rewarded in the Hereafter and he comes under the rulings on martyrs in this world, i.e. he should not be washed and the funeral prayer should not be offered for him.

2 – The one who is given the reward of the martyr but does not come under the rulings on martyrs in this world. This refers to those who die of stomach diseases, the plague, being crushed under a falling wall, those who are killed defending their wealth and others who are mentioned in the saheeh ahaadeeth as being described as martyrs. Such a person should be washed and the funeral prayer should be offered for him, but in the Hereafter he will have the reward of the martyrs, but it will not necessarily be the same as the reward for those in the first category.

3 – Those who steal from the war booty etc, who it says in the reports cannot be regarded as martyrs if they are killed in a war against the kuffaar. Such a person comes under the ruling of martyrs in this world, so he should not be washed and the funeral prayer should not be offered for him, but he will not have the full reward in the Hereafter. End quote.

Sharh al-Nawawi ‘ala Muslim (2/164).

Degrees of martyrs:

The status of the martyr is high indeed, coming after the Prophets and Siddeeqs in status.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah(may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Then they will be in the company of those on whom Allaah has bestowed His Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddeeqoon (those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them, like Abu Bakr As‑Siddeeq رضى الله عنه ), the martyrs, and the righteous.” [al-Nisa’ 4:69]

These are the four degrees of Allaah’s slaves: the best of them are the Prophets, then the Siddeeqs, then the martyrs, then the righteous. End quote.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (2/223).

Allaah has made Paradise of varying levels or degrees, of which the Mujaahideen (those who strive in jihad) will have one hundred degrees, as it was narrated in al-Saheeh from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), therefore the martyrs are not all of the same status, rather they vary in status.

Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, after listing the martyrs other than those who are killed in battle:

We have compiled from excellent sources more than twenty types…

Ibn al-Teen said: All of these ways of dying are painful. Allaah has favoured the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) by making it a means of purifying them from sin, increasing their reward and causing them to attain thereby the status of the martyrs.

I (Ibn Hajar) say: It seems that those mentioned are not all of the same status. This is indicated by the report narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh from Jaabir, and by al-Daarimi, Ahmad and al-Tahhaawi from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Hubshi, and by Ibn Maajah from ‘Amr ibn ‘Anbasah: that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked: What type of jihad is best? He said: “The one whose horse is killed and whose blood is shed.” End quote.

Fath al-Baari (6/43, 44).

In the saheeh Sunnah there are reports from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which indicate this difference in status among the martyrs.

For example:

(a)

It was narrated from Nu’aym ibn Hammaar that a man asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): Which of the martyrs is best? He said: “Those who, when they took up their position in the ranks, did not turn their faces away until they were killed. They will be in the dwellings on high in Paradise, and their Lord smiles upon them, and when your Lord smiles upon a slave in this world, he will not be brought to account.”

Narrated by Ahmad (21970); classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (2558).

(b)

It was narrated that ‘Utbah ibn ‘Abdin al-Sulami said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The slain are of three types: (the first is) a believing man who fought with his life and his wealth for the sake of Allaah, and when he met the enemy he fought them until he was killed. That is the proud martyr who resides in the tent of Allaah beneath His Throne; the Prophets are no better than him except by virtue of their being Prophets. (The second is) a believing man who committed some sins, but he fought with his life and his wealth for the sake of Allaah, and when he met the enemy he fought until he was killed. His sins are erased, for the sword erases sins, and he will be admitted through whichever of the gates of Paradise he wishes, for it has eight gates, and Hell has seven gates, and some of them are better than others. (The third is) a hypocrite who strove with his life and his wealth, and when he met the enemy he fought for the sake of Allaah and was killed. He will be in Hell, for the sword does not erase hypocrisy.”

Narrated by Ahmad (17204). Its isnaad was classed as jayyid by al-Mundhiri in al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb(2/208), and as hasan by al-Albaan in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1370).

