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Islamic Calendar & The Months of `Eid (Ahadith 1625 – 1632)

Bismillah.

The Islamic Calendar – Astronomy

In the Islamic calendar, each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal (crescent moon) shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. [Wikipedia]

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 130:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) mentioned Ramadan and said, “Do not fast unless you see the crescent (of Ramadan), and do not give up fasting till you see the crescent (of Shawwal), but if the sky is overcast (if you cannot see it), then act on estimation (i.e. count Sha’ban as 30 days).”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 131:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The month (can be) 29 nights (i.e. days), and do not fast till you see the moon, and if the sky is overcast, then complete Sha’ban as thirty days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 132:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The month is like this and this,” (at the same time he showed the fingers of both his hands thrice) and left out one thumb on the third time.


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 133:

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) or Abu-l-Qasim said, “Start fasting on seeing the crescent (of Ramadan), and give up fasting on seeing the crescent (of Shawwal), and if the sky is overcast (and you cannot see it), complete thirty days of Sha’ban.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 134:

Narrated Um Salama (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) vowed to keep aloof from his wives for a period of one month, and after the completion of 29 days he went either in the morning or in the afternoon to his wives. Someone said to him “You vowed that you would not go to your wives for one month.” He replied, “The month is of 29 days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 135:

Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) vowed to keep aloof from his wives for one month, and he had dislocation of his leg. So, he stayed in a Mashruba for 29 nights and then came down. Some people said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! You vowed to stay aloof for one month,” He replied, “The month is of 29 days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 136:

Narrated Abu Bakra (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The two months of ‘Id i.e. Ramadan and Dhul-Hijja, do not decrease (in superiority).”

This has been interpreted in two ways by the scholars:

  1. the two months of Eid (Ramadan and Dhul Hijjah) do not decrease in number (in the same year). For example, if this year, Ramadan is 29 days, then Dhul Hijjah will definitely be 30. And if Dhul Hijjah is 29, then Ramadan will be 30. Both cannot be 29 simultaneously.
    This does not have to be the case each time. This is why the second opinion is preferred and more correct. Allah knows best.
  2. these two months do not decrease in superiority. Even if the number decreases to 29, the reward of the people who do good in these two months will not be decreased. :)

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 137:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We are an illiterate nation; we neither write, nor know accounts. The month is like this and this, i.e. sometimes of 29 days and sometimes of thirty days.”

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First Ten Days of Dhul-Hijjah (Hadith No. 784)

Assalamu`alaykum,
Bismillah.

Hadith no. 783 is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 784:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, “No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhul Hijja).” Then some companions of the Prophet said, “Not even Jihad?” He replied, “Not even Jihad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah’s sake) and does not return with any of those things.”

These days have great excellence and superiority over all other days. These are the days right before Eid-ul-Adha, or the Hajj days, as we know them. One should maximize their good deeds in these days to benefit most from them.

I’ve written a detailed post on it once before, taken from Dr. Farhat Hashmi’s mind-blowing lecture on the subject. Do read! :)

Wassalam.

Best Days, Best Deeds (First 10 Days of Dhul-Hijjah)

Dhul-Hijjah (ذو الحجة) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.

This is a very sacred month in the Islamic calendar, marking the end of the year. It is in this month in which the Hajj (pilgrimage) takes place.

“Dhu al-Hijjah” literally means “Possessor of the Pilgrimage.” It is during this month that pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Day of Arafa takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the “Festival of the Sacrifice”, begins on the tenth day and ends on the thirteenth.

The first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah are marked blessed for both, the pilgrims and the non-pilgrims. Rewards of good deeds are multiplied in these days. Imaam Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) (d. 751H) said: “Indeed, its days are the most excellent of all the days with Allah”. It has been confirmed in Saheeh al-Bukhari from Ibn Abbas (RA) that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “No deeds are more virtuous than deeds on these days.” The companions asked: ‘Not even Jihad (fighting in Allah’s Cause)?’ He (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) replied: “Not even Jihad for the sake of Allah, unless a man goes out risking himself and his wealth for the sake of Allah, and does not come back with anything.” [Saheeh al-Bukhari vol: 2, no: 457] And it is these ten days, of which Allah takes an oath saying: “By the dawn; by the ten nights.” [Soorah al-Fajr (89): 1-2] This is why it is recommended to increase in making Takbeer [Allahu Akbar], Tahlil [la ilaha illa Allah] and Tamhid [Alhamdulillah] during these days.” [Zaad al-Ma’aad vol: 1, pp: 56]

These 10 days are the best days of the year. Why not strive to do the BEST deeds in these days? :)

Best of Imaan:

  • that which has no doubts in it [Musnad Ahmad: 9700]
  • Out of the 70+ branches of Imaan, best is: saying ‘la ilaha illa Allah’ [Abu Dawud: 4678]
  • patience and forgiveness [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1495]
  • good character [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 551]

Best of Islam:

  • consistency, focus and ease [Saheeh Jami’ as-Sagheer: 1090]
  • leaving that which doesn’t concern you [Bukhari]
  • feeding others, saying Salaam to those you know and those whom you do not know [Bukhari]

Best of Deeds:

  • {Highest level:} Iman, Tasdeeq (affirmation), Jihad, Hajj Mabroor
    {Lower level:} being soft-spoken, easy going and feeding people
    {Lowest level:} not thinking bad/wrong about Allah [Musnad Ahmad: 17814]

