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Of Honesty and Oaths (Ahadith 2331 – 2347)

Bismillah.

This post contains some repeated narrations and some new. Since they were all more or less related to one theme, I decided to combine them in post. Look for hyper-linked text to see previously covered ahadith.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 833 :
Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Bath on Friday is compulsory for those who have attained the age of puberty.”

This one’s more related to yesterday’s post, since it talks about puberty and things associated to it.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 834 :
Narrated by Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If somebody takes a false oath in order to get the property of a Muslim (unjustly) by that oath, then Allah will be angry with him when he will meet Him.” Al-Ash’ath (radiallaahu `anhu) informed me, “By Allah! This was said regarding me. There was a dispute about a piece of land between me and a man from the Jews who denied my right. I took him to the Prophet. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked me, ‘Do you have an evidence?’ I replied in the negative. He said to the Jew, ‘Take an oath.’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! He will surely take an oath and take my property unjustly.” So, Allah revealed: “Verily! Those who purchase a little gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant and their oaths . . . ” (3.77)

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 835 :
Narrated by Ibn Abu Mulaika
Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) wrote that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave his verdict on the basis of the defendant’s oath.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 836 :
Narrated by Abu Wail
Abdullah (bin Mas’ud) (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Whoever takes a (false) oath in order to grab some property (unjustly), Allah will be angry with him when he will meet Him. Allah confirmed that through His Divine Revelation: “Verily! Those who purchase a little gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant and their oaths . . . they will have a painful punishment.” (3.77) Al-Ash’ath bin Qais (radiallaahu `anhu) came to us and asked, ‘What is Abu Abdur-Rahman (i.e. ‘Abdullah) telling you? ‘We told him what he was narrating to us. He said, ‘He was telling the truth; this Divine Verse was revealed in connection with me. There was a dispute between me and another man about something and the case was filed before Allah’s Apostle who said, ‘Produce your two witnesses or else the defendant is to take an oath.’ I said, The defendant will surely take a (false) oath caring for nothing.’ The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Whoever takes a false oath in order to grab (other’s) property, then Allah will be angry with him when he will meet Him.’ Then Allah revealed its confirmation. Al-Ashath then recited the above Divine Verse.” (3.77)

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 837 :
Narrated by Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Hilal bin Umaiya accused his wife before the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) of committing illegal sexual intercourse with Sharik bin Sahma.’ The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Produce a proof, or else you would get the legal punishment (by being lashed) on your back.” Hilal said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! If anyone of us saw another man over his wife, would he go to search for a proof.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went on saying, “Produce a proof or else you would get the legal punishment (by being lashed) on your back.” The Prophet then mentioned the narration of Lian (as in the Holy Book). (Surat-al-Nur: 24)

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 838 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “There are three persons whom Allah will neither talk to nor look at, nor purify from (the sins), and they will have a painful punishment. (They are): (1) A man possessed superfluous water on a way and he withheld it from the travelers. (2) a man who gives a pledge of allegiance to a Muslim ruler and gives it only for worldly gains. If the ruler gives him what he wants, he remains obedient to It, otherwise he does not abide by it, and (3) a man bargains with another man after the Asr prayer and the latter takes a false oath in the Name of Allah) claiming that he has been offered so much for the thing and the former (believes him and) buys it.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 839 :
Narrated by Ibn Mas’ud (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever takes a (false) oath in order to grab (others) property, then Allah will be angry with him when he will meet Him.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 840 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked some people to take an oath, and they hurried for it. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered that lots should be drawn amongst them as to who would take an oath first.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 841 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Abu Aufa (radiallaahu `anhu)
A man displayed some goods in the market and took a false oath that he had been offered so much for them though he was not offered that amount Then the following Divine Verse was revealed:– “Verily! Those who purchase a little gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant and their oaths . . . Will get painful punishment.” (3.77) Ibn Abu Aufa added, “Such person as described above is a treacherous Riba-eater (i.e. eater of usury).