(c)

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Hubshi al-Khath’ami that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked: What type of jihad is best? He said: “The one who strives against the mushrikeen with his wealth and his life.” It was said: What kind of death is noblest? He said: “The one whose blood is shed and his horse is killed.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (1449) and al-Nasaa’i (2526); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1318).

(d)

It was narrated from Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The leader of the martyrs is Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and a man who stood up before a tyrant and enjoined good and forbade evil, and he killed him.” Narrated by al-Haakim and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (374).

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Types of Jihad (Hadith No. 2438)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 45 :
Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu)
Somebody asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! Who is the best among the people?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied “A believer who strives his utmost in Allah’s Cause with his life and property.” They asked, “Who is next?” He replied, “A believer who stays in one of the mountain paths worshipping Allah and leaving the people secure from his mischief.”

Types of Jihad:

Jihaad is of various kinds, some of which are obligatory upon everyone who is accountable, and some are obligatory upon the community as a whole – if some people undertake them then the rest are relieved of the obligation. And some kinds of jihad are mustahabb.

Jihad al-nafs (jihad against one’s self) and jihad al-Shaytaan (jihad against the Shaytaan) are obligatory upon everyone who is accountable. Jihad against the munaafiqeen (hypocrites), kaafirs (disbelievers) and leaders of oppression and innovation is obligatory upon the community as a whole. Physical jihad (i.e. fighting) against the kaafirs may become an individual obligation upon everyone who is able to do it in certain circumstances, which will be described below.

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

Once this is understood, then jihad is of four kinds: Jihad al-nafs (jihad against one’s self), jihad al-Shaytaan (jihad against the Shaytaan), jihad against the kaafirs and jihad against the hypocrites.

Jihad al-nafs (jihad against one’s self) is of four kinds:

1 – Striving to learn the teachings of Islam without which one cannot attain success and happiness in this world or in the Hereafter; if this is missing then one is doomed to misery in this world and in the Hereafter.

2 – Striving to make oneself act in accordance with what one has learned. Simply knowing without acting, even though it may not cause any harm, is not going to bring any benefit.

3 – Striving to call others to Islam, teaching those who do not know about it. Otherwise one will be one of those who conceal that which Allaah has revealed of guidance and teaching, and it will not benefit him or save him from the punishment of Allaah.

4 – Striving to bear patiently the difficulties involved in calling people to Allaah and the insults of people; bearing all that for the sake of Allaah.

If a person achieves all these four levels, then he will be one of the rabbaaniyyeen (learned men of religion who practise what they know and also preach to others. Cf. Aal ‘Imraan 3:79). The salaf were agreed that the scholar does not deserve to be called a rabbaani unless he knows the truth, acts in accordance with it and teaches it to others. Whoever teaches, acts in accordance with his knowledge and has knowledge, he will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

Jihad against the Shaytaan is of two types:

1 – Warding off the doubts that he stirs up to undermine faith.

2 – Striving against him to ward off the corrupt desires that he provokes.

The first jihad is followed by certainty of faith, and the second is followed by patience. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And We made from among them (Children of Israel), leaders, giving guidance under Our Command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.)”

[al-Sajdah 32:24]

Allaah tells us that leadership in religion is attained through patience and certainty of faith. Patience wards off desires and certainty wards off doubts.

Jihad against the kaafirs and hypocrites is of four kinds:

With the heart, the tongue, one’s wealth and oneself. Jihad against the kaafirs is more along the lines of physical fighting whereas jihad against the hypocrites is more along the lines of using words and ideas.

Jihad against the leaders of oppression and innovation is of three kinds:

1 – Jihad with one’s hand (i.e., physical jihad, fighting) if one is able. If that is not possible then it should be with one’s tongue (i.e., by speaking out). If that is not possible then it should be with one’s heart (i.e., by hating the evil and feeling that it is wrong).

These are the thirteen types of jihad, and “Whoever dies without having fought or having resolved to fight has died following one of the branches of hypocrisy.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1910).

