Volume 4, Book 52, Number 148 :
Narrated by Salama bin Al-Akwa (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) passed by some people of the tribe of Bani Aslam who were practicing archery. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Bani Ismail ! Practice archery as your father Isma’il was a great archer. Keep on throwing arrows and I am with Bani so-and-so.” So one of the parties ceased throwing. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Why do you not throw?” They replied, “How should we throw while you are with them (i.e. on their side)?” On that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Throw, and I am with all of you.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 149 :
Narrated by Abu Usaid (radiallaahu `anhu)
On the day (of the battle) of Badr when we stood in rows against (the army of) Quraish and they stood in rows against us, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “When they do come near you, throw arrows at them.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 150 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
While some Ethiopians were playing in the presence of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) came in, picked up a stone and hit them with it. On that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O ‘Umar! Allow them (to play).” Ma’mar (the sub-narrator) added that they were playing in the Mosque.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 151 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to shield themselves with one shield. Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) was a good archer, and when he threw (his arrows) the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) would look at the target of his arrows.
A Muslim should be able to defend his or herself from aggression (which requires physical strength) and should be prepared to struggle in the path of Allah, should the occasion arise. For this reason, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said:
“The strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah than the weak believer, while there is good in both.” (Reported by Muslim)
Further reading: Health Benefits of Archery
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 64 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
Um Ar-Rubai’ bint Al-Bara’, the mother of Hartha bin Suraqa (radiallaahu `anhu), came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! Will you tell me about Hartha?” Hartha has been killed (i.e. martyred) on the day of Badr with an arrow thrown by an unidentified person. She added, “If he is in Paradise, I will be patient; otherwise, I will weep bitterly for him.” He said, “O mother of Hartha! There are gardens in Paradise and your son got the Firdaus-al-A’laa (i.e. the best place in Paradise).”
This narration does not identify the person who threw the arrow, but there are other reports (not proven either authentic or weak to my knowledge) that say it was a Muslim whose arrow got Hartha (radiallaahu `anhu) by mistake killing him.
Even if we take the first scenario, there’s still a possibility that a Muslim could’ve shot that arrow. That is why his mother was upset and wanted confirmation from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).
We could discuss the fate of the person who killed Hartha (radiallaahu `anhu) here, presuming he was a Muslim, but I believe it’s unnecessary. If the companions didn’t feel the need to do so, why should we?
And as for Hartha (radiallaahu `anhu), since his intention to set out for jihad was pure and sincere, any kind of death would have been considered martyrdom in his case. It was the same with Umm Haram (radiallaahu `anhaa), she died by merely falling off a camel, but since she was making the journey for jihad, it was considered martyrdom.
Hadith no. 2164 (below) is a repeat, read it here.
Volume 3, Book 44, Number 667:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (radiallaahu `anhu) wrote to him the law of Zakat which was made obligatory by Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He wrote: ‘Partners possessing joint property (sheep) have to pay its Zakat equally.
Volume 3, Book 44, Number 668:
Narrated ‘Abaya bin Rafa’a bin Rafi’ bin Khadij:
My grandfather said, “We were in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) at Dhul-Hulaifa. The people felt hungry and captured some camels and sheep (as booty). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was behind the people. They hurried and slaughtered the animals and put their meat in pots and started cooking it. (When the Prophet came) he ordered the pots to be upset and then he distributed the animals (of the booty), regarding ten sheep as equal to one camel. One of the camels fled and the people ran after it till they were exhausted. At that time there were few horses. A man threw an arrow at the camel, and Allah stopped the camel with it. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Some of these animals are like wild animals, so if you lose control over one of these animals, treat it in this way (i.e. shoot it with an arrow).” Before distributing them among the soldiers my grandfather said, “We may meet the enemies in the future and have no knives; can we slaughter the animals with reeds?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Use whatever causes blood to flow, and eat the animals if the name of Allah has been mentioned on slaughtering them. Do not slaughter with teeth or fingernails and I will tell you why: It is because teeth are bones (i.e. cannot cut properly) and fingernails are the tools used by the Ethiopians (whom we should not imitate for they are infidels).”