The Chicken Boycott (Hadith No. 2758)
Hadith no. 2757 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 360 :
Narrated by Marwan bin Al-Hakim and Miswar bin Makhrama (radiallaahu `anhumaa)
When the Hawazin delegation came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) after they had embraced Islam and requested him to return their properties and war prisoners to them, Allah’s Apostle said, “To me the best talk is the truest, so you may choose either of two things; the war prisoners or the wealth, for I have delayed their distribution.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had waited for them for over ten days when he returned from Ta’if. So, when those people came to know that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was not going to return to them except one of the two things the said, “We choose our war Prisoners ‘Allah’s Apostle stood up amongst the Muslims, and after glorifying Allah as He deserved, he said, “Now then, these brothers of yours have come to us with repentance, and I see it logical that I should return their captives to them, so whoever of you likes to do that as a favor then he can do it, and whoever amongst you likes to stick to his share, let him give up his prisoners and we will compensate him from the very first Fai’ (i.e. war booty received without fight) which Allah will give us.” On that, all the people said. ‘O Allah’s Apostle! We have agreed willingly to do so (return the captives)” Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to them “I do not know who amongst you has agreed to this and who has not. You should return and let your leaders inform me of your agreement.” The people returned and their leaders spoke to them, and then came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “All the people have agreed willingly to do so and have given the permission to return the war prisoners (without Compensation)” (Az-Zuhri, the sub-narrator states) This is what has been related to us about the captives of Hawazin.
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 361 :
Narrated by Zahdam
Once we were in the house of Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu) who presented a meal containing cooked chicken. A man from the tribe of Bani Taim Allah with red complexion as if he were from the Byzantine war prisoners, was present. Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu) invited him to share the meal but he (apologised) saying. “I saw chickens eating dirty things and so I have had a strong aversion to eating them, and have taken an oath that I will not eat chickens.” Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Come along, I will tell you about this matter (i.e. how to cancel one’s oat ). I went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in the company of a group of Al-Ashariyin, asked him to provide us with means of conveyance. He said, ‘By Allah, I will not provide you with any means of conveyance and I have nothing to make you ride on.’ Then some camels as booty were brought to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he asked for us saying. ‘Where are the group of Al-Ash’ariyun?’ Then he ordered that we should be given five camels with white humps. When we set out we said, ‘What have we done? We will never be blessed (with what we have been given).’ So, we returned to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, ‘We asked you to provide us with means of conveyance, but you took an oath that you would not provide us with any means of conveyance. Did you forget (your oath when you gave us the camels)? He replied. ‘I have not provided you with means of conveyance, but Allah has provided you with it, and by Allah, Allah willing, if ever I take an oath to do something, and later on I find that it is more beneficial to do something different, I will do the thing which is better, and give expiation for my oath.”
Read this hadith in Arabic here.
We’ve had a couple of posts based on oaths and vows before, discussing their types and rulings etc. But I wanted to do this hadith in a separate post since I, personally, can relate to this very well. About 5 years ago, I also decided not to eat chicken because of their unnatural feed and lifestyle in general. I don’t remember exactly how long I stayed away from eating it, but it was definitely more than 6-7 months. My friends had to include non-chicken dishes in their menu if I was on the guest list. Yup, it was that bad! Anyhow, when I broke my ‘vow’, I simply just ate chicken.. I did not offer any expiation for it because there was no need. When you take an oath to not do something and find out later that doing something else is more beneficial, you simply choose to do the latter, according to the above statement of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).
So what was my ‘more beneficial something’? Go to town on KFC? (Ew!) Actually, it’s more to do with supporting local and organic chicken. Seriously, if you were to see the size of chickens available in the market (at least in Canada!) today, you would not be able to differentiate it from a turkey! La hawla wala quwwata illaa billah! I mean, what DO they feed them?!
What’s your take on this?
The Story of Ka’b ibn Malik’s (radiallaahu `anhu) Repentance (Hadith No. 2413)
Ahadith 2410 – 2412 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.