Zaad al-Ma’aad, 3/9-11)

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“Jihad is of various kinds, with one’s self, one’s wealth, by making du’aa’, by teaching and guiding, by helping to do good in any way. The greatest form of jihad is jihad with one’s self (i.e., going oneself and fighting), followed by jihad with one’s wealth, jihad by speaking out and guiding others. Da’wah is also part of jihad.  But going out oneself to fight in jihad is the highest form.
(Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 7/334, 335)

Jihad: The Best of Deeds (Hadith No. 2437)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2423 – 2436 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 30 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) had the greatest wealth of date-palms amongst the Ansar in Medina, and he prized above all his wealth (his garden) Bairuha’, which was situated opposite the Mosque (of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to enter It and drink from its fresh water. When the following Divine Verse came:– “By no means shall you attain piety until you spend of what you love,” (3.92) Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) got up saying. “O Allah’s Apostle! Allah says, ‘You will not attain piety until you spend of what you love,’ and I prize above alI my wealth, Bairuha’ which I want to give in charity for Allah’s Sake, hoping for its reward from Allah. So you can use it as Allah directs you.” On that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Bravo! It is a profitable (or perishable) property. (Ibn Maslama is not sure as to which word is right, i.e. profitable or perishable.) I have heard what you have said, and I recommend that you distribute this amongst your relatives.” On that Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I will do (as you have suggested).” So, Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) distributed that garden amongst his relatives and cousins.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 31 :
Narrated by Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
A man said to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “My mother died, will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied in the affirmative. The man said, “I have a garden and I make you a witness that I give it in charity on her behalf.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 32 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered that the mosque be built, he said, “O Bani An-Najjar! Suggest to me a price for this garden of yours.” They replied, “By Allah! We will demand its price from none but Allah.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 33 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
When ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) got a piece of land in Khaibar, he came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “I have got a piece of land, better than which I have never got. So what do you advise me regarding it?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If you wish you can keep it as an endowment to be used for charitable purposes.” So, ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gave the land in charity (i.e. as an endowments on the condition that the land would neither be sold nor given as a present, nor bequeathed, (and its yield) would be used for the poor, the kinsmen, the emancipation of slaves, Jihad, and for guests and travelers; and its administrator could eat in a reasonable just manner, and he also could feed his friends without intending to be wealthy by its means.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 34 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) got some property in Khaibar and he came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and informed him about it. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “If you wish you can give it in charity.” So ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gave it in charity (i.e. as an endowment) the yield of which was to be used for the good of the poor, the needy, the kinsmen and the guests.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 35 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to Medina, he ordered that a mosque be built. He said, “O Bani An-Najjar! Suggest me a price for the garden of yours.” They replied, “By Allah, we will not ask its price except from Allah.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 36 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gave a horse in charity to be used in holy fighting. It had been given to him by Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gave it to another man to ride. Then ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) was informed that the man put the horse for sale, so he asked Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) whether he could buy it. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “You should not buy it, for you should not take back what you have given in charity.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 37 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “My heirs will not inherit a Dinar or a Dirham (i.e. money), for whatever I leave (excluding the adequate support of my wives and the wages of my employees) is given in charity.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 38 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
When ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) founded an endowment he stipulated that its administrator could eat from it and also feed his friend on the condition that he would not store anything for himself from it.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 39 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (at the time of building the Mosque), “O Bani An-Najjar! Suggest to me a price for your garden.” They replied, “We do not ask its price except from Allah.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 40 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah Al-Ansari (radiallaahu `anhu)
My father was martyred on the day (of the Ghazwa) of Uhud and left six daughters and some debts to be paid. When the time of plucking the date-fruits came, I went to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! you know that my father was martyred on Uhud’s day and owed much debt, and I wish that the creditors would see you.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Go and collect the various kinds of dates and place them separately in heaps”‘ I did accordingly and called him. On seeing him, the creditors started claiming their rights pressingly at that time. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw how they behaved, he went round the biggest heap for three times and sat over it and said, “Call your companions (i.e. the creditors).” Then he kept on measuring and giving them, till Allah cleared all my father’s debts. By Allah, it would have pleased me that Allah would clear the debts of my father even though I had not taken a single date to my sisters. But by Allah, all the heaps were complete, (as they were) and I looked at the heap where Allah’s Apostle was sitting and noticed as if not a single date had been taken thereof.