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 842 :
Narrated by Abu Wail from Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever takes a false oath in order to grab another man’s (or his brother’s) property, then Allah will be angry with him when he will meet him.” Then Allah confirmed this by revealing the Divine Verse: “Verily! Those who purchase a little gain at the cost of Allah’s Covenant and their oaths . . . Will get painful punishment.” (3.77) Al-Ash’ath met me and asked, “What did ‘Abdullah tell you today?” I said, “So and so.” He said, “The Verse was revealed regarding my case.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 843 :
Narrated by Talha bin ‘Ubaidullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
A man came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asking him about Islam, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “You have to offer five compulsory prayers in a day and a night (24 hours).” The man asked, “Is there any more compulsory prayers for me?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No, unless you like to offer Nawafil (i.e. optional prayers).” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then added, “You have to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan.” The man said, “Am I to fast any other days?’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No, unless you wish to observe the optional fast voluntarily.” Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told him about the compulsory Zakat. The man asked, “Do I have to give anything besides?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No, unless you wish to give in charity voluntarily.” So, the man departed saying, “By Allah I will neither do more nor less than that.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If he has said the truth he will be successful.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 844 :
Narrated by Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever has to take an oath should swear by Allah or remain silent.” (i.e. He should not swear by other than Allah.)

It is not permissible to swear by any created thing. One should swear only by Allaah. One should not say “By my honesty I will do such and such”, or “by the honesty of So and so”, or “by the life of So and so” or “by my prayer”. Nor should one ask anyone else to do this and tell them, “Say ‘by my honesty/by my prayer/ by my zakaah.’” There is no basis for any of this, because prayer is the action of a person and zakaah is the action of a person, and people’s actions are not something to swear by. One should swear only by Allaah or by His attributes. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever swears by anything other than Allaah has committed shirk.” (Narrated by Imaam Ahmad with a saheeh isnaad from ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him)). And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever swears by honesty is not one of us.” So every believing man and woman has to beware of that and not swear by anything except Allaah alone, so he should say “Wallaahi (by Allaah) I did not do such and such”, etc., if that is necessary. What is recommended in sharee’ah is to be cautious about swearing oaths, and not to swear except when essential. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much)”[al-Maa’idah 5:89]

Taken from IslamQA

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 845 :
Narrated by Um Salama (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “You people present your cases to me and some of you may be more eloquent and persuasive in presenting their argument. So, if I give some one’s right to another (wrongly) because of the latter’s (tricky) presentation of the case, I am really giving him a piece of fire; so he should not take it.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 846 :
Narrated by Abdullah bin Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Abu Sufyan (radiallaahu `anhu) told me that Heraclius said to him, “When I inquired you what he (i.e. Muhammad) ordered you, you replied that he ordered you to establish the prayer, to speak the truth, to be chaste, to keep promises and to pay back trusts.” Then Heraclius added, “These are really the qualities of a prophet.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 847 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The signs of a hypocrite are three: (1) whenever he speaks, he tells a lie, (2) whenever he is entrusted, he proves to be dishonest, (3) whenever he promises, he breaks his promise.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 848 :
Narrated by Muhammad bin Ali
Jabir bin Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) died, Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) received some property from Al-Ala bin Al-Hadrami. Abu Bakr said to the people, “Whoever has a money claim on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), or was promised something by him, should come to us (so that we may pay him his right).” Jabir added, “I said (to Abu Bakr), Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) promised me that he would give me this much, and this much, and this much (spreading his hands three times).” Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) added, “Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) counted for me and handed me five-hundred (gold pieces), and then five-hundred, and then five-hundred.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 849 :
Narrated by Said bin Jubair (radiallaahu `anhu)
A Jew from Hira asked me which one of the two periods Musa (i.e. Prophet Moses) (`alayhissalaam) completed. I said, “I don’t know, (but wait) till I see the most learned ‘Arab and inquire him about it.” So, I went to Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) and asked him. He replied, “Moses (`alayhissalaam) completed the longer and better period.” Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) added, “No doubt, an apostle of Allah always does what he says.”