Volume 4, Book 51, Number 17 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw a man driving a Badana (i.e. camel for sacrifice) and said to him, “Ride on it.” The man said, “O Allah’s Apostle! It is a Badana.” (The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) repeated his order) and on the third or fourth time he said, “Ride it, “woe to you!” (or said: “May Allah be merciful to you).”
Volume 4, Book 51, Number 18 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw a man driving a Badana and said to him, “Ride on it,” and on the second or the third time he added, “Woe to you.”
Volume 4, Book 51, Number 19 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The mother of Sad bin ‘Ubada (radiallaahu `anhu) died in his absence. He said, “O Allah’s Apostle! My mother died in my absence; will it be of any benefit for her if I give Sadaqa on her behalf?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Yes,” Sad (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I make you a witness that I gave my garden called Al Makhraf in charity on her behalf.”
Volume 4, Book 51, Number 20 :
Narrated by Kab bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! For the acceptance of my repentance I wish to give all my property in charity for Allah’s sake through His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” He said, “It is better for you to keep some of the property for yourself.” I said, “Then I will keep my share in Khaibar.”
The story of Ka’b’s (radiallaahu `anhu) repentance is most beautiful. He narrated it in his own words to his son who then narrated it further, and it’s recorded in Bukhari and Muslim. We’ll come to the story after this point: it is mustahabb (liked) to give charity after committing a sin (and repenting).
It was narrated that Ka‘b ibn ‘Ajrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said to me:
“Charity extinguishes sin as water extinguishes fire.”
Al-Tirmidhi (614); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Sunan al-Tirmidhi.
The Story of Ka’b’s (radiallaahu `anhu) Repentance
After the Conquest of Makkah, Caeser – Ruler of Byzantium, which was considered the greatest military force on earth at the time – could no longer turn a blind eye to the activities of the Muslims. He was anxiously aware of the Arab tribes’ expectations of independence, and their hopes of getting free from his reign and influence. They could not ignore the alliance of the Arab tribes on his borders to the Muslims. So he concluded that the demolition of the Muslims’ power had grown an urgent necessity. This decision of his should, in his opinion, be achieved before the Muslims become too powerful to conquer, and raise troubles and unrest in the adjacent Arab territories. Thus, Caeser raised a huge army of Byzantine and pro-Roman Ghassanide tribes to launch a decisive bloody battle against the Muslims. News of this army reached the Muslims and much fear spread in their hearts. After much deliberating on the situation, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made up his mind and ordered his companions to prepare for war. No sooner had the Muslims heard the voice of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam calling them to fight the Byzantines, than they rushed to comply with his orders. Almost all the Muslims responded positively. Only those who had weakness in their hearts favoured to stay behind. They were only three people. Their story is told below:
Due to its particular circumstances, this invasion was a particularly severe trial provided by Allah only to try the believers’ faith and sort them out from the others. This is Allah’s permanent Will in such circumstances. In this respect He says:
“Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are in now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good … “[Al-Qur’an 3:179]
Lagging behind and hanging back from full participation in that invasion amounted to a degree of hypocrisy. Whenever the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was informed of a man’s lingering, he would say: “Leave him alone! If Allah knows him to be good, He will enable him to follow you; but if he were not so, Allah would relieve us of him.”
Nobody stayed behind except those who were either hindered by a serious excuse or the hypocrites who told lies to Allah and His Messenger. Some of those hypocrites’ lingering was due to an excuse based on forgery and delusion. Some others tarried, but didn’t ask for instant permission. But there were three believers who unjustifiably lingered. They were the ones whose faith Allah tried, but later He returned to them in Mercy and accepted their repentance. One of the believers’ stories is recorded in an authentic hadeeth:
It has been related by ‘Abdullah ibn Ka’ab ibn Malik, who became Ka’ab’s guide from amongst his children – when he became blind. He said: I heard Ka’ab ibn Malik speaking about the incident concerning his non-participation during the Battle of Tabuk. Ka’ab said:
“I was not absent from the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during any campaign that he fought in, except the Battle of Tabuk. Nevertheless, I was absent from the Battle of Badr. However, no individual was admonished for non-participation. Indeed, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam departed in search of a caravan of the Quraysh, thereafter certain events took place until Allah assembled the two armies unexpectedly. Verily, I witnessed the night of Al-‘Aqabah (the Pledge) with the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the night wherein we pledged our allegiance to Islam. Furthermore I would not exchange it for participation in the Battle of Badr, regardless of the fact that the Battle of Badr is deemed more noteworthy amongst the people. In relation to my news: I had never before been stronger nor wealthier than at the time I remained behind the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during that campaign. By Allah – I had never before been in possession of two she-camels, until the time of the battle.”
