Category Archives: Hadith 101
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
Since a couple of days I was thinking about what should be added to the “Ulum-ul-Hadith” project, which should be informative as well as beneficial for the knowledge of the student.
So I came across some Ahadeeth, rather narrations, which are fabricated and Da’eef (weak) in nature but prevailing in the surroundings, and we simply adopt them because of our lack of knowledge and sometimes, lack of interest. (Sorry about this). It is important to note that there are numerous unfounded narrations that are declared Da’eef, Munkar, Baatil, Mawdoo or Baseless Riwayaat (narrations). They are popular and are commonly circulated among all levels of society – the elite as well as the commoners. Thus, it is our obligation to discuss them and indicate their erroneous-ness.
So Inshaa’Allaah I’ll share some of the Da’eef and Fabricated Riwayaat (narrations) with you (Students of Knowledge).
May Allaah (SWT) increases and strengthen our Emaan.
Fabricated Narration No. 1:
He ﷺ said, “Allaah says, ‘I was a hidden treasure, and I wished to be known, so I created a creation (mankind), then made Myself known to them, and they recognized Me.’”
As-Sakhaawee (d.902, the student of ibn Hajr al-Asqalaanee) said, “ibn Taymiyyah said, ‘this is not from the words of the Prophet (SAW), and there is no known isnaad for it be it saheeh or da’eef.’ And az-Zarkashee and our Shaykh (ibn Hajr) followed him (in this verdict).” [‘al-Maqaasid al-Hasanah’ of as-Sakhaawee (no. 838)]
As-Suyootee (d.911) said, “this has no basis (laa asla lahu)” [‘Durural Muntathira’ of As-Suyutee (no.330)]
Al-Ijloonee (d.1162) said, “this saying occurs often in the words of the Sufis, who have relied on it, and built some of their principles on it.” [‘Kashf al-Khafaa’ of al-Ijloonee (no.2016)]
Al-Albaanee (contemporary) says, “this Ahaadeeth has no basis” [‘Silsilah ad-Da’eefah’ (1/166)]
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
Today Inshaa’Allaah we will discuss little about “Kaseer-ur-Rawaiyat” “کثیرالرویاتـ”
Among the Companions of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ they were famous Narrators of Hadith. They enjoyed the firsthand experience of hearing the Prophet’sﷺ teachings and observing Hisﷺ conduct. They are eight in numbers and include the following narrators:
Hazrat Abu Hurraira
Abu Hurairah stands at the top of the list of Hadith transmitters. This is because of the sheer bulk of his narrations. He was regarded by the Prophet himself as the most eager, among all Muslims, to acquire the knowledge of Hadith in Masnud Ibn Mukhlad narrated 5,374 Hadith from him.
Abdullah ibn ‘Umar
The son of Caliph `Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Ibn `Umar is the second most prolific narrator of Hadith. He has narrated 2,630 Hadith.
Anas ibn’ Malik
At the age of 10, Anas was presented by his mother, Umm Sulaym, to the Prophetﷺ following the Hijrah. From that time and until the Prophet’sﷺ death, Anas was the Prophet’sﷺ favorite attendant. Hadith narrated by him are 2,286.
Mother of the Believers
`A’ishah occupies the fourth place. It was on account of her extensive knowledge of Hadith and Islamic law that even the most important Companions sought her advice on jurisprudential problems. Ahadith narrated by her are 2,210.
`Abdullah ibn `Abbas
He was born three years before the Prophet’s Hijrah and was thirteen years old at the time of the Prophet’sﷺ death. He was greatly loved by the Prophetﷺ, as is apparent from the hadiths that concern him. Number of Hadith narrated by him are 1,660.
Jabir ibn `Abdullah
This Companion is one of the early converts to Islam in Madinah. He narrated approximately 1,540.
Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri
His name is Sa`d ibn Malik, and he is another early convert of Madinah. Like Abu Hurairah, he was one of Ahl-us-Suffah — those people who lived on the porch of the Prophet’sﷺ dwelling by the mosque in order to dedicate themselves to an austere life of Prayer and learning. He narrated 1,170 Hadith.
`Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn Al-`Aas
He was an early convert who struggled for the cause of Islam, enjoyed the company of the Prophetﷺ for many years, and lived long enough after the death of the Prophet ﷺto transmit the Hadiths that he had learned from him. Number of Hadith narrated by him are 848.
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
InshaAllah today we’ll discuss a little about the “Classification of Hadith”.
As time passed, more reporters were involved in each isnad, and so the situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of Ahadith; the rules regulating this discipline are known as Mustalah al-Hadith (the Classification of Hadith).
One of the earliest writings to attempt to cover Mustalah comprehensively, using standard (i.e. generally-accepted) terminology, was the work by Al-Ramahurmuzi (d. 360).
Before proceeding towards the classification we should know about some basic component of Hadith which can be shown by simple flow chart:
Mustalah al-Hadith (Classification of Hadith)
Mustalah books speak of a number of classes of Hadith in accordance with their status. The following broad classifications can be made, each of which is explained in the later sections:
- According to the reference to a particular authority,
e.g. the Prophetﷺ, a Companion, or a Successor; such Ahadith are called Marfu’ (elevated), Mauquf (stopped) and Maqtu’ (severed) respectively .