This narration talks about the story when Musa fled from Egypt and came to Madyan.. helped two girls at the well and their father hired him.. he gave Musa two options: that he work for him for 8 or 10 years and the Quran doesn’t mention which tenure he completed.. So Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said that he completed the longer and better period – 10 years. Details in tafsir of Surah al-Qasas: 25 – 28.

It’s brought here because it shows how he was true to his word. #Honesty

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False Witness (Ahadith 2319 – 2320)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 821 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was asked about the great sins He said, “They are:- (1 ) To join others in worship with Allah, (2) To be undutiful to one’s parents. (3) To kill a person (which Allah has forbidden to kill) (i.e. to commit the crime of murdering). (4) And to give a false witness.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 822 :
Narrated by Abu Bakra (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said thrice, “Should I inform you out the greatest of the great sins?” They said, “Yes, O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)!” He said, “To join others in worship with Allah and to be undutiful to one’s parents.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then sat up after he had been reclining (on a pillow) and said, “And I warn you against giving a false witness”, and he kept on saying that warning till we thought he would not stop.

There’s mention of false witness in the Quran as well:

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ

“And [they are] those who do not testify to falsehood..” [Al-Furqan: 72]

Ibn Kathir comments:

These are further attributes of the servants of the Most Gracious. They do not bear witness to falsehood, including lies, immorality, disbelief, foul speech and false words…

“And those who do not bear witness to falsehood” refers to giving false testimony, which means lying deliberately to someone else…

From the context it seems that what is meant by those who do not bear witness to falsehood is those who do not attend it or are not present when it happens.

The above ayah talks about false witness, which is a major sin. Allah also talks about hiding witness/testimony in the Quran:

وَلَا تَكْتُمُوا الشَّهَادَةَ ۚ وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ آثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ

“And do not conceal testimony, for whoever conceals it – his heart is indeed sinful, and Allah is Knowing of what you do.” [Al-Baqarah: 283]

Ibn Kathir comments:

Allah’s statement,

﴿وَلاَ تَكْتُمُواْ الشَّهَـدَةَ﴾

(And conceal not the evidence) means, do not hide it or refuse to announce it. Ibn `Abbas and other scholars said, “False testimony is one of the worst of the major sins, and such is the case with hiding the true testimony.” This is why Allah said,

﴿وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ ءَاثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ﴾

(For he who hides it, surely, his heart is sinful).

As-Suddi commented, “Meaning he is a sinner in his heart.”

This is similar to Allah’s statement,

﴿وَلاَ نَكْتُمُ شَهَـدَةَ اللَّهِ إِنَّآ إِذَاً لَّمِنَ الاٌّثِمِينَ﴾

(We shall not hide testimony of Allah, for then indeed we should be of the sinful) ﴿5:106﴾.

Allah said,

﴿يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَآءِ للَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَى أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَلِدَيْنِ وَالاٌّقْرَبِينَ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيّاً أَوْ فَقَيراً فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَى بِهِمَا فَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ الْهَوَى أَن تَعْدِلُواْ وَإِن تَلْوُواْ أَوْ تُعْرِضُواْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً ﴾

(O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both (than you). So follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest you avoid justice; and if you distort your witness or refuse to give it, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do) ﴿ 4:135

P.S. We have talked previously about a similar subject: false oaths.

False Oath (Ahadith 2043 – 2044)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2042 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 545 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No blood money will be charged if somebody dies in a mine or in a well or is killed by an animal; and if somebody finds a treasure in his land he has to give one-fifth of it to the Government.”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 546 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah (bin Mas’ud) (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever takes a false oath to deprive somebody of his property will meet Allah while He will be angry with him.” Allah revealed: ‘Verily those who purchase a little gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant, and their oaths.’ (3.77)
Al-Ash’ath came (to the place where ‘Abdullah was narrating) and said, “What has Abu ‘Abdur-Rahman (i.e. Abdullah) been telling you? This verse was revealed concerning me. I had a well in the land of a cousin of mine. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked me to bring witnesses (to confirm my claim). I said, ‘I don’t have witnesses.’ He said, ‘Let the defendant take an oath then.’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! He will take a (false) oath immediately.’ Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) mentioned the above narration and Allah revealed the verse to confirm what he had said.”

