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Inheritance Shares (Hadith No. 2403)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2398 – 2402 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 5 :
Narrated by Sad bin Abu Waqqas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came visiting me while I was (sick) in Mecca, (‘Amir the sub-narrator said, and he disliked to die in the land, whence he had already migrated). He (i.e. the Prophet) said, “May Allah bestow His Mercy on Ibn Afra (Sad bin Khaula).” I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! May I will all my property (in charity)?” He said, “No.” I said, “Then may I will half of it?” He said, “No”. I said, “One third?” He said: “Yes, one third, yet even one third is too much. It is better for you to leave your inheritors wealthy than to leave them poor begging others, and whatever you spend for Allah’s sake will be considered as a charitable deed even the handful of food you put in your wife’s mouth. Allah may lengthen your age so that some people may benefit by you, and some others be harmed by you.” At that time Sad had only one daughter.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 6 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
I recommend that people reduce the proportion of what they bequeath by will to the fourth (of the whole legacy), for Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “One-third, yet even one third is too much.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 7 :
Narrated by Sad (radiallaahu `anhu)
I fell sick and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) paid me a visit. I said to him, “O Allah’s Apostle! I invoke Allah that He may not let me expire in the land whence I migrated (i.e. Mecca).” He said, “May Allah give you health and let the people benefit by you.” I said, “I want to will my property, and I have only one daughter and I want to will half of my property (to be given in charity).” He said,” Half is too much.” I said, “Then I will one third.” He said, “One-third, yet even one-third is too much.” (The narrator added, “So the people started to will one third of their property and that was permitted for them.”)

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 8 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) (the wife of the Prophet)
Utba bin Abi Waqqas entrusted (his son) to his brother Sad bin Abi Waqqas (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, “The son of the slave-girl of Zam’a is my (illegal) son, take him into your custody.” So during the year of the Conquest (of Mecca) Sad (radiallaahu `anhu) took the boy and said, “This is my brother’s son whom my brother entrusted to me.” ‘Abu bin Zam’a got up and said, “He is my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father and was born on my father’s bed.” Then both of them came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and Sad (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! This is my brother’s son whom my brother entrusted to me.” Then ‘Abu bin Zam’a got up and said, “This is my brother and the son of the slave-girl of my father.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Abu bin Zam’a! This boy is for you as the boy belongs to the bed (where he was born), and for the adulterer is the stone (i.e. deprivation).” Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to his wife Sauda bint Zam’a, “Screen yourself from this boy,” when he saw the boy’s resemblance to ‘Utba. Since then the boy did not see Sauda till he died.

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 9 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
A Jew crushed the head of a girl between two stones. She was asked, “Who has done so to you, so-and-so? So-and-so?” Till the name of the Jew was mentioned, whereupon she nodded (in agreement). So the Jew was brought and was questioned till he confessed. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then ordered that his head be crushed with stones.

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 51, Number 10 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The custom (in old days) was that the property of the deceased would be inherited by his offspring; as for the parents (of the deceased), they would inherit by the will of the deceased. Then Allah cancelled from that custom whatever He wished and fixed for the male double the amount inherited by the female, and for each parent a sixth (of the whole legacy) and for the wife an eighth or a fourth and for the husband a half or a fourth.

InshaAllah we’ll learn about inheritance and shares in detail once we reach Kitaab-ul-Faraa’id, but for now, here are some resources to look into for general/advanced knowledge (depending on how deep you look):

Outline of inheritance shares (with evidences)

Video lectures on Fiqh of Islamic Inheritance

Inheritance calculator (cool stuff)

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A Unique Case (Ahadith 1151 – 1152)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 452:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

The Prophet looked at the people of the well (the well in which the bodies of the pagans killed in the Battle of Badr were thrown) and said, “Have you found true what your Lord promised you?” Somebody said to him, “You are addressing dead people.” He replied, “You do not hear better than they but they cannot reply.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 453:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet said, “They now realize that what I used to tell them was the truth. “And Allah said, ‘Verily! You cannot make the dead to hear (i.e. benefit them, and similarly the disbelievers) nor can you make the deaf hear. (27.80).

It’s true that the dead cannot hear anything that the living say.  Allaah says (interpretation of the meanings):

“..but you cannot make hear those who are in graves” [Faatir 35:22]

And:

“So verily, you (O Muhammad) cannot make the dead to hear” [al-Room 30:52]

With regard to the incident mentioned in the above Ahadith, it is to be understood that this was a unique case, where Allaah brought them back to life so that His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) might rebuke them and humiliate them.

