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Importance of Family System & Identity (Ahadith 3111 – 3112)

Bismillah.

The importance Islam places on family system and values is widely known. A family is the basic unit of a society and hence affects the latter directly. Strong family ties mean a strong society and so on. There are innumerable benefits of this strength; peace, unity, empathy, emotional stability, respect and improved health to name a few. Similarly, weakness in family ties and relationships reflect on the society as a whole. One would find chaos, selfishness, suffering relationships, trust issues etc. in such a community.

The following two ahadith are examples of how Islam enforces family system and one’s right to belong to their  family and to be known as their own father’s son/daughter. If someone intentionally tries to change the identity of a person, the consequences can be severe.

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 711 :
Narrated by Abu Dhar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If somebody claims to be the son of any other than his real father knowingly, he but disbelieves* in Allah, and if somebody claims to belong to some folk to whom he does not belong, let such a person take his place in the (Hell) Fire.”

*”Disbelief” (kufr) in Arabic is also used for ungratefulness.

Volume 4, Book 56, Number 712 :
Narrated by Wathila bin Al-Asqa (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Verily, one of the worst lies is to claim falsely to be the son of someone other than one’s real father, or to claim to have had a dream one has not had, or to attribute to me what I have not said.”

Changing one’s lineage is an example of this. In areas where the hierarchy of castes and tribes still exist, people try to “switch” to a superior one just for a higher social status and better connections. This is wrong. It can lead to multiple issues of identity, marriage and inheritance.

Takeaway from this? Know your father (and family by extension).

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Never Apart (Hadith No. 2765)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 368 :
Narrated by Jubair bin Mutim (radiallaahu `anhu)
I and ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan (radiallaahu `anhu) went to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! You have given to Bani Al-Muttalib and left us although they and we are of the same kinship to you.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Bani Muttalib and Bani Hashim are one and the same.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not give a share to Bani Abd Shams and Bani Naufal.
(Ibn Ishaq said, “Abd Shams and Hashim and Al-Muttalib were maternal brothers and their mother was ‘Atika bint Murra and Naufal was their paternal brother.)

eidLineage(shijra)

The image above shows the four sons of Abd Manaf: Al-Muttalib, Hashmi, Nawfal (paternal brother) and Abd Shams. Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) himself was from Hashim (as shown), Uthman ibn Affan (radiallaahu `anhu) was from Abd Shams and Jubair ibn Mut’im (radiallaahu `anhu) was from Nawfal.

When Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) distributed the khumus among Banu Muttalib and Banu Hashim and not the other two clans, Uthman and Jubair (radiallaahu `anhumaa) came to him with this concern – how come they got it and we didn’t when we have the same relationship to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) as them? So the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said that Banu Hashim and Banu Muttalib are one and the same – meaning (according to commentators) they were always together in kufr and Islam. Nothing separated them. That’s why they get a share and others don’t.

Protect Your Property (Hadith No. 2157)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2156 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 43, Number 659:
Narrated Al-Qasim:
Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) said that she hung a curtain decorated with pictures (of animates) on a cupboard. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) tore that curtain and she turned it into two cushions which remained in the house for the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to sit on.

Today’s Hadith:

 

Volume 3, Book 43, Number 660:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr bin Al-‘As (radiallaahu `anhu):
I heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “Whoever is killed while protecting his property then he is a martyr.”

The Muslim is obliged to defend himself and his family from any aggressor. He should ward him off with the slightest means, but if the assailant cannot be warded off except by killing, then it is permissible for the one who is being attacked to kill him, and he is not subject to retaliation (qisaas) and he does not have to pay any blood money (diyah) or offer any expiation (kafaarah), because sharee’ah has given him permission to kill in this case, and the slain aggressor is threatened with Hell, whereas the victim of aggression, if he is killed, is a martyr (shaheed) in sha Allaah. It makes no difference whether the aggressor is a Muslim or a kaafir. 

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: A man came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said: O Messenger of Allaah, what do you think if a man comes wanting to take my property? He said: “Do not give him your property.”  He said: What if he fights me? He said: “Fight him.” He said: What if he kills me? He said: “Then you will be a martyr.” He said: What if I kill him? He said: “He will be in Hell.” Narrated by Muslim (140). 