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 547 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “There are three persons whom Allah will not look at on the Day of Resurrection, nor will he purify them and theirs shall be a severe punishment. They are: 1. A man possessed superfluous water, on a way and he withheld it from travelers. 2. A man who gave a pledge of allegiance to a ruler and he gave it only for worldly benefits. If the ruler gives him something he gets satisfied, and if the ruler withholds something from him, he gets dissatisfied. 3. And man displayed his goods for sale after the ‘Asr prayer and he said, ‘By Allah, except Whom None has the right to be worshipped, I have been given so much for my goods,’ and somebody believes him (and buys them).” The Prophet then recited: “Verily! Those who purchase a little gain at the cost of Allah’s Covenant and their oaths.” (3.77)

Both these ahadith talk about the same ayah:

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَشْتَرُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَأَيْمَـنِهِمْ ثَمَنًا قَلِيًلا أُوْلَـئِكَ لاَ خَلَاقَ لَهُمْ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ وَلاَ يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللَّهُ وَلاَ يَنظُرُ إِلَيْهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ وَلاَ يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴾

Verily, those who purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant and their oaths, they shall have no portion in the Hereafter (Paradise). Neither will Allah speak to them nor look at them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, and they shall have a painful torment. Quran 3:77]

Ibn Katheer records these narrations in the tafsir of this ayah as follows:

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Adi bin `Amirah Al-Kindi said, “Imru’ Al-Qays bin `Abis, a man from Kindah, disputed with a man from Hadramut in front of the Messenger of Allah concerning a piece of land. The Prophet required the man from Hadramut to present his evidence, but he did not have any. The Prophet required Imru’ Al-Qays to swear to his truthfulness, but the man from Hadramut said, `O Messenger of Allah! If you only require him to swear, then by the Lord of the Ka`bah (Allah), my land is lost.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

«مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلى يَمِينٍ كَاذِبَةٍ لِيَقْتَطِعَ بِهَا مَالَ أَحَدٍ، لَقِيَ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِ غَضْبَان»

(Whoever swears while lying to acquire the property of others, will meet Allah while He is angry with him.)” Raja’ one of the narrators of the Hadith, said that the Messenger of Allah then recited,

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَشْتَرُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَأَيْمَـنِهِمْ ثَمَنًا قَلِيًلا﴾

(Verily, those who purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant and their oaths…)

Imru’ Al-Qays said, `What if one forfeits this dispute, what will he gain, O Messenger of Allah’ The Prophet answered, `Paradise.’ Imru’ Al-Qays said, `Bear witness that I forfeit all the land for him.”’ An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith.

Another Hadith:

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلى يَمِينٍ هُوَ فِيهَا فَاجِرٌ، لِيَقْتَطِعَ بِهَا مَالَ امْرِى مُسْلِمٍ، لَقِيَ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِ غَضْبَان»

(Whoever takes a false oath to deprive a Muslim of his property will meet Allah while He is angry with him.)

Al-Ash`ath said, “By Allah! This verse was revealed concerning me. I owned some land with a Jewish man who denied my right, and I complained against him to the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet asked me, `Do you have evidence’ I said, `I don’t have evidence.’ He said to the Jew, `Take an oath then.’ I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! He will take a (false) oath immediately, and I will lose my property.’ Allah revealed the verse,

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَشْتَرُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَأَيْمَـنِهِمْ ثَمَنًا قَلِيًلا﴾

(Verily, those who purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant and their oaths…)”

The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith.

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