Kitaab-ul-Wasaayaa [Book of Wills] ends here.

Kitaab-ul-Jihaad [Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah] starts today..

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 41 :
Narrated by Abdullah bin Masud (radiallaahu `anhu)
I asked Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “O Allah’s Apostle! What is the best deed?” He replied, “To offer the prayers at their early stated fixed times.” I asked, “What is next in goodness?” He replied, “To be good and dutiful to your parents.” I further asked, what is next in goodness?” He replied, “To participate in Jihad in Allah’s Cause.” I did not ask Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) anymore and if I had asked him more, he would have told me more.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 42 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “There is no Hijra (i.e. migration) (from Mecca to Medina) after the Conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good intention remain; and if you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 43 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
(That she said), “O Allah’s Apostle! We consider Jihad as the best deed. Should we not fight in Allah’s Cause?” He said, “The best Jihad (for women) is Hajj-Mabrur (i.e. Hajj which is done according to the Prophet’s tradition and is accepted by Allah).”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 44 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
A man came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “Instruct me as to such a deed as equals Jihad (in reward).” He replied, “I do not find such a deed.” Then he added, “Can you, while the Muslim fighter is in the battle-field, enter your mosque to perform prayers without cease and fast and never break your fast?” The man said, “But who can do that?” Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu) added, “The Mujahid (i.e. Muslim fighter) is rewarded even for the footsteps of his horse while it wanders bout (for grazing) tied in a long rope.”

Jihad in Arabic means striving and doing one’s utmost in word and deed. In Islamic terminology it refers to the Muslims striving to fight the kuffaar so that the word of Allaah will be supreme. The main goal of jihad is to make the people worship Allaah alone and to bring them forth from servitude to people to servitude to the Lord of people. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allaah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allaah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zaalimoon (the polytheists, and wrong-doers)”
[al-Baqarah 2:193]

All these ahadith (under Book of Jihad) talk about the excellence and superiority of Jihad over other good deeds. Allah says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

“Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah , so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment.” [9:111]

Ibn Kathir comments:

Allah states that He has compensated His believing servants for their lives and wealth — if they give them up in His cause — with Paradise. This demonstrates Allah’s favor, generosity and bounty, for He has accepted the good that He already owns and bestowed, as a price from His faithful servants. Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah commented, “By Allah! Allah has purchased them and raised their worth.” Shimr bin `Atiyyah said, “There is not a Muslim but has on his neck a sale that he must conduct with Allah; he either fulfills its terms or dies without doing that.” He then recited this Ayah. This is why those who fight in the cause of Allah are said to have conducted the sale with Allah, meaning, accepted and fulfilled his covenant. Allah’s statement,

﴿يُقَـتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ﴾

(They fight in Allah’s cause, so they kill and are killed.) indicates that whether they were killed or they kill the enemy, or both, then Paradise will be theirs. The Two Sahihs recorded the Hadith,

«وَتَكَفَّلَ اللهُ لِمَنْ خَرَجَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَا يُخْرِجُهُ إِلَّا جِهَادٌ فِي سَبِيلِي وَتَصْدِيقٌ بِرُسُلِي بِأَنْ تَوَفَّاهُ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ، أَوْ يَرْجِعَهُ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ الَّذِي خَرَجَ مِنْهُ، نَائِلًا مَا نَالَ مِنْ أَجْرٍ أَوْ غَنِيمَة»

(Allah has made a promise to the person who goes out (to fight) in His cause; `And nothing compels him to do so except Jihad = in My Cause and belief in My Messengers. ‘ He will either be admitted to Paradise if he dies, or compensated by Allah, either with a reward or booty if He returns him to the home which he departed from.) Allah’s statement,