The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would conceal his intention to embark upon a military expedition by making reference to other campaigns, until the time for that expedition arrived.
The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam conducted that expedition during a season of extreme heat, undertaking a lengthy journey through desert terrain. In addition, the enemy was great in number. Thus, the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, clarified the matter to the Muslims, in order that they prepare themselves adequately for their campaign, and he informed them of their intended destination. The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was accompanied by a considerable number of Muslims, whose names could not be recorded in a book. Ka’ab continued:
“Any individual who wished to remain absent would assume that his absence would pass unnoticed, unless it was revealed by Allah by means of Divine Revelation. The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam undertook that expedition during a season wherein the fruit had ripened and the shade had become pleasant.
“The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Muslims equipped themselves with the necessary provisions. I too departed in order to prepare myself, however I returned without accomplishing anything. I would say to myself: I am able to prepare myself. Hence, I continued to postpone my preparations. However the people occupied themselves in earnest with the journey, until the day arrived wherein the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Muslims proceeded to depart. However I had not completed any part of my preparations. I said to myself: I shall prepare myself in one or two days after his departure, and then I will join them.
“The morning after their departure, I set out in order to equip myself. However, I returned without completing anything. The following morning, I set out again, nevertheless, but I returned without accomplishing anything. This continued until they hastened towards the battle, and the campaign had passed by. Nevertheless, I intended to depart and reach them, would that I had done so! However, I was not destined to do that.
“After the departure of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam I would enter amongst the people and it would become a cause of sadness for me. For I did not see except the one suspected of being a hypocrite, or the weak and infirm whom Allah had excused from participation.
“The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not remember me until he arrived in Tabuk. He was sitting amongst his people in Tabuk and asked, ‘What happened to Ka’ab?’ A man from amongst the tribe of Bani Salimah responded: ‘O Messenger of Allah, he was hindered by his garments and pleasure for his clothes and his self.’
“Mu’adh ibn Jabal said: ‘What a wretched statement you have uttered. O Messenger of Allah, we do not know of him save goodness.’
“Hence, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam became silent. Whilst he was in that position, he saw a man clothed in a white garment real in essence (not merely a desert mirage). The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: ‘May it be Abu Khaythama al-Ansari, he was the one who donated a measure of dates when the Munafiqin (Hypocrites) defamed him.’ “
Ka’ab ibn Malik continued:
“When I learned that he had turned in order to return, I was consumed by distress, and started therefore to invent lies. I started to question myself: With what can I avoid his anger tomorrow? I sought assistance from every individual of sound mind and judgment from amongst my family.
“When it was mentioned that the Messenger of Allah’s sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam arrival was imminent, the false excuses vanished from my mind. I recognized that I could not liberate myself from this predicament by means of falsehood. I therefore resolved to speak the truth.
“The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam arrived the following morning. It was a practice of the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that upon returning from a journey, he would proceed towards the Mosque and perform a two rak’ah prayer therein, and then sit amongst the people. After those matters had taken place, the absentees approached him. They started to present their excuses and take oaths to that effect. There were over eighty men in number. The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallamaccepted their excuses, their oaths, and sought forgiveness on their behalf. In addition, he entrusted unto Allah their secret affairs. Thereafter I approached him, and conveyed the greeting upon him. He smiled – the smile of the one enraged. Then he said: ‘Come forward.’ I therefore approached him walking until I was sitting before him. Then he said: ‘What prevented you from accompanying us? Had you not purchased a riding animal?’
