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Farming in Paradise? (Hadith No. 2035)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2028 – 2034 (below) are related to sharecropping (already covered).

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 531 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz. When Allah’s Apostle had conquered Khaibar, he wanted to expel the Jews from it as its land became the property of Allah, His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), and the Muslims. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to expel the Jews but they requested him to let them stay there on the condition that they would do the labor and get half of the fruits. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told them, “We will let you stay on thus condition, as long as we wish.” So, they (i.e. Jews) kept on living there until ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) forced them to go towards Taima’ and Ariha’.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 532 :

Narrated by Rafi bin Khadij
My uncle Zuhair (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade us to do a thing which was a source of help to us.” I said, “Whatever Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said was right.” He said, “Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent for me and asked, ‘What are you doing with your farms?’ I replied, ‘We give our farms on rent on the basis that we get the yield produced at the banks of the water streams (rivers) for the rent, or rent it for some Wasqs of barley and dates.’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Do not do so, but cultivate (the land) yourselves or let it be cultivated by others gratis, or keep it uncultivated.’ I said, ‘We hear and obey.’

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 533 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
The people used to rent their land for cultivation for one-third, one-fourth or half its yield. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise keep it uncultivated.” Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise he should keep it uncultivated.”

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 534 :
Narrated by ‘Amr
When I mentioned it (i.e. the narration of Rafi ‘bin Khadij: no. 532) to Tawus, he said, “It is permissible to rent the land for cultivation, for Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, ‘The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not forbid that, but said: One had better give the land to one’s brother gratis rather than charge a certain amount for it.’ “

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 535 :
Narrated by Nafi
Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) used to rent his farms in the time of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and in the early days of Muawiya (radiallaahu `anhum). Then he was told the narration of Rafi ‘bin Khadij that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) went to Rafi’ and I accompanied him. He asked Rafi who replied that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “You know that we used to rent our farms in the life-time of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) for the yield of the banks of the water streams (rivers) and for certain amount of figs.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 536 :
Narrated by Salim
Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I knew that the land was rented for cultivation in the life-time of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” Later on Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) was afraid that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden it, and he had no knowledge of it, so he gave up renting his land.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 537 :
Narrated by Hanzla bin Qais
Rafi bin Khadij said, “My two uncles told me that they (i.e. the companions of the Prophet) used to rent the land in the life-time of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) for the yield on the banks of water streams (rivers) or for a portion of the yield stipulated by the owner of the land. The Prophet forbade it.” I said to Rafi, “What about renting the land for Dinars and Dirhams?” He replied, “There is no harm in renting for Dinars-Dirhams. Al-Laith said, “If those who have discernment for distinguishing what is legal from what is illegal looked into what has been forbidden concerning this matter they would not permit it, for it is surrounded with dangers.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 538 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was narrating (a story), while a Bedouin was sitting with him. “One of the inhabitants of Paradise will ask Allah to allow him to cultivate the land. Allah will ask him, ‘Are you not living in the pleasures you like?’ He will say, ‘Yes, but I like to cultivate the land.’ ” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, “When the man (will be permitted he) will sow the seeds and the plants will grow up and get ripe, ready for reaping and so on till it will be as huge as mountains within a wink. Allah will then say to him, ‘O son of Adam! Take here you are, gather (the yield); nothing satisfies you.’ ” On that, the bedouin said, “The man must be either from Quraish (i.e. an emigrant) or an Ansari, for they are farmers, whereas we are not farmers.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) smiled (at this).

This just goes to show how hard it is for us humans to let go of our habits! Admit it, it’s funny!

On a serious note, this also shows that you will be in Paradise what you are now. Your habits/activities will go with you.. would you be happy being what you are for eternity? #FoodForThought