﴿وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْءانِ﴾

(It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Tawrah and the Injil and the Qur’an.) affirms this promise and informs us that Allah has decreed this for His Most Honorable Self, and revealed it to His Messengers in His Glorious Books, the Tawrah that He sent down to Musa, the Injil that He sent down to `Isa, and the Qur’an that was sent down to Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on them all. Allah said next,

﴿وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ﴾

(And who is truer to his covenant than Allah) affirming that He never breaks a promise. Allah said in similar statements,

﴿وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حَدِيثاً﴾

(And who is truer in statement than Allah)﴿4:87﴾, and,

﴿وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ قِيلاً﴾

(And whose words can be truer than those of Allah)﴿4:122﴾. Allah said next,

﴿فَاسْتَبْشِرُواْ بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِى بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ﴾

(Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success.), meaning, let those who fulfill the terms of this contract and uphold this covenant receive the good news of great success and everlasting delight.

How to Treat Servants (Hadith No. 2422)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 29 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to Medina; he did not have any servant. Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) (Anas’ step-father) took me to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Anas is a wise boy, so let him serve you.” So, I served him at home and on journeys. If I did anything, he never asked me why I did it, and if I refrained from doing anything, he never asked me why I refrained from doing it.

This hadith gives evidence for employment of an orphan and showing kindness to servants. We treat our servants as if they owe us their lives, belittling them and scolding them for every little thing. Look at the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), he wouldn’t even ask him questions like ‘Why didn’t you do this?’, or ‘Why did you do it?’. I’m sure there must have been incidents where he fell short, he was just a ten-year-old boy when he started and spent all his teen years with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). There must have been times when he didn’t complete a task or committed mistakes etc. But he was never rebuked by the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).

And isn’t it amazing how he mentions this specific trait of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) when narrating this hadith? He could’ve said something more general, like “He was extremely nice to me”, or “He never scolded me”, or “He was the best”. You get the point. But when he recalls his time with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), he remembers specifically what we could call “forgiveness”. Imagine what our servants would recall their time with us ten, twenty years down the line. Would they remember our pleasantness or the constant insults we throw at them?

Interesting fact about Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):

His mother once asked the Prophet, upon him be peace, to supplicate for Anas. He, upon him be peace, said,
‘O Allah, increase him in wealth and sons, give him long life and forgive him his sins.’
Anas would recollect that he had 125 offspring in his lifetime and only two of them were girls, his garden gave fruit twice a year and had basil which smelt like musk and he had lived long and had even survived poison and he hoped for the fourth part of the supplication. He was the last companion to die in Basra in the year 93H aged 103 years old. [Abdul Aziz Ahmed]

Read more on his life here.

The Seven Great Destructive Sins (Hadith No. 2421)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2415 – 2420 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 22 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
A man said to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “My mother died suddenly, and I think that if she could speak, she would have given in charity. May I give in charity on her behalf?” He said, “Yes! Give in charity on her behalf.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 23 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Sad bin Ubada (radiallaahu `anhu) consulted Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “My mother died and she had an unfulfilled vow.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Fulfill it on her behalf.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 24 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
That the mother of Sad bin Ubada (radiallaahu `anhu), the brother of Bani Saida, died in Sad’s absence, so he came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “O Allah’s Apostle! My mother died in my absence, will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Yes.” Sad (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I take you as my witness that I give my garden Al-Makhraf in charity on her behalf.”

