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Islamic Calendar & The Months of `Eid (Ahadith 1625 – 1632)

Bismillah.

The Islamic Calendar – Astronomy

In the Islamic calendar, each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal (crescent moon) shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. [Wikipedia]

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 130:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) mentioned Ramadan and said, “Do not fast unless you see the crescent (of Ramadan), and do not give up fasting till you see the crescent (of Shawwal), but if the sky is overcast (if you cannot see it), then act on estimation (i.e. count Sha’ban as 30 days).”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 131:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The month (can be) 29 nights (i.e. days), and do not fast till you see the moon, and if the sky is overcast, then complete Sha’ban as thirty days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 132:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The month is like this and this,” (at the same time he showed the fingers of both his hands thrice) and left out one thumb on the third time.


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 133:

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) or Abu-l-Qasim said, “Start fasting on seeing the crescent (of Ramadan), and give up fasting on seeing the crescent (of Shawwal), and if the sky is overcast (and you cannot see it), complete thirty days of Sha’ban.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 134:

Narrated Um Salama (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) vowed to keep aloof from his wives for a period of one month, and after the completion of 29 days he went either in the morning or in the afternoon to his wives. Someone said to him “You vowed that you would not go to your wives for one month.” He replied, “The month is of 29 days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 135:

Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) vowed to keep aloof from his wives for one month, and he had dislocation of his leg. So, he stayed in a Mashruba for 29 nights and then came down. Some people said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! You vowed to stay aloof for one month,” He replied, “The month is of 29 days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 136:

Narrated Abu Bakra (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The two months of ‘Id i.e. Ramadan and Dhul-Hijja, do not decrease (in superiority).”

This has been interpreted in two ways by the scholars:

  1. the two months of Eid (Ramadan and Dhul Hijjah) do not decrease in number (in the same year). For example, if this year, Ramadan is 29 days, then Dhul Hijjah will definitely be 30. And if Dhul Hijjah is 29, then Ramadan will be 30. Both cannot be 29 simultaneously.
    This does not have to be the case each time. This is why the second opinion is preferred and more correct. Allah knows best.
  2. these two months do not decrease in superiority. Even if the number decreases to 29, the reward of the people who do good in these two months will not be decreased. :)

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 137:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We are an illiterate nation; we neither write, nor know accounts. The month is like this and this, i.e. sometimes of 29 days and sometimes of thirty days.”

Eating from the Slaughtered Animal’s Meat (Ahadith 1477 – 1478)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 777:

Narrated Ibn Juraij:

‘Ata’ said, “I heard Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, ‘We never ate the meat of the Budn for more than three days of Mina. Later, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave us permission by saying: ‘Eat and take (meat) with you. So we ate (some) and took (some) with us.’ ” I asked ‘Ata’, “Did Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) say (that they went on eating the meat) till they reached Medina?” ‘Ata’ replied, “No.”


Volume 2, Book 26, Number 778:

Narrated ‘Amra:

I heard ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) saying, “We set out (from Medina) along with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) five days before the end of Dhul-Qa’da with the intention of performing Hajj only. When we approached Mecca, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered those who had no Hadi along with them to finish the lhram after performing Tawaf of the Ka’ba, (Safa and Marwa). ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) added, “Beef was brought to us on the Day of Nahr and I said, ‘What is this?’ Somebody said, ‘The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) has slaughtered (cows) on behalf of his wives.’ “

This Hadith has been discussed before as well. Read it here.

Both these Ahadith give evidence that it’s okay to eat from the animal you sacrifice. Rather, it’s Sunnah. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) encouraged companions to do so (as in the first Hadith), and sent some for his wives (as in the second Hadith). So eat from the meat whenever an animal is sacrificed (Eid/aqeeqah/Hajj etc.).

Slaughter the Animals for Sacrifice Yourself (Hadith No. 1470)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 770:

Narrated Sahl bin Bakkar:

The narration of Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) abridged, saying, “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) slaughtered seven Budn (camels) while standing, with his own hands. On the day of ‘Id-ul-Adha he slaughtered (sacrificed) two horned rams, black and white in color.