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Umar (RA)’s Policy Regarding Conquered Lands (Hadith No. 2024)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2017 – 2022 (below) are related to ‘sharecropping’, which has been discussed in this post already.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 520 :
Narrated by Rafi’ bin Khadij (radiallaahu `anhu)
We worked on farms more than anybody else in Medina. We used to rent the land at the yield of specific delimited portion of it to be given to the landlord. Sometimes the vegetation of that portion was affected by blights etc., while the rest remained safe and vice versa, so the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade this practice. At that time gold or silver were not used (for renting the land). If they provided the seeds, they would get so-and-so much.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 521 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) concluded a contract with the people of Khaibar to utilize the land on the condition that half the products of fruits or vegetation would be their share. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to give his wives one hundred Wasqs each, eighty Wasqs of dates and twenty Wasqs of barley. (When ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) became the Caliph) he gave the wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) the option of either having the land and water as their shares, or carrying on the previous practice. Some of them chose the land and some chose the Wasqs, and ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) chose the land.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 522 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) made a deal with the people of Khaibar that they would have half the fruits and vegetation of the land they cultivated.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 523 :
Narrated by ‘Amr 
I said to Tawus, “I wish you would give up Mukhabara (Share-cropping), for the people say that the Prophet forbade it.” On that Tawus replied, “O ‘Amr! I give the land to share-croppers and help them. No doubt; the most learned man, namely Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) told me that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had not forbidden it but said, ‘It is more beneficial for one to give his land free to one’s brother than to charge him a fixed rental.”

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 524 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave the land of Khaibar to the Jew’s on the condition that they work on it and cultivate it, and be given half of its yield.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 525 :
Narrated by Rafi (radiallaahu `anhu)
We worked on farms more than anybody else in Medina. We used to rent the land and say to the owner, “The yield of this portion is for us and the yield of that portion is for you (as the rent).” One of those portions might yield something and the other might not. So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade us to do so.

Hadith no. 2023 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 526 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “While three men were walking, It started raining and they took shelter (refuge) in a cave in a mountain. A big rock rolled down from the mountain and closed the mouth of the cave. They said to each other, “Think of good deeds which you did for Allah’s sake only, and invoke Allah by giving reference to those deeds so that He may remove this rock from you.” One of them said, ‘O Allah! I had old parents and small children and I used to graze the sheep for them. On my return to them in the evening, I used to milk (the sheep) and start providing my parents first of all before my children. One day I was delayed and came late at night and found my parents sleeping. I milked (the sheep) as usual and stood by their heads. I hated to wake them up and disliked to give milk to my children before them, although my children were weeping (because of hunger) at my feet till the day dawned. O Allah! If I did this for Your sake only, kindly remove the rock so that we could see the sky through it.’ So, Allah removed the rock a little and they saw the sky. The second man said, ‘O Allah! I was in love with a cousin of mine like the deepest love a man may have for a woman. I wanted to outrage her chastity but she refused unless I gave her one hundred Dinars. So, I struggled to collect that amount. And when I sat between her legs, she said, ‘O Allah’s slave! Be afraid of Allah and do not deflower me except rightfully (by marriage).’ So, I got up. O Allah! If I did it for Your sake only, please remove the rock.’ The rock shifted a little more. Then the third man said, ‘O Allah! I employed a laborer for a Faraq of rice and when he finished his job and demanded his right, I presented it to him, but he refused to take it. So, I sowed the rice many time till I gathered cows and their shepherd (from the yield). (Then after some time) He came and said to me, ‘Fear Allah (and give me my right).” I said, ‘Go and take those cows and the shepherd.’ He said, ‘Be afraid of Allah! Don’t mock at me.’ I said, ‘I am not mocking at you. Take (all that).’ So, he took all that. O Allah! If I did that for Your sake only, please remove the rest of the rock.’ So, Allah removed the rock.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 527 :
Narrated by Zaid bin Aslam from his father
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Were it not for the future Muslim generations, I would have distributed the land of the villages I conquer among the soldiers as the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) distributed the land of Khaibar.”

Umar (RA) did not divide the conquered lands among the soldiers of the successful army, even though he would’ve liked to do so. Sayyid Ali Asghar Razwy says in his book “A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims”:

Since he wanted the Arabs to be a purely fighting and ruling class, he did not allow them to buy land and to settle down or to become farmers in the conquered territories.

Pet Dogs or Guard Dogs? (Ahadith 2012 – 2013)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 515 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever keeps a dog, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily, unless the dog is used for guarding a farm or cattle.” Abu Huraira (in another narration) said from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting.” Narrated Abu Hazim from Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhumaa): The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting.”

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 516 :
Narrated by As-Sa’ib bin Yazid
Abu Sufyan bin Abu Zuhair, a man from Azd Shanu’a and one of the companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, ‘If one keeps a dog which is meant for guarding neither a farm nor cattle, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily.” I said, “Did you hear this from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)?” He said, “Yes, by the Lord of this Mosque.”

