Narrated Zaid bin Aslam from his father:
I was with Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) on the way to Mecca, and he got the news that Safiya bint Abu Ubaid was seriously ill. So, he hastened his pace, and when the twilight disappeared, he dismounted and offered the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ prayers together. Then he said, “I saw that whenever the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had to hasten when traveling, he would delay the Maghrib prayer and join them together (i.e. offer the Maghrib and the Isha prayers together).”
We know that prayers are shortened during travel only. But what about combining prayers? Does a person have to be travelling in order to combine two prayers, or is it allowed otherwise as well? Here’s a general answer from IslamQA:
It is not permissible for a Muslim man or woman to delay an obligatory prayer beyond the proper time, rather every accountable Muslim man and woman is obliged to perform the prayers on time as much as they can.
Work is not an excuse for delaying prayer, neither is impurity on clothes or clothes being dirty. None of these are acceptable excuses.
People should be excused from work at prayer times; at the time of prayer a worker has to wash the impurity from his clothes, or change into clean clothes. As for regular dirt (as opposed to impurities), this does not prevent one from praying in those clothes, so long as that dirt is not impure and does not have an offensive smell that would bother other worshippers. But if the dirt or its smell will bother others, then he has to wash it before praying, or change into clean clothes so that he can pray in congregation.
It is permissible for those who have legitimate shar’i excuses, such as those who are sick or are travelling, to combine Zuhr and ‘Asr at the time of either of them, and to combine Maghrib and ‘Isha’ at the time of either of them.
This was narrated in the saheeh Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). It is also permissible to join prayers when there is heavy rain or mud, which cause difficulty for people.
P.S. given below is a ‘general knowledge’ question for you.. Test yourself.
Kitaab-ul-`Umrah ends here.
Hadith no. 907 is a repeat. Read it here.
Narrated Salim’s father:
The Prophet used to offer the Maghrib and Isha’ prayers together whenever he was in a hurry on a journey.
Narrated Ibn Abbas: Allah’s Apostle used to offer the Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers together on journeys, and also used to offer the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ prayers together.
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet used to offer the Maghrib and the ‘Isha’ prayers together on journeys.
Salim told me, “‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said, ‘I saw Allah’s Apostle delaying the Maghrib prayer till he offered it along with the Isha prayer whenever he was in a hurry during the journey.’ ” Salim said, “Abdullah bin Umar used to do the same whenever he was in a hurry during the journey. After making the call for Iqama, for the Maghrib prayer he used to offer three Rakat and then perform Tasllm. After waiting for a short while, he would pronounce the Iqama for the ‘Isha’ prayer and offer two Rakat and perform Taslim. He never prayed any Nawafil in between the two prayers or after the ‘Isha’ prayers till he got up in the middle of the night (for Tahajjud prayer).”
Allah’s Apostle used to offer these two prayers together on journeys i.e. the Maghrib and the ‘Isha’.
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Whenever the Prophet started a journey before noon, he used to delay the Zuhr prayer till the time of ‘Asr and then offer them together; and if the sun declined (at noon) he used to offer the Zuhr prayer and then ride (for the journey).
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Whenever the Prophet started the journey before noon, he used to delay the Zuhr prayer till the time for the ‘Asr prayer and then he would dismount and pray them together; and whenever the sun declined before he started the journey he used to offer the Zuhr prayer and then ride (for the journey).
Related post here.
Points to be noted:
- Combine Dhuhr with Asr and Maghrib with `Ishaa’.
- Condition for shortening prayers is traveling only. Conditions for combining prayer may vary. Traveling is one of them.
- Prophet (SAW) preferred to delay Dhuhr (while combining it with Asr), and pray it with Asr, instead of praying Asr early at Dhuhr time. (Just an observation. Not an official statement.)
Narrated Anas bin Malik :
offered four Rakat of Zuhr prayer with the Prophet (p.b.u.h) at Medina and two Rakat at Dhul-Hulaifa. (i.e. shortened the ‘Asr prayer).
Indicates that Prophet (SAW) used to shorten his prayers while traveling.
“When the prayers were first enjoined they were of two Rakat each. Later the prayer in a journey was kept as it was but the prayers for non-travelers were completed.” Az-Zuhri said, “I asked ‘Urwa what made Aisha pray the full prayers (in journey).” He replied, “She did the same as ‘Uthman did.”
To understand what is being referred to in the last statement, read this.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:
“I saw Allah’s Apostle delaying the Maghrib prayer till he offered it along with the ‘Isha’ prayer whenever he was in a hurry during the journey.” Salim narrated, “Ibn ‘Umar used to do the same whenever he was in a hurry during the journey.” And Salim added, “Ibn ‘Umar used to pray the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ prayers together in Al-Muzdalifa.” Salim said, “Ibn ‘Umar delayed the Maghrib prayer because at that time he heard the news of the death of his wife Safiya bint Abi ‘Ubaid. I said to him, ‘The prayer (is due).’ He said, ‘Go on.’ Again I said, ‘The prayer (is due).’ He said, ‘Go on,’ till we covered two or three miles. Then he got down, prayed and said, ‘I saw the Prophet praying in this way, whenever he was in a hurry during the journey.’ ‘Abdullah (bin ‘Umar) added, “Whenever the Prophet was in a hurry, he used to delay the Maghrib prayer and then offer three Rakat (of the Maghrib) and perform Taslim, and after waiting for a short while, Iqama used to be pronounced for the ‘Isha’ prayer when he would offer two Rakat and perform Taslim. He would never offer any optional prayer till the middle of the night (when he used to pray the Tahajjud).”
Joining/combining prayers: it means that the worshipper joins two prayers, Zuhr and ‘Asr, or Maghrib and ‘Isha’, at the time of the earlier or later of the two prayers.
The correct view is that of the majority of scholars, which is that it is permissible to join prayers if there is an excuse for doing so, because it is proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did that in places other than ‘Arafah and Muzdalifah.
Joining prayers is permissible for every traveller, and for the non-traveller if it is too difficult for him to offer every prayer on time, such as one who is sick, or if there is rain, or he is busy with some work that he cannot delay in order to pray, such as a student taking an exam or a doctor who is doing surgery and so on.
[Taken from IslamQA]