  1. It’s Sunnah to slaughter your animal of sacrifice yourself. If you don’t want to do the whole thing, at least slit the throat (for goat/sheep/cow etc.).
  2. Although one sheep (or 1/7th of a cow or camel) is enough for one man and his family, there’s no limit to the maximum amount of animals you may slaughter. The more, the better. Keep some for yourself and your family, and give the rest as sadaqah. More on it here.
  3. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was so strong mashaAllah! Imagine slaughtering seven camels in one go. :O
    It takes a lot of strength! You’d know if you’ve seen a camel being slaughtered. If not, YouTube/Google it.

Zakaat-ul-Fitr (Ahadith 1279 – 1288)

Bismillah.

Kitaab Zakaat-ul-Fitr [Book of Obligatory Charity Tax After Ramadaan] starts (and ends) today..

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 579:

Narrated Ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) enjoined the payment of one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr on every Muslim slave or free, male or female, young or old, and he ordered that it be paid before the people went out to offer the ‘Id prayer. (One Sa’ = 3 Kilograms approx.)

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 580:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) made it incumbent on all the slave or free Muslims, male or female, to pay one Sa’ of dates or barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 581:

Narrated Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu):

We used to give one Sa’ of barley as Sadaqatul-Fitr (per head).

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 582:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):

We used to give one Sa’ of meal or one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of dates, or one Sa’ of cottage cheese or one Sa’ of Raisins (dried grapes) as Zakat-ul-Fitr.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 583:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered (Muslims) to give one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley as Zakat-ul-Fitr. The people rewarded two Mudds of wheat as equal to that.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 584:

Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):

In the life-time of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) we used to give one Sa’ of food or one Sa’ of dates or one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of Raisins (dried grapes) as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr. And when Muawiya (radiallaahu `anhu) became the Caliph and the wheat was (available in abundance) he said, “I think (observe) that one Mudd (of wheat) equals two Mudds (of any of the above mentioned things).

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 585:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered the people to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr before going to the ‘Id prayer.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 586:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):

In the life-time of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), we used to give one Sa’ of food (edible things) as Sadaqat-ul-Fit,r (to the poor). Our food used to be either of barley, raisins (dried grapes), cottage cheese or dates.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 587:

Narrated Nafi’ (radiallaahu `anhu):

Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) made incumbent on every male or female, free man or slave, the payment of one Sa’ of dates or barley as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr (or said Sadaqa-Ramadan).” The people then substituted half Sa’ of wheat for that. Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) used to give dates (as Sadaqat-ulFitr). Once there was scarcity of dates in Medina and Ibn ‘Umar gave barley. ‘And Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) used to give Sadaqat-ul-Fitr for every young and old person. He even used to give on behalf of my children. Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) used to give Sadaqatul-Fitr to those who had been officially appointed for its collection. People used to give Sadaqat-ul-Fitr (even) a day or two before the ‘Id.

Volume 2, Book 25, Number 588:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) has made Sadaqatul-Fitr obligatory, (and it was), either one Sa’ of barley or one Sa’ of dates (and its payment was obligatory) on young and old people, and on free men as well as on slaves.

Details here.

Fasting on Eid + 3 (Hadith No. 987)

Bismillah.

This is the last Hadith from Kitaab-ut-Tahajjud [Book of Night Prayer].

Volume 2, Book 21, Number 288:

Narrated Qaza’a Maula (freed slave of Ziyad):

I heard Abu Saeed Al-Khudri narrating four things from the Prophet and I appreciated them very much. He said, conveying the words of the Prophet:

(1) “A woman should not go on a two-day journey except with her husband or a Dhi-Mahram.

(2) No fasting is permissible on two days: ‘Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha.

(3) No prayer after two prayers, i.e. after the Fajr prayer till the sunrises and after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets.

(4) Do not prepare yourself for a journey except to three Mosques, i.e. Al-Masjid-Al-Haram, the Mosque of Aqsa (Jerusalem) and my Mosque.”