Firstly:

It is not permissible for a Muslim to keep a dog, unless he needs this dog for hunting, guarding livestock or guarding crops.

Muslim (2978) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever keeps a dog that is not a dog for hunting, herding livestock or farming, two qiraats will be deducted from his reward each day.”

Muslim (2943) narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever keeps a dog, except a dog for herding livestock or a dog for hunting, a qiraat will be deducted from his good deeds each day.” ‘Abd-Allaah said: Abu Hurayrah said: Or a dog for farming.

Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said:

This hadeeth shows that it is permissible to keep a dog for hunting and herding livestock, and also for farming.

Ibn Maajah (3640) narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or an image.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.

These ahaadeeth indicate that it is haraam to keep a dog, except for those which were exempted by the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

The scholars differed as to how to reconcile between the reports which speak of one qiraat being deducted and those which speak of two qiraats being deducted.

It was said that two qiraats will be deducted if the dog is more harmful and one qiraat will be deducted if it is less so.

And it was said that that at first the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that one qiraat would be deducted, then the punishment was increased after that, so he said that two qiraats would be deducted in order to put people off from keeping dogs even more.

The qiraat is an amount that is known to Allaah, may He be exalted, and what is meant is that some of the reward for a person’s good deeds will be deducted.

See Sharh Muslim by al-Nawawi, 10/342; Fath al-Baari, 5/9

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen, 4/241:

With regard to keeping dogs, this is haraam and is in fact a major sin, because the one who keeps a dog, except those for which an exception has been made, will have two qiraats deducted from his reward every day.

It is by the wisdom of Allaah that like calls to like and evil calls to evil. It is said that the kaafirs, Jews, Christians and communists in the east and the west all keep dogs, Allaah forbid. Each one takes his dog with him and cleans it every day with soap and other cleansing agents. But even if he were to clean it with the water of all the seas in the world and all the soap in the world, it would never become pure! Because its impurity is inherent, and inherent impurity cannot be cleansed except by destroying it and erasing it altogether.

But this is by the wisdom of Allaah, and the wisdom of Allaah is that like calls to like and evil calls to Shaytaan because this kufr of theirs is by the inspiration of the Shaytaan and the command of the Shaytaan, for the Shaytaan enjoins evil, immorality, kufr and misguidance. So they are slaves to the Shaytaan and to their whims and desires, and they are also evil and love vile things. We ask Allaah to guide us and them. End quote.

Secondly:

Is it permissible to keep dogs to guard houses?

Answer:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made only three exceptions to the prohibition on keeping dogs: hunting, guarding livestock and guarding crops.

Some scholars are of the view that it is not permissible to keep a dog for any reason other than these three. Others are of the view that it is permissible to draw analogies between these three and similar or more likely cases, such as guarding houses, because if it is permissible to keep dogs to guard livestock and crops, it is more appropriate that it should be permissible to keep dogs to guard houses.

Al-Nawawi said in Sharh Muslim (10/340):

Is it permissible to keep a dog to guard houses, alleys and the like. There are two points of view. The first is that it is not permissible, because of the apparent meaning of the ahaadeeth, which clearly state that keeping dogs is forbidden except for farming, hunting and herding. The more correct view is that it is permissible, by analogy with those three cases, knowing that the reason that is understood from the ahaadeeth is necessity. End quote.

The view that was classed as saheeh by al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him), that keeping a dog to guard the house is permissible, was also classed as saheeh by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) in Sharh Saheeh Muslim. He said:

The correct view is that it is permissible to keep a dog to guard the house, because if it is permissible to keep a dog in order to benefit from it, as in the case of hunting, it is more appropriate that one be allowed to keep a dog in order to ward off harm and protect oneself. End quote.

Taken from IslamQA

Selling Sown Land (Hadith No. 1901)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 406 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If somebody sells pollinated date palms, the fruits will be for the seller unless the buyer stipulates that they will be for himself (and the seller agrees).”

Nafi’ said:

If pollinated date-palms are sold and nothing is mentioned (in the contract) about their fruits, the fruits will go to the person who has pollinated them, and so will be the case with the slave and the cultivator.

If someone is selling a pollinated crop/garden or a sown land, and the contract doesn’t mention anything about the fruit of that particular yield, it goes to the seller/owner by default. But if the contract stipulated otherwise and both parties agreed to it, then the buyer can have the yield to himself. That’s it, more or less. :)

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