“I responded: ‘Of course O Messenger of Allah. However, by Allah, if I was in the presence of any other man from amongst the inhabitants of this World, I would avoid His wrath by presenting an excuse for I have been granted the ability to speak in an eloquently persuasive manner. However, I am aware that if I utter a lie today in order to seek your pleasure, certainly Allah will cause you to become enraged with me in the future. Alternatively, if I inform you of the truth, thereby causing you to become angry, I may nevertheless hope for Allah’s Pardon. No, By Allah I have no excuse to present. I had never before been stronger nor wealthier than during the time I neglected to accompany you.’
“The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied: ‘In relation to this man – he has spoken the truth. Therefore, stand until Allah pronounces judgment in this matter.’ I therefore stood, a group of men from the tribe of Bani Salimah became disorderly and started following me. They addressed me: ‘By Allah – we have not known you to commit a misdeed. Verily you erred in not excusing yourself before the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in a similar manner to the other absentees who excused themselves. The Messenger of Allah’s sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam action of seeking forgiveness for your misdeed would have been sufficient for you.’ They continued to reprimand me until I desired to return to the Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and fabricate a lie against myself (contradict my story).
“However I questioned them, ‘Is there any other individual in a similar position?’ They responded, ‘Yes, there are two men who uttered the same statement as you and both received the same directive as you did. ‘I asked: ‘Who are these two men?’ They answered: ‘Murarah ibn al-Rabi’ and Hilal ibn Umayyah al-Waqifi.’
“By their statement, they had made reference to two virtuous men who had participated in the Battle of Badr, and were examples to be followed. After they had mentioned these two men I remained steadfast upon my original statement.
“Thereafter, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited the Muslims from speaking to us – namely the three individuals from amongst us who had neglected to accompany him.
“As a consequence the people avoided us and altered their conduct towards us, until the land wherein I lived appeared foreign, not one which I was familiar with. We remained in that state for a period of fifty nights. In relation to my companions – they surrendered themselves to their houses and remained seated therein, weeping. However, I was the youngest and most forbearing of the three, I would therefore exit the house in order to perform the prayer with the other Muslims.
“I would wander around the markets, yet no one would speak to me. I would approach the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and convey the greeting upon him whilst he was sitting amidst his gatherings, which took place upon completion of the prayer. I would question myself: Did his lips move in the act of reciprocating the greeting upon me or not? Thereafter, I would perform the prayer close by him, and look towards him in a surreptitious manner. When I occupied myself with the prayer, he would turn towards me. However, when I looked in his direction, he would avoid me. When this period of estrangement lengthened, I set out to walk until I climbed upon the wall of Abu Qatadah’s garden. He was my cousin and amongst the most beloved of people to me. I conveyed the greeting upon him, and by Allah – he did not reciprocate the greeting upon me. Hence, I said: ‘O Abu Qatadah: I implore you by Allah, are you aware that I love Allah and His Messenger?’ He remained silent. I appealed to him by Allah a second time, however he remained silent. Then he responded: ‘Allah and His Messenger sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are greater in knowledge.’ Thereupon tears flowed from my eyes, I turned away and climbed over the wall.”
“Whilst I was walking in the market in Madinah I saw a Christian farmer from amongst the farmers of Sham, who had traveled to Madinah in order to sell their produce. He said: ‘Who shall direct me to towards Ka’ab bin Malik?’ The people started to gesture towards me, until he approached me and presented me with a letter from the King of Ghassan, in which it was written:
‘To proceed, it has come to our attention that your companion has dealt with you in a harsh manner. Allah has not rendered this world for you as a dwelling of disgrace and degradation, nor one of loss and ruin. So join us and we shall bestow upon you comfort and consolation.’
“Upon reading the letter I said to myself: This too is a trial placed before me. I therefore placed the letter in the oven and created a fire by burning it therein.
