Types of Jihad (Hadith No. 2438)
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 45 :
Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu)
Somebody asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! Who is the best among the people?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied “A believer who strives his utmost in Allah’s Cause with his life and property.” They asked, “Who is next?” He replied, “A believer who stays in one of the mountain paths worshipping Allah and leaving the people secure from his mischief.”
Types of Jihad:
Jihaad is of various kinds, some of which are obligatory upon everyone who is accountable, and some are obligatory upon the community as a whole – if some people undertake them then the rest are relieved of the obligation. And some kinds of jihad are mustahabb.
Jihad al-nafs (jihad against one’s self) and jihad al-Shaytaan (jihad against the Shaytaan) are obligatory upon everyone who is accountable. Jihad against the munaafiqeen (hypocrites), kaafirs (disbelievers) and leaders of oppression and innovation is obligatory upon the community as a whole. Physical jihad (i.e. fighting) against the kaafirs may become an individual obligation upon everyone who is able to do it in certain circumstances, which will be described below.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Once this is understood, then jihad is of four kinds: Jihad al-nafs (jihad against one’s self), jihad al-Shaytaan (jihad against the Shaytaan), jihad against the kaafirs and jihad against the hypocrites.
Jihad al-nafs (jihad against one’s self) is of four kinds:
1 – Striving to learn the teachings of Islam without which one cannot attain success and happiness in this world or in the Hereafter; if this is missing then one is doomed to misery in this world and in the Hereafter.
2 – Striving to make oneself act in accordance with what one has learned. Simply knowing without acting, even though it may not cause any harm, is not going to bring any benefit.
3 – Striving to call others to Islam, teaching those who do not know about it. Otherwise one will be one of those who conceal that which Allaah has revealed of guidance and teaching, and it will not benefit him or save him from the punishment of Allaah.
4 – Striving to bear patiently the difficulties involved in calling people to Allaah and the insults of people; bearing all that for the sake of Allaah.
If a person achieves all these four levels, then he will be one of the rabbaaniyyeen (learned men of religion who practise what they know and also preach to others. Cf. Aal ‘Imraan 3:79). The salaf were agreed that the scholar does not deserve to be called a rabbaani unless he knows the truth, acts in accordance with it and teaches it to others. Whoever teaches, acts in accordance with his knowledge and has knowledge, he will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
Jihad against the Shaytaan is of two types:
1 – Warding off the doubts that he stirs up to undermine faith.
2 – Striving against him to ward off the corrupt desires that he provokes.
The first jihad is followed by certainty of faith, and the second is followed by patience. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And We made from among them (Children of Israel), leaders, giving guidance under Our Command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.)”
Allaah tells us that leadership in religion is attained through patience and certainty of faith. Patience wards off desires and certainty wards off doubts.
Jihad against the kaafirs and hypocrites is of four kinds:
With the heart, the tongue, one’s wealth and oneself. Jihad against the kaafirs is more along the lines of physical fighting whereas jihad against the hypocrites is more along the lines of using words and ideas.
Jihad against the leaders of oppression and innovation is of three kinds:
1 – Jihad with one’s hand (i.e., physical jihad, fighting) if one is able. If that is not possible then it should be with one’s tongue (i.e., by speaking out). If that is not possible then it should be with one’s heart (i.e., by hating the evil and feeling that it is wrong).
These are the thirteen types of jihad, and “Whoever dies without having fought or having resolved to fight has died following one of the branches of hypocrisy.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1910).
Zaad al-Ma’aad, 3/9-11)
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
“Jihad is of various kinds, with one’s self, one’s wealth, by making du’aa’, by teaching and guiding, by helping to do good in any way. The greatest form of jihad is jihad with one’s self (i.e., going oneself and fighting), followed by jihad with one’s wealth, jihad by speaking out and guiding others. Da’wah is also part of jihad. But going out oneself to fight in jihad is the highest form.
(Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 7/334, 335)