The relevant point here is that Allaah caused the people in the well to hear the words of His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), so that they might be humiliated. But it is not correct to deduce from this hadeeth that the dead can hear everything, because this applied only to the people in the well. Some scholars made an exception and said that the dead can hear the salaam, but this is a view for which clear sound evidence is lacking.

Wassalam.

Allah’s Witnesses on Earth (Ahadith 1147 – 1148)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 447:

Narrated ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab :

When ‘Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul died, Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) was called upon to offer his funeral prayer. When Allah’s Apostle stood up to offer the prayer, I got up quickly and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Are you going to pray for Ibn Ubai and he said so and so on such and such occasions?” And started mentioning all that he had said. Allah’s Apostle smiled and said, “O ‘Umar! Go away from me.” When I talked too much he said, “I have been given the choice and so I have chosen (to offer the prayer). Had I known that he would be forgiven by asking for Allah’s forgiveness for more than seventy times, surely I would have done so.” (‘Umar added): Allah’s Apostle offered his funeral prayer and returned and after a short while the two verses of Surat Bara’ were revealed: i.e. “And never (O Muhammad) pray for any of them who dies . . . (to the end of the verse) rebellion (9.84)” — (‘Umar added), “Later I astonished at my daring before Allah’s Apostle on that day. And Allah and His Apostle know better.”

Hadith no. 1146 (above) is a repeat. Read it here.

Allah’s Witnesses on Earth..

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 448:

Narrated Anas bin Malik, :

A funeral procession passed and the people praised the deceased. The Prophet said, “It has been affirmed to him.” Then another funeral procession passed and the people spoke badly of the deceased. The Prophet said, “It has been affirmed to him”. ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab asked (Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) ), “What has been affirmed?” He replied, “You praised this, so Paradise has been affirmed to him; and you spoke badly of this, so Hell has been affirmed to him. You people are Allah’s witnesses on earth.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 449:

Narrated Abu Al-Aswad:

I came to Medina when an epidemic had broken out. While I was sitting with ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab a funeral procession passed by and the people praised the deceased. ‘Umar said, “It has been affirmed to him.” And another funeral procession passed by and the people praised the deceased. ‘Umar said, “It has been affirmed to him.” A third (funeral procession) passed by and the people spoke badly of the deceased. He said, “It has been affirmed to him.” I (Abu Al-Aswad) asked, “O chief of the believers! What has been affirmed?” He replied, “I said the same as the Prophet had said, that is: if four persons testify the piety of a Muslim, Allah will grant him Paradise.” We asked, “If three persons testify his piety?” He (the Prophet) replied, “Even three.” Then we asked, “If two?” He replied, “Even two.” We did not ask him regarding one witness.

Isn’t that scary? Turns out that it does matter what people have to say about you. Do good deeds, be good to others, so that people have only good things to say about you after your death. Imagine if just two people spoke bad about you. *shivers at the thought* O_O

Look at it another way. If someone you know dies, and he/she was a good person, you should mention about their goodness among people. Your witness will be important in their case with Allah. But be careful about exaggeration. Speak only the truth.
Say the person wasn’t good. Say he was a sinner or had bad relationships with people. Would you talk bad about them? Would you want to play a role in their entering Hell? It’s better to leave the matter to Allah. So mum’s the word.

Wassalam.

Lowering into the Grave (Hadith No. 1073)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 374:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

We were (in the funeral procession) of one of the daughters of the Prophet and he was sitting by the side of the grave. I saw his eyes shedding tears. He said, “Is there anyone among you who did not have sexual relations with his wife last night?” Abu Talha replied in the affirmative. And so the Prophet told him to get down in the grave. And so he got down in her grave.

Who is the most entitled of people to lower the deceased into the grave?

Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

The one who is more entitled to do that is the one whom the deceased wanted to do that for him, if he expressed a preference. If he did not express a preference, then it should be the next of kin. If there is one who is knowledgeable then he is more entitled, and if there is no one who is knowledgeable, then he may learn from one who is knowledgeable, and the one who is knowledgeable may direct the one who has no knowledge to carry out this task.

It is not essential for the one who lowers the deceased into the grave to be a mahram of the woman. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded Abu Talhah (may Allaah be pleased with him) to go down into the grave of his (the Prophet’s) daughter and bury her in his presence and in the presence of her husband ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan (may Allaah be pleased with him). (The hadeeth was narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1342).