1. Travelling of a Woman:

The saheeh Sunnah indicates that it is not permissible for a woman to travel except with a mahram. This travelling is not defined by a specific distance, as is the case with shortening the prayers or breaking the fast, rather everything that is called travelling, whether it is long or short, is not permitted for a woman unless she has a mahram with her.

Al-Bukhaari (1729) and Muslim (2391) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel except with a mahram.”

The fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that it is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram, except in a few exceptional cases, such as travelling for the obligatory Hajj, for which some of them have permitted a women to travel with trustworthy companions. Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: al-Baghawi said: They did not differ concerning the fact that a woman may not travel for anything but the obligatory Hajj except with a husband or mahram, except a kaafir woman who becomes Muslim in daar al-harb or a female captive who escapes. Others added: or a woman who becomes separated from her group and is found by a trustworthy man, in which case it is permissible for him to accompany her until he brings her back to her group. End quote from Fath al-Baari (4/76).

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Saheeh Muslim, explaining that travel in this case is not defined by a specific distance:

Everything that is called travelling, it is forbidden for a woman to do without her husband or a mahram, whether it is three days, two days or one day, or anything else, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas, according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel without a mahram.” This includes everything that is called travel. And Allaah knows best.

End quote.

And it says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (17/339): It is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram in all cases, whether the journey is long or short. End quote.

Based on this, if going from your city to this place is regarded as travelling according to the people’s customs, then it is not permissible for you to go there without a mahram. If it is not regarded as travelling according to custom then there is nothing wrong with you going there without a mahram.

The fact that the route is filled with cities, schools and farms does not alter this ruling.

[Taken from IslamQA]

We hear and we obey. :)

2. Fasting on Eid

Yes, it’s prohibited. Check out this link to find out more about the categories of fasts: obligatory, encouraged, disliked, forbidden and permissible.

3. Forbidden to Pray

he definition of times when voluntary prayer is forbidden varies from one country to another, and from one season to another. Hence we cannot explain what these times are by the clock for all lands and in all seasons. But we will explain the general principles which will make it easy for every Muslim to work out when these times are. Hence we say that the times when prayer is forbidden are three:

  1. From when dawn breaks until approximately a quarter of an hour after the sun has risen. You can find out the time of sunrise from the timetables that are available in all countries.
  2. Approximately a quarter of an hour before the time for Zuhr prayer begins, until the time for Zuhr begins.
  3. After you have prayed ‘Asr – even if it is an hour after the time for it began – until the disk of the sun has set completely. So the beginning of the time when prayer is forbidden is when one has prayed ‘Asr, not the beginning of the time for ‘Asr prayer, because the Muslim may offer ‘Asr prayer some time after the time for it begins. In that case the Muslim may offer voluntary prayers so long as he has not yet prayed ‘Asr, even if the time for ‘Asr has begun. Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (1/429): We do not know of any difference of opinion concerning that among those who say that prayer is not allowed after ‘Asr. End quote.

The evidence for these times is mentioned in several ahaadeeth, among the clearest and most comprehensive of which is the lengthy hadeeth which was narrated by Imam Muslim in his Saheeh (832) from ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah (may Allaah be pleased with him), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him: “Pray Fajr, then refrain from praying until the sun has risen and become high, for when it rises, it rises between the horns of the Shaytaan and at that time the kuffaar prostrate to it. Then pray, for the prayer is witnessed and attended until the shadow of a spear falls directly north (i.e., noon). Then refrain from praying, for at that time Hell is stoked up. Then when the shadow moves forward, pray, for the prayer is witnessed and attended, until you have prayed ‘Asr. Then refrain from praying until the sun has set, for it sets between the horns of the Shaytaan and at that time the kuffaar prostrate to it.”

We should point out that what is forbidden is prayer that is purely voluntary at these times. As for prayers for which there is a reason, such as “greeting the mosque” (tahiyyat al-masjid) or the two rak’ahs after wudoo’ or the two rak’ahs after tawaaf and so on, they may be offered at any time according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions.

[Taken from IslamQA]

4. The 3 Special Mosques

Read this post.

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