“When a period of forty out of fifty nights had passed, the messenger of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallamapproached me and said: ‘The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commands you to distance yourself from your wife.’ I said: ‘Should I divorce her, or what must I do?’ He responded: ‘No, distance yourself from her and do not approach her. The Prophetsallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has issued a similar directive to your two companions.’ Hence, I said to my wife:
‘Go to your parents and remain with them until Allah passes judgment in this matter.’ “
“The wife of Hilal ibn Umayyah came to the Apostle of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, verily Hilal bin Umayyah is an elderly man who is incapable of taking care of himself. Furthermore, he is not in possession of a servant, would you therefore object if I was to serve him?’ He responded: ‘No, but he must not approach you.’ She said: ‘By Allah, he has no desire for any matter. By Allah, he has not ceased to weep from the day this matter started until this time now.’ Some of my family members questioned me: ‘Why don’t you seek permission from the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concerning your wife, as he has granted permission for the wife of Hilal bin Umayyah to serve him?’ I responded: ‘By Allah, I shall not seek permission from the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concerning her. I am not aware of what the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would say if I sought his permission in relation to her whilst I am still a young man.’ I remained in that state for an additional ten nights, until fifty nights had been completed from the point that he had prohibited the people from speaking to us.
“On the morning of the fiftieth night, I performed the Fajr prayer upon the roof of one of our houses. I was experiencing a condition which Allah had mentioned in the Book:
‘My soul had become contracted, and the earth had contracted upon me despite its vastness.’
“Suddenly I heard a clear voice emanating from the direction of Mount Safa. Somebody announced with his loudest voice: ‘O Ka’ab bin Malik, I confer upon you glad tidings!’ I prostrated myself upon the ground. I realized that relief from this tribulation had arrived and that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had indicated that Allah had granted us penitence. After the Fajr prayer, the people thereupon proceeded forth to congratulate us, and bearers of glad tidings departed to my two companions. A horseman raced towards me in order to congratulate me and a messenger from the tribe of Aslam raced towards the mountain and scaled it in order to make the announcement. I heard his voice before that of the horseman. When the individual whose voice I had heard approached me to convey the glad tidings, I removed my garments and clothed him in them. By Allah, on that day I was not in possession of any other garments, I therefore borrowed two items, clothed myself and proceeded towards the Messenger of Allahsallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. People started receiving me in groups, congratulating me upon the acceptance of my penitence. They said: ‘We congratulate you upon Allah’s acceptance of your repentance.’ When I entered the Mosque, the Messenger of Allahsallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was sitting, surrounded by people. Talhah ibn ‘Ubaydullah hastened towards me. He shook my hand, and congratulated me. By Allah, no one from amongst the Muhajirin (Emigrants) stood in order to greet me save him, and I shall never forget Talhah’s action in doing so.
“When I greeted the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his face was radiant with happiness, and he said: ‘I give you the glad tidings of the best day you have witnessed since your mother gave birth to you.’ I asked, ipation in that invasion amounted to a degree of hypocri’Is this from you or from Allah?’ He responded, ‘It is from Allah.’
“Whenever the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam became delighted, his face became illuminated until it resembled a piece of the moon. We recognized that this matter was characteristic of him. When I sat before him, I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, by virtue of the acceptance of my repentance, I shall donate the sum total of my wealth in charity for the sake of Allah and His Messenger.’ The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam responded: ‘Retain a portion of your wealth, for it is better for you to do so.’ I said: ‘I shall retain a portion of my wealth in Khaybar. O Messenger of Allah, verily Allah has delivered me from this tribulation because I spoke the truth. My penitence therefore dictates that I shall speak only the truth as long as I live.’