Best of Jihaad:

  • fighting against your desire and nafs [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1496]

Best of Prayers:

  • praying in the first time [Abu Dawud: 426] [Bukhari: 2782]
  • praying in congregation (for men) [Muslim: 1504]
  • praying Fajr in congregation on Jumu’ah (for men) [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1566]
  • praying nawafil at home [Bukhari: 731]
  • tahajjud/night prayer [Muslim: 2812]
  • praying in the last portion of the night (when Allah descends down to the lowest heaven) [Musnad Ahmad: 281555]
  • praying like Dawud (AS): sleep the first half of the night, pray one-third, sleep one-sixth. [Irwaa al-Ghaleel: 199/2]
  • praying with long qiyaam/recitation [Muslim: 1804] [Abu Dawud: 1325]
  • praying in a hidden/covered place (for women) [Abu Dawud: 570]
  • praying in Masjid Haraam and Masjid Nabawi [Muslim: 2812]

Best of Fasts:

  • fasting like Dawud (AS): on alternate days [Bukhari: 5052]
  • fasting in Muharram, esp. on the 10th [Muslim: 2812]
  • fasting on the day of Arafah (9th of Dhul-Hijjah)

Best of Hajj:

  • that which has lots of talbiyah and sacrifice (of animals) [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1500]
  • that which has maximum dhikr/remembrance of Allah

Best of Sadaqah:

  • spending on your family [Muslim: 2357]
  • spending on your ride/friends in the Way of Allah (worship/knowledge/jihaad etc.) [Muslim: 2357]
  • giving presents to a friend [Musnad Ahmad: 4415]
  • making others happy, clothing them, feeding them, fulfilling their needs [Saheeh at-Targheeb wa at-Tarheeb: 2621] [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1494]
  • giving to the relative who dislikes/hurts you [Musnad Ahmad: 23530]
  • providing residence/shade/ride in Allah’s Way [Musnad Ahmad: 22321]
  • helping someone who is serving in the Way of Allah
  • gifting a milk-giving animal [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 2587]
  • providing drinking-water [Sunan an-Nasaai: 3665]
  • spending in health and fear of poverty [Bukhari: 2748]
  • spending but keeping some to yourself [Bukhari: 5355]
  • making peace between two people [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1448 & 2639]
  • paying off someone’s debt [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 2291]
  • feeding others [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1494]
  • relieving someone off their trouble/problem [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 2291]

Best of People:

  • those who praise Allah a lot (and appreciate good things) [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1584]
  • those who have beautiful character/akhlaaq [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1384]
  • those to whom Allah bestows a long age and they do maximum good deeds (tasbeeh, tahleel, takbeer) in it Musnad Ahmad: 1401 & 20480]
  • those who are soft-hearted (fearful of Allah and sincere) and truthful [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 948]
  • those who keep others safe from harm (from their hands and tongue) [Bukhari: 2786] [Musnad Ahmad: 15210]
  • those who do Jihaad with their wealth and life (time, strength, energy etc.) [Musnad Ahmad: 9723]
  • those who worship Allah and deal with people with ‘khayr’ (good) [Musnad Ahmad: 9723]
  • strong believers (physical/emotional strength) [Musnad Ahmad: 8839]
  • those who live among others and bear with patience the harm that people cause them [as-Sunan al-Kubra lil Baihaqi: 20669] [Saheeh al-Jami’ as-Sagheer lil Albani: 6651]

Best of Dhikr:

  • la ilaha illa Allah لا إله إلا الله  [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1497] [Musnad Ahmad: 21847]
  • subhan Allahi wa bi hamdihi سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ [Muslim: 7101]
  • subhan Allahi wal hamdu lillahi wa la ilaha illa Allah wa Allahu Akbar سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَلَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ [Musnad Ahmad: 16412]
  • la ilaha illa Allahu wahdahu la shareeka lahu lahu al-mulku wa lahu al-hamdu wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shay’in qadeer لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ [Muslim: 7018]
  • سبحان الله عدد ما خلق ، سبحان الله ملء ما خلق ، سبحان الله عدد ما في الأرض و السماء ، سبحان الله ملء ما في السماء و الأرض ، سبحان الله ملء ما خلق، سبحان الله عدد ما أحصى كتابه ، و سبحان الله ملء كل شيء [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 2578]
  • Alhamdulillah الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1497]

Best of Qur’an:

  • Surah al-Fatihah [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 1499]
  • Best ayah: Ayat-ul-Kursi [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 109]

Best of Ta’awwuz (Seeking Allah’s Protection):

  • Mu’awwizatayn: Surah al-Falaq and an-Naas [Musnad Ahmad: 17297]

Best of Days:

  • first 10 days of Dhul-Hijjah [Bukhari: 969]
  • 9th and 11th of Dhul-Hijjah [Saheeh Ibn Hibban: 2811] [Abu Dawud: 1765]
  • Friday [Musnad Ahmad: 7687]

Best Time of the Day:

  • last portion of the night (when Allah descends down to the lowest heaven) [as-Silsilah as-Saheehah: 551]
External links (resources):
Compiled from Dr. Farhat Hashmi’s lecture: Dhul-Hijjah (October 27th, ’11)
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