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 25 :
Narrated by Az-Zuhri
Urwa bin Az-Zubair said that he asked ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) about the meaning of the Quranic Verse:– “And if you fear that you will not deal fairly with the orphan girls then marry (other) women of your choice.” (4.2-3) Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “It is about a female orphan under the guardianship of her guardian who is inclined towards her because of her beauty and wealth, and likes to marry her with a Mahr less than what is given to women of her standard. So they (i.e. guardians) were forbidden to marry the orphans unless they paid them a full appropriate Mahr (otherwise) they were ordered to marry other women instead of them. Later on the people asked Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it. So Allah revealed the following Verse:– “They ask your instruction (O Muhammad!) regarding women. Say: Allah instructs you regarding them…” (4.127) and in this Verse Allah indicated that if the orphan girl was beautiful and wealthy, her guardian would have the desire to marry her without giving her an appropriate Mahr equal to what her peers could get, but if she was undesirable for lack of beauty or wealth, then he would not marry her, but seek to marry some other woman instead of her. So, since he did not marry her when he had no inclination towards her, he had not the right to marry her when he had an interest in her, unless he treated her justly by giving her a full Mahr and securing all her rights.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 26 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
In the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), Umar gave in charity some of his property, a garden of date-palms called Thamgh. ‘Umar said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have some property which I prize highly and I want to give it in charity.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Give it in charity (i.e. as an endowment) with its land and trees on the condition that the land and trees will neither be sold nor given as a present, nor bequeathed, but the fruits are to be spent in charity.” So ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gave it in charity, and it was for Allah’s Cause, the emancipation of slaves, for the poor, for guests, for travelers, and for kinsmen. The person acting as its administrator could eat from it reasonably and fairly, and could let a friend of his eat from it provided he had no intention of becoming wealthy by its means.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 27 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
The following Verse: “If a guardian is well-off, let him claim no remuneration (i.e. wages), but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable.” (4.6) was revealed in connection with the guardian of an orphan, and it means that if he is poor he can have for himself (from the orphan’s wealth) what is just and reasonable according to the orphan’s share of the inheritance.

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 28 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Avoid the seven great destructive sins.” The people enquire, “O Allah’s Apostle! What are they? “He said, “To join others in worship along with Allah, to practice sorcery, to kill the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause (according to Islamic law), to eat up Riba (usury), to eat up an orphan’s wealth, to give back to the enemy and fleeing from the battlefield at the time of fighting, and to accuse, chaste women, who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers.

The sins vary between grave and minor sins. Some sins are graver than others. The deliverer of the glad tidings and the Warner (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) warned us from the all sins, whether they are grave or minor. In some situations, he described some of the sins with specific attributes, and he assigned signs for other sins in other situations. Among these sins are the seven great destructive sins.

«اجتنبوا السبع الموبقات،قالوا: يا رسول الله: وما هن ؟ قال: الشرك بالله ، والسحر ، وقتل النفسالتي حرم الله إلا بالحق ، وأكل الربا ، وأكل مال اليتيم ، والتولي يوم الزحف ، وقذف المحصنات المؤمنات الغافلات»

متفق عليه

The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) orders us to avoid these seven great destructive sins and warns us from committing them.

They are destructive sins because they destruct their doers in the worldly life and in the hereafter too.

In this Hadeeth, there are important rules for protecting the religion, honor, self, money and mind; thereupon, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) warned us from committing these seven great destructive sins.

The first of these seven great destructive sins is polytheism:

If it was major polytheism (i.e. joining others in worship along with Allah) by worshipping a statue or sacrificing for anyone except Allah Almighty, it would be the gravest sin. This kind of polytheism turns its doer out of the folds of Islam and makes him an infidel. Allah Almighty says: {Verily! Allâh forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allâh, has indeed strayed far away} [Surat An-Nisa: 116]

{إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيداً}
النساء: 116

Transliteration: Inna Allaha la yaghfiru an yushraka bihi wayaghfiru ma doona thalika liman yashao waman yushrik biAllahi faqad dalla dalalan baAAeedan

On the other hand, if it was minor polytheism (i.e. acts against the perfect monotheism) like dealing with usury which is one of the gravest sins, it would be a grave sin nullifies the good deeds. The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The most dreadful thing I fear for your is the minor polytheism.”

“O Messenger of Allah, what is it?” the companions asked.

Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) replied: “Hypocrisy” [Al-Albani]

«إن أخوف ما أخاف عليكم الشرك الأصغر ، قالوا: و ما الشرك الأصغر ؟ قال الرياء»
الألباني

Therefore, it’s a grave sin that perishes good deeds we invoke Allah, the Most Generous, to protect us from all kinds of polytheism.

The second of these seven great destructive sins is magic:

All kinds of magic (e.g. illusions, acts of devils after endearing the self to them by committing the sins to have their help in harming the hearts and the bodies by the will of Allah or using chemical substances to change pictures and the characteristics for planting fear) are great evil and grave sin. The majority of the scholars agreed upon counting magic as disbelief and considering the person who learns it as an infidel, because Allah Almighty says: {They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaiman (Solomon). Sulaiman did not disbelieve, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic} [Surat Al-Baqarah: 102]

{وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـكِنَّ الشَّيْاطِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ}
البقرة: 102

Transliteration: WaittabaAAoo ma tatloo alshshayateenu AAala mulki sulaymana wama kafara sulaymanu walakinna alshshayateena kafaroo yuAAallimoona alnnasa alssihra

This verse states clearly that the devils disbelieved because of teaching men magic. Allah Almighty said as description to the sayings of the two angels: {We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)} [Surat Al-Baqarah: 102]

{إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ}
البقرة: 102

Transliteration: innama nahnu fitnatun fala takfur

The third of these seven great destructive sins is killing the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause (i.e. according to Islamic law):

Killing the life without a just cause is a crime that causes disorder and chaos in the society. Islam protects the blood of the Muslim and protects the Muslim society from disorder and chaos; thereupon, Islam sentenced death for whoever kills a person without a just cause and he would be punished, that’s how life is saved by such punishment. He Almighty says: {And there is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisas (the Law of Equality in punishment), O men of understanding, that you may become Al-Muttaqun} [Surat Al-Baqarah: 179]

{وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَاْ أُولِيْ الأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ}
البقرة: 179

Transliteration: Walakum fee alqisasi hayatun ya olee alalbabi laAAallakum tattaqoona

Moreover, Allah sentenced the murderer with hellfire in the hereafter; Allah Almighty says: {And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the Wrath and the Curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him.} (Surat An-Nisa: 93).

{وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً فَجَزَآؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِداً فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَاباً عَظِيماً}
النساء: 93

Transliteration: Waman yaqtul muminan mutaAAammidan fajazaohu jahannamu khalidan feeha waghadiba Allahu AAalayhi walaAAanahu waaAAadda lahu AAathaban AAatheeman

The fourth of these seven great destructive sins is eating usury:

We do not mean just eating; rather we mean all the kinds of dealing with usury whether it is eating, drinking, clothing or anything else. We refer to eating because it is the most common reason for dealing with usury.

Usury is one of the gravest sins, because the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) counted it as one of the seven great destructive sins.

Moreover, Allah Almighty promised the usurers to destroy their usury gains; Allah Almighty says: {Allah will destroy Riba (usury) and will give increase for Sadaqat (deeds of charity, alms, etc.)} [Surat Al-Baqarah: 276]

{يَمْحَقُ اللّهُ الْرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ}
البقرة: 276

Transliteration: Yamhaqu Allahu alrriba wayurbee alssadaqati

Also, He Almighty gave a notice of war to the usurers if they did not give up what remained from usury; He Almighty says: {O you who believe! Be afraid of Allah and give up what remains (due to you) from Riba (usury) (from now onward), if you are (really) believers. (278) And if you do not do it, then take a notice of war from Allah and His Messenger but if you repent, you shall have your capital sums. Deal not unjustly (by asking more than your capital sums), and you shall not be dealt with unjustly (by receiving less than your capital sums)} [Surat Al-Baqarah: 278-279]