“By Allah, I am not aware of any individual from amongst the Muslims whom Allah has blessed for speaking the truth more than myself, from the time wherein I mentioned those words of truth to the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. In addition, I have never intended to utter a falsehood from the time wherein I mentioned those words of truth to the Messenger of Allahsallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the present day. Furthermore, I hope that Allah will protect me from uttering falsehood during the remaining portion of my life. Allah revealed the Verse to His Messenger:
“Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirin, and the Ansar … be with those who are truthful … “ [Al-Qur’an 9:117-119]
“By Allah, after guiding me to Islam, Allah has not bestowed upon me a favour – greater in magnitude – than my statement of truth to the Apostle of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and my action of not uttering a lie to him. For I would have destroyed myself, as those who uttered lies were destroyed. Allah ascribed to those who had uttered falsehood, a description more evil than he had ascribed to any other individual, when He revealed His Revelation. Allah, Blessed be He, the Most High stated:
‘They will swear by Allah to you when you return to them, that you may turn away from them. So turn away from them. Surely, they are impure, and Hell is their dwelling place – a recompense for that which they used to earn. They (the hypocrites) swear to you (Muslims) that you may be pleased with them, but if you are pleased with them, certainly Allah is not pleased with people who are rebellious.’ [Al-Qur’an 9:95-96]“
“We, the three who neglected to participate, differed from those whose excuses were accepted by the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when they swore to him to that effect. He accepted their pledge of allegiance and sought forgiveness for them. However, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam deferred our case until Allah passed judgment in relation to it. With reference to that, Allah said: ‘He also forgave the three who remained behind … ‘ [Qur’an 9:118]
“In this Verse Allah did not refer to our non-participation in the military expedition. However it refers to the postponement and deferment of the Messenger sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the act of passing judgment. In contrast to the one who took an oath before him and excused himself: an action which was accepted by the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”
In a different narration: The Prophet sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam departed for the Battle of Tabuk on Thursday, he would love to set out on a Thursday. In a further narration: He would not return from a journey save during the day time before noon. Upon arrival, he would proceed towards the Mosque and perform a two rak’ah prayer. Thereafter, he would sit.” [Collected: Bukhari (4418), Kitab al-Maghazi, and Muslim (2769), Kitab at-Tawbah]
Intercourse while Fasting (Ahadith 1651 – 1653)
Hadith no. 1650 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 155:
I saw ‘Uthman (radiallaahu `anhu) performing ablution; he washed his hands thrice, rinsed his mouth and then washed his nose, by putting water in it and then blowing it out, and washed his face thrice, and then washed his right forearm up to the elbow thrice, and then the left-forearm up to the elbow thrice, then smeared his head with water, washed his right foot thrice, and then his left foot thrice and said, “I saw Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) performing ablution similar to my present ablution, and then he said, ‘Whoever performs ablution like my present ablution and then offers two Rakat in which he does not think of worldly things, all his previous sins will be forgiven.”
Intercourse while Fasting and its Expiation
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 156:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said that he had been burnt (ruined). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him what was the matter. He replied, “I had sexual intercourse with my wife in Ramadan (while I was fasting).” Then a basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he asked, “Where is the burnt (ruined) man?” He replied, “I am present.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told him to give that basket in charity (as expiation).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 157:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
While we were sitting with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) a man came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I have been ruined.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked what was the matter with him. He replied “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you afford to manumit a slave?” He replied in the negative. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He asked, “Where is the questioner?” He replied, “I (am here).” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity.” The man said, “Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina’s) two mountains who are poorer than I.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) smiled till his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, ‘Feed your family with it.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 158:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “I had sexual intercourse with my wife on Ramadan (while fasting).” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you afford to manumit a slave?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. He asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. (Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu) added): Then a basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he said (to that man), “Feed (poor people) with this by way of atonement.” He said, “(Should I feed it) to poorer people than we? There is no poorer house than ours between its (Medina’s) mountains.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Then feed your family with it.”
If a man has intercourse with his wife during the day in Ramadaan, each of them must offer expiation, which is freeing a Muslim slave. If they are unable to do that, then they must each fast for two consecutive months if she was willing. If they are unable to do that then they must feed sixty poor persons, each of them giving thirty saa’s of the local staple food, one saa’ for each poor person, half on behalf of the man and half on behalf of the woman, if they are unable to free a slave or fast. They also have to make up the fast for the day on which intercourse took place, and repent to Allaah and turn to Him, and regret it, and give it up, and ask for forgiveness, because intercourse during the day in Ramadan is a great evil and it is not permissible for anyone who is obliged to fast. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz (15/302).
Based on that, the amount of food that should be given to the poor person is half a saa’ of rice etc., i.e., approximately one and half kilograms.
Under which circumstances does the woman have to offer expiation? Read this for answer.