Wassalam.

Ghusl for the Deceased (Ahadith 1043 – 1053)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 344:

Narrated Um ‘Atiyya al-Ansariya:

Allah’s Apostle came to us when his daughter died and said, “Wash her thrice or five times or more, if you see it necessary, with water and Sidr and then apply camphor or some camphor at the end; and when you finish, notify me.” So when we finished it, we informed him and he gave us his waist-sheet and told us to shroud the dead body in it.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 345:

Narrated Um ‘Atiyya

Allah’s Apostle came to us and we were giving a bath to his (dead) daughter and said, “Wash her three, five or more times with water and Sidr and sprinkle camphor on her at the end; and when you finish, notify me.” So when we finished, we informed him and he gave us his waist-sheet and told us to shroud her in it. Aiyub said that Hafsa narrated to him a narration similar to that of Muhammad in which it was said that the bath was to be given for an odd number of times, and the numbers 3, 5 or 7 were mentioned. It was also said that they were to start with the right side and with the parts which were washed in ablution, and that Um ‘Atiyya also mentioned, “We combed her hair and divided them in three braids.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 346:

Narrated Um ‘Atiyya:

Allah’s Apostle , concerning his (dead) daughter’s bath, said, “Start with the right side, and the parts which are washed in ablution.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 347:

Narrated Um ‘Atiyya :

When we washed the deceased daughter of the Prophet, he said to us, while we were washing her, “Start the bath from the right side and from the parts which are washed in ablution.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 348:

Narrated Um ‘Atiyya:

The daughter of the Prophet expired, and he said to us, “Wash her three or five times, or more if you see it necessary, and when you finish, notify me.” So, (when we finished) we informed him and he unfastened his waist-sheet and told us to shroud her in it.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 349:

Narrated Muhammad:

Um ‘Atiyya said, “One of the daughters of the Prophet died and he came out and said, ‘Wash her three or five times or more, if you think it necessary, with water and Sidr, and last of all put camphor (or some camphor) and when you finish, inform me.’ ” Um Atiyya added, “When we finished we informed him and he gave us his waist-sheet and said, ‘Shroud her in it.’ ” And Um ‘Atiyya (in another narration) added, “The Prophet said, ‘Wash her three, five or seven times or more, if you think it necessary.’ ” Hafsa said that Um ‘Atiyya had also said, “We entwined her hair into three braids.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 350:

Narrated Hafsa bint Sirin:

Um ‘Atiyya said that they had entwined the hair of the daughter of Allah’s Apostle in three braids. They first undid her hair, washed and then entwined it in three braids.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 351:

Narrated Ibn Sirin:

Um ‘Atiyya (an Ansari woman who gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet ) came to Basra to visit her son, but she could not find him. She narrated to us, “The Prophet came to us while we were giving bath to his (dead) daughter, he said: ‘Wash her three times, five times or more, if you think it necessary, with water and Sidr, and last of all put camphor, and when you finish, notify me.’ ” Um ‘Atiyya added, “After finishing, we informed him and he gave us his waist sheet and told us to shroud her in it and did not say more than that.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 352:

Narrated Um ‘Atiyya:

We entwined the hair of the dead daughter of the Prophet into three braids. Waki said that Sufyan said, “One braid was entwined in front and the other two were entwined on the sides of the head.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 353:

Narrated Um ‘Atiyya:

One of the daughters of the Prophet expired and he came to us and said, “Wash her with Sidr (water) for odd number of times, i.e. three, five or more, if you think it necessary, and in the last, put camphor or (some camphor on her), and when you finish, notify me.” So when we finished we informed him. He gave his waist-sheet to us (to shroud her). We entwined the hair (of the deceased girl) in three braids and made them fall at her back.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 354:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

Allah’s Apostle was shrouded in three Yemenite white Suhuliya (pieces of cloth) of cotton, and in them there was neither a shirt nor a turban.”

  • Dead body should be washed for an odd number of times.
  • Wash with water. Any non-alcoholic perfume can be added to the water.
  • Start from the right side and the parts which are washed in ablution.
  • Camphor to be applied at the end.
  • Women’s hair must be tied in three braids.
  • Body to be wrapped in plain sheets, not sewn.

Detailed method to be found here.

Do go through this book (Urdu) for a lot more of details: mera-jeena-mera-marna

Wassalam.

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