{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَذَرُواْ مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُواْ فَأْذَنُواْ بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُؤُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لاَ تَظْلِمُونَ وَلاَ تُظْلَمُونَ}
البقرة: 278-279

Transliteration: Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo ittaqoo Allaha watharoo ma baqiya mina alrriba in kuntum mumineena (278) Fain lam tafAAaloo fathanoo biharbin mina Allahi warasoolihi wain tubtum falakum ruoosu amwalikum la tathlimoona wala tuthlamoona

This is because usury brings grave evils to the majority of people; it is based on the belief of man’s freedom and his right to behave as he desires to gain money by any way whether it is lawful or unlawful. Eventually, this leads to a system that destroys humanity for the sake of a few usurers.

You should know that some people may be deceived by changing the name of usury and calling it profits or benefits or any other names to make the person thinks that it is lawful. DUsury is usury whether it is called by that name or by any other name.

The fifth of these seven great destructive sins is eating up the property of orphans:

The orphan is the person who lost his father in his childhood and did not grow up to the maturity.
Islam cared for orphans’ properties and rights and assigned for every orphan someone to be responsible for his growing up, education, developing his money and training him to be able to care for his own affairs.

Allah has warned those who eat the properties of the orphans by His saying: {Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!} [Surat An-Nisa: 10]

{إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَى ظُلْماً إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَاراً وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيراً}
النساء: 10

Transliteration: Inna allatheena yakuloona amwala alyatama thulman innama yakuloona fee butoonihim naran wasayaslawna saAAeeran

The sixth of these seven great destructive sins is giving back to the enemy and fleeing from the battlefield at the time of fighting:

Allah Almighty has promised the believers, who sacrifice their selves and properties for the cause of Allah, to enter paradise. Also, He severely warned those who give back to the enemy and fleeing from the battlefield at the time of fighting. Allah almighty says: {O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve, in a battle-field, never turn your backs to them. And whoever turns his back to them on such a day – unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own), – he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allâh. And his abode is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination!} [Surat Al-Anfal: 15-16]

{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحْفاً فَلاَ تُوَلُّوهُمُ الأَدْبَارَ وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفاً لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزاً إِلَى فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاء بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ}
الأنفال: 15-16

Transliteration: Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo itha laqeetumu allatheena kafaroo zahfan fala tuwalloohumu aladbara (15) Waman yuwallihim yawmaithin duburahu illa mutaharrifan liqitalin aw mutahayyizan ila fiatin faqad baa bighadabin mina Allahi wamawahu jahannamu wabisa almaseeru

The seventh of these seven great destructive sins is to accuse, chaste women, who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers:

This is applicable to accusing them with committing illegal sexual intercourse or the like. The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) warns Muslims from accusing the chaste women who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers.

Chastity is the essence of humanity’s honor. Accusing the chaste woman who never even think of anything touching chastity and is good believer destroys the family institution, tears the unity of the community, spreads evil between people, degrades the nation’s honor and plants hatred and grudge between people; thereupon, the person who commits this sin is sentenced to punishment in this worldly life in addition to the severe torture in the hereafter. Allah Almighty says: {Verily, those who accuse chaste women, who never even think of anything touching their chastity and are good believers – are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter, and for them will be a great torment -} [Surat An-Nur: 23]

{إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَافِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لُعِنُوا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ}
النور: 23

Transliteration: Inna allatheena yarmoona almuhsanati alghafilati almuminati luAAinoo fee alddunya waalakhirati walahum AAathabun AAatheemun

You should know that the grave sins are not these seven sins only; rather there are other Ahadeeth and verses that mentioned other grave sins such as drinking wine, disobeying the parents, theft, illegal sexual intercourse and others.

Finally; I invoke Allah, the Most Generous, by His beautiful names and His exalted attributes to get us away from the sins whether they are grave or minor, and I invoke Him to keep us firm with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. worshipping Allâh Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter too. Indeed He is able to do that. And prayers of Allah be upon our prophet Muhammad.

Taken from IslamWay.net

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