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War Is Deceit (Ahadith 2662 – 2666)

Bismillah.

The two ahadith below signify the tribulations of war. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said “Do not wish to meet the enemy”, he did not mean that one should shy away from jihad when the need arises, rather he’s discouraging Muslims to wish for war because it’s a great test of faith. It requires sacrifices beyond measure, and there’s almost always bloodshed involved.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 266 :
Narrated by Salim Abu An-Nadr
(the freed slave of ‘Umar bin ‘Ubaidullah) I was Umar’s clerk. Once Abdullah bin Abi Aufa (radiallaahu `anhu) wrote a letter to ‘Umar when he proceeded to Al-Haruriya. I read in it that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in one of his military expeditions against the enemy, waited till the sun declined and then he got up amongst the people saying, “O people! Do not wish to meet the enemy, and ask Allah for safety, but when you face the enemy, be patient, and remember that Paradise is under the shades of swords.” Then he said, “O Allah, the Revealer of the Holy Book, and the Mover of the clouds and the Defeater of the clans, defeat them, and grant us victory over them.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 266 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said: “Do not wish to meet the enemy, but when you meet face) the enemy, be patient.”

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Allaah has forbidden treachery and has condemned those who do it. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“They are those with whom you made a covenant, but they break their covenant every time and they do not fear Allaah”

[al-Anfaal  8:56]

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Every betrayer will have a banner on the Day of Resurrection, by which he will be known.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6966; Muslim, 1736)

Al-Bukhaari narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘There are four characteristics, whoever has them all is a pure hypocrite: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise he breaks it; when he is entrusted with something he betrays that trust; and when he argues, he speaks in an obscene manner. Whoever has one of these traits has a trait of hypocrisy until he gives it up.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3878; Muslim, 58)

And it was narrated that Maalik said: “I heard that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas said: ‘There is no people who betrays their covenant but Allaah gives their enemies power over them.” (al-Muwatta’, Baab ma jaa’a fi’l-wafa’ bi’l-‘ahd)

Yet despite this condemnation of betrayal, Islam allows deception in war in order to attain victory. Al-Nawawi said: “The scholars are agreed that it is permissible to deceive the kuffaar in war in any way possible, except if that would mean breaking the terms of a treaty or trust, in which case it is not permitted.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 267 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Khosrau will be ruined, and there will be no Khosrau after him, and Caesar will surely be ruined and there will be no Caesar after him, and you will spend their treasures in Allah’s Cause.” He called, “War is deceit’.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 268 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) called,: “War is deceit”.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 269 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “War is deceit.”

One of the most dangerous elements of deceit is taking the enemy by surprise and catching them unawares before they can get ready to fight. When the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wanted to head for Makkah in order to conquer it, he ordered the Muslims to get ready without telling anyone of his intention until after they had set out for Makkah, and after taking all precautions to prevent news of that reaching the mushrikeen.

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to send out many raiding parties, and he would tell them to travel by night and conceal themselves by day so that they could catch the enemy unawares.

Although it is permissible to use deception in war, we say that Islam has attained a high standard of ethics with regard to the use of these tricks in war. Among the most prominent examples of that are the following:

‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab wrote to the commander of an army that he had sent out: “I have heard that some men among you look for kaafirs, then when they run to hide in difficult mountainous terrain they say, ‘Do not be afraid,’ then when they catch up with them they kill them. By the one in whose hand is my soul, if I hear that anyone has done that I will chop off his head.”

It was narrated that Abu Muslimah said: “ ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab said: ‘By the One in Whose hand is my soul, if any one of you were to point to the sky [i.e., a gesture to imply that he will not harm him] to make a mushrik come down to him and then kill him, I would kill him for that.’”

Islam has forbidden treachery, and treachery is not one of the kinds of tricks and deception that are permitted in war.

This Islamic sharee’ah makes a distinction between the kinds of deceit that are permitted and that which involves treachery and breaks treaties.

See al-‘Allaaqaat al-Khaarijiyyah fi Dawlat al-Khilaafah, 197.

Source: IslamQA

No Deception! (Hadith No. 2087)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2085 – 2086 (below) are repeats. Related posts have been linked.

Volume 3, Book 41, Number 588 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
A man pledged that his slave would be manumitted after his death. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Who will buy the slave from me?” No’aim bin ‘Abdullah bought the slave and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) took its price and gave it to the owner.

Volume 3, Book 41, Number 589 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
When ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) (my father) died, he left behind children and debts. I asked the lenders to put down some of his debt, but they refused, so I went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to intercede with them, yet they refused. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to me), “Classify your dates into their different kinds: ‘Adhq bin Zaid, Lean and ‘Ajwa, each kind alone and call all the creditors and wait till I come to you.” I did so and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came and sat beside the dates and started measuring to each his due till he paid them fully, and the amount of dates remained as it was before, as if he had not touched them. (On another occasion) I took part in one of Ghazawat among with the Prophet and I was riding one of our camels. The camel got tired and was lagging behind the others. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) hit it on its back. He said, “Sell it to me, and you have the right to ride it till Medina.” When we approached Medina, I took the permission from the Prophet to go to my house, saying, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I have newly married.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Have you married a virgin or a matron (a widow or divorcee)?” I said, “I have married a matron, as ‘Abdullah (my father) died and left behind daughters small in their ages, so I married a matron who may teach them and bring them up with good manners.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then said (to me), “Go to your family.” When I went there and told my maternal uncle about the selling of the camel, he admonished me for it. On that I told him about its slowness and exhaustion and about what the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had done to the camel and his hitting it. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) arrived, I went to him with the camel in the morning and he gave me its price, the camel itself, and my share from the war booty as he gave the other people.

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 41, Number 590 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “I am often betrayed in bargaining.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) advised him, “When you buy something, say (to the seller), ‘No deception.” The man used to say so afterwards.

So reminding the person of Allah’s laws right in the middle of a transaction might help reduce the risk of being cheated.

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