Fasting is an Expiation (Hadith No. 1614)
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 119:
Narrated Abu Wail from Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu):
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) asked the people, “Who remembers the narration of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about the affliction?” Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, ‘The affliction of a person in his property, family and neighbors is expiated by his prayers, fasting, and giving in charity.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I do not ask about that, but I ask about those afflictions which will spread like the waves of the sea.” Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “There is a closed gate in front of those afflictions.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) asked, “Will that gate be opened or broken?” He replied, “It will be broken.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Then the gate will not be closed again till the Day of Resurrection.” We said to Masruq, “Would you ask Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu) whether ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) knew what that gate symbolized?” He asked him and he replied “He (‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)) knew it as one knows that there will be night before tomorrow morning.
Talking about the first part of the Hadith, we know that one’s wealth and family is a trial as Allah says:
إِنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ
“Your wealth and your children are only a trial..” [At-Taghabun: 15]
We’re tested by our wealth in the ways we earn it and spend it, and family tests us for the amount of time we spend with them and the way we spend it. Also, we’re tested in our priorities – whether we put Allah before our loved ones or not..
Being human, we always falter. There are shortcomings no matter how hard we try. To make up for those, we can pray extra nawafil (voluntary prayers), keep nafil fasts and give more in charity as suggested by the Hadith above. In doing so, we’ll be offering expiation for our sins and faults committed when it came to wealth and family. InshaAllah.
Vows (Ahadith 1583 – 1585)
Hadith no. 1582 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 87:
Narrated Qaza’a, the slave of Ziyad:
Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu) who participated in twelve Ghazawat with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I heard four things from Allah’s Apostle (or I narrate them from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) which won my admiration and appreciation. They are:
1. “No lady should travel without her husband or without a Dhu-Mahram for a two-days’ journey.
2. No fasting is permissible on two days of ‘Id-al-Fitr, and ‘Id-al-Adha.
3. No prayer (may be offered) after two prayers: after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun set and after the morning prayer till the sun rises.
4. Not to travel (for visiting) except for three mosques: Masjid-al-Haram (in Mecca), my Mosque (in Medina), and Masjid-al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem).”
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 88:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw an old man walking, supported by his two sons, and asked about him. The people informed him that he had vowed to go on foot (to the Ka’ba). He said, “Allah is not in need of this old man’s torturing himself,” and ordered him to ride.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 89:
Narrated ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir (radiallaahu `anhu):
My sister vowed to go on foot to the Ka’ba, and she asked me to take the verdict of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it. So, I did and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “She should walk and also should ride.”
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 90:
Narrated Abu-l-Khair from ‘Uqba (radiallaahu `anhu) as above.
I’ve had to do a detailed study on this matter. Bear with me till the end please. I hope I’m able to make the reader understand the concept fully inshaAllah.
Vows are of two types:
- Conditional vows, in which the vow is dependent upon something happening, as when a person says, “If Allaah heals me, I will give such and such in charity, or I will fast such and such a number of days,” and so on.
- Unconditional vows (which are not connected to anything), such as saying, “I will fast such and such a number of days for Allaah.”
Both types of vows must be fulfilled, if what is vowed is to do an act of worship. (Because if it’s not, it’s impermissible to do it anyway.)
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Whoever vows to obey Allaah, let him obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Him let him not disobey Him.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6696.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) condemned those who made vows but did not fulfill them. Muslim (2535) narrated from ‘Imraan ibn Husayn that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
The best of you are my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.
‘Imraan said: I do not know whether the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “and those who follow them” two times or three.
Then after them will come people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, who will betray and not be trustworthy, who will make vows but not fulfill them, and fatness will appear among them.
One must do everything in his capacity to fulfill his vow. If he falls short, he has to offer kaffaarah as mentioned in Surah al-Maa’idah:
“Allaah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masaakeen (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families, or clothe them or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allaah makes clear to you His Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful.
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:
Whoever swears an oath then sees that something else is better than it, let him do that and offer expiation for his oath.
Narrated by Muslim, 1650
Exception/Difference of Opinion
The scholars have differed on this: if the vow entails extreme unnecessary hardship, should it still be fulfilled? The sound and more correct opinion is that it’s better to break that vow. And no expiation is to be offered for breaking (only) this kind of vow as the narrations above indicate. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not order that man to offer any expiation. He was only asked to break his vow since it was bringing unnecessary hardship.