- According to the links in the Isnad, i.e. whether the chain of reporters is interrupted or uninterrupted,
e.g. Musnad (supported), Muttasil (continuous), Munqati’ (broken), Mu’allaq (hanging), Mu’dal (perplexing) and Mursal (hurried).
- According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the Isnad,
e.g. Mutawatir (consecutive) and Ahad (isolated), the latter being divided into Gharib (scarce, strange), ‘Aziz (rare, strong), and Mashhur (famous).
- According to the manner in which the Hadith has been reported, such as using the (Arabic) words ‘an (“on the authority of”), Haddathana (“he narrated to us”), Akhbarana (- “he informed us”) or sami’tu (“I heard”).
- According to the nature of the Matn and Isnad,
e.g. an addition by a reliable reporter, known as Ziyadatu Thiqah, or opposition by a lesser authority to a more reliable one, known as Shadhdh (irregular).
- According to a hidden defect found in the Isnad or text of a Hadith. Although this could be included in some of the previous categories, a hadith mu’allal (defective hadith) is worthy to be explained separately. The defect can be caused in many ways; e.g. two types of hadith mu’allal are known as maqlub (overturned) and mudtarib (shaky).
- According to the reliability and memory of the reporters; the final judgment on a Hadith depends crucially on this factor: verdicts such as Sahih (sound), Hasan (good), Da’if (weak) and Maudu‘ (fabricated, forged) rest mainly upon the nature of the reporters in the isnad.
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
Parts Of Hadith (حدیث):
A Hadith is composed of two parts:
- The Matan متن (text)
- The Isnad اسناد (chain of reporters)
A Text or Matan is the saying of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and Sanad is the chain ofreliable reporters to be acceptable.
‘Abdullah b. al-Mubarak, one of the illustrious teachers of Imam al-Bukhari, said:
“The isnad is part of the religion: had it not been for the isnad, whoever wished to would have said whatever he liked.”
During the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and after His death, His Companions (Sahabah) used to refer to him directly, when quoting his sayings. The Successors (Tabi’un) followed suit; some of them used to quote the Prophet ﷺ through the Companions while others would omit the intermediate authority – such a hadith was later known as mursal. It was found that the missing link between the successor and Prophet Muhammdﷺ might be one person, i.e. a Companion, or two people, the extra person being an older successor who heard the Hadith from the Companion. This is an example of how the need for the verification of each isnad arose. Imam Malik said:
“The first one to utilise the isnad was Ibn Shihab al- Zuhri”
The other more important reason was the deliberate fabrication of Ahadith by various sects which appeared amongst the Muslims, in order to support their views. Ibn Sirin, a successor, said: “They would not ask about the isnad. But when the fitnah (trouble, turmoil, esp. civil war) happened, they said: “name to us your men”. So the narrations of the Ahl al-Sunnah (Adherents to the Sunnah) would be accepted, while those of the Ahl al-Bid’ah (Adherents to Innovation) would not be accepted.”
Let me explain by giving an example for better understanding.
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Musa said (told us) Hanadzlah ibn Abi Sufyan from Ikrimah bin Khalid from Ibn ‘Umar , may Allah be pleased with them said:
Allah’s Apostle said: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles):
To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle. To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly. To pay Zakat (i.e. obligatory charity).To perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca). To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.
The blue part in above Hadith is the isnad, and the green part is the matn.
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
In Arabic the word “Hadith” (حدیث) means “that which is new from amongst things” or “a piece of information conveyed either in a small quantity or large”.
Hadith also refers to the speech of a person.
In Islamic terminology, the term Hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammadﷺ, or of His ﷺ tacit approval of something said or done in his presence.
Classical Hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that:
“the intended meaning of Hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammadﷺ, as opposed to the Qur’an”
Broadly Hadith is defined as:
- Sayings of Muhammad ﷺ
The statements of the Prophet include everything the Prophet said for various reasons on different occasions.
- Actions of Muhammad ﷺ
The actions of the Prophet include everything that the Prophet did that was related to us by his Companions. This includes how he made ablutions, how he performed his prayers, and how he made the Hajj pilgrimage.
- Approval of Muhammad ﷺ
The tacit approvals of the Prophet includes everything that his Companions said or did that he either showed his favor towards or at least did not object to. Anything that had the tacit approval of the Prophet is as valid as anything that he said or did himself.
Let me explain by the examples which would help us for better understanding…
Example of Saying of Muhammadﷺ:
Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported:
“Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: When there comes the month of Ramadan, the gates of mercy are opened, and the gates of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (صحیح البخاری ۵۹۳)
Example of Action of Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ:
Abdullah Ibn Abu Aufa, may Allah be pleased with him, reported: We went on seven expeditions with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and ate locusts. (صحیح البخاری۱۱۳۰)
Example of Approval of Muhammadﷺ:
An example of this is the approval that was given to the Companions when they used their discretion in deciding when to pray during the Battle of Bani Quraydhah. God’s Messenger had said to them:
“None of you should perform your afternoon prayers until you arrive at Bani Quraydhah.”
The Companions did not arrive at Bani Quraydhah until after sunset. Some of them took the Prophet’s words literally and postponed the afternoon prayer, saying: “We will not pray until we get there.” Others understood that the Prophet was only indicating to them that they should hurry on their journey, so they stopped and prayed the afternoon prayer on time.
The Prophet learned about what the two groups had decided, but did not criticize either of them.