It was narrated that Sa’eed ibn Zayd (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The one who is killed defending his wealth is a martyr, the one who is killed defending his family is a martyr, the one who is killed defending his religion is a martyr, and the one who is killed defending his life is a martyr.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1421), al-Nasaa’i (4095), Abu Dawood (4772); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel (708). 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

The Sunnah and scholarly consensus are agreed that if a Muslim assailant cannot be warded off except by killing him, then he may be killed, even if the wealth that he wants to take is a small amount, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said in the saheeh hadeeth: “The one who is killed defending his wealth is a martyr, the one who is killed defending his life is a martyr, and the one who is killed defending his womenfolk is a martyr…” Fighting off an assailant is established in the Sunnah and by scholarly consensus. End quote. 

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (28/540, 541). 

In al-Rawd al-Murabbi’ (p. 677) it says: 

If a person or one of his womenfolk, such as his mother, daughter, sister or wife, is attacked, or his property, whether a slave or an animal, is attacked, then he has the right to defend that by the least means that he thinks will ward off the attack. If he is able to ward it off with the least means then it is haraam for him to do more than that because there is no need for it. 

If he cannot ward off the attacker except by killing him, then he may do that, i.e., kill the assailant, and he is not liable for that, because he killed him to ward off his evil. End quote. 

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said: 

The one who is attacked by someone who wants to kill him or attack his womenfolk such as his mother, daughter, sister or wife and violate their honour, or is attacked by someone who wants to take or destroy his property, has the right to defend himself against that, whether the attacker is a human or an animal. He should ward it off with the least that he thinks most likely will be able to ward it off, because if he is not allowed to defend himself that will lead to destruction and harm against himself or his womenfolk or his wealth, and because if he did not do that, people would overpower one another. If he cannot ward off the assailant except by killing him, then he has the right to do that, and he is not liable, because he killed him in order to ward off his evil. If the victim is killed then he is a martyr because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If a person’s wealth is sought unlawfully and he fights and is killed, then he is a martyr.” Narrated by Muslim and others from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him). And he said:  A man came and said: O Messenger of Allaah, what do you think if a man comes wanting to take my property? … and he narrated the hadeeth quoted above. 

Al-Mulakhkhas al-Fiqhi (2/443). 

The person who is attacked should not hasten to kill the assailant until after he has exhausted other means of warding him off, such as reminding him of Allaah, scaring him and threatening him, seeking help from other people, or seeking the help of the police. But he may hasten to kill him if he fears that the aggressor is about to kill him. 

It was narrated from Qaboos ibn Mukhaariq that his father said: A man came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said: What if a man comes to me wanting to take my wealth? He said: “Remind him of Allaah.” He said: What is he pays no heed? He said: “Seek help against him from those who are around you of the Muslims.” He said: What if there are no Muslims around me? He said: “Then seek help against him from the ruler.” He said: What if the ruler is faraway from me? He said: Then fight him to defend your wealth, until you become one of the martyrs in the Hereafter or you protect your wealth.” Narrated by al-Nasaa’i (4081) and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i

Secondly: 

This applies if it is proven that he killed him in self-defence with evidence such as the testimony of witnesses, or if the heirs of the slain person believe that he killed him in self-defence, or if there is strong circumstantial evidence to indicate that, such as if the slain person was known for evil and corruption, and he threatened to kill him – for example – in front of other people and so on. 

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

If this person admits to killing him and claims that he did it in self-defence but the heir of the slain person does not believe him, then qisaas (retaliation) must be carried out. It says in al-Insaaf: this is our view, and the view of our companions. But if the slain person was known for aggression and evildoing, and there is circumstantial evidence that points to what the killer is saying, then it says in al-Insaaf: it says in al-Furoo’: No qisaas is required if he is known for evildoing. I say: This is the correct view, and circumstantial evidence should be taken into account. End quote. 

Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Ibraaheem (11/255, 256) 

Taken from IslamQA

Dangers of Alcohol (Hadith No. 2060)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2057 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 560 :
Narrated by Zaid bin Khalid (radiallaahu `anhu)
A man came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and asked about Al-Luqata (a fallen thing). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Recognize its container and its tying material and then make a public announcement about it for one year and if its owner shows up, give it to him; otherwise use it as you like.” The man said, “What about a lost sheep?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It is for you, your brother or the wolf.” The man said “What about a lost camel?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Why should you take it as it has got its water-container (its stomach) and its hooves and it can reach the places of water and can eat the trees till its owner finds it?”

Ahadith 2058-2059 (below) are repeats. Read them here.

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 561 :
Narrated by Az-Zubair bin Al ‘Awwam (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No doubt, one had better take a rope (and cut) and tie a bundle of wood and sell it whereby Allah will keep his face away (from Hell-fire) rather than ask others who may give him or not.”

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 562 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No doubt, you had better gather a bundle of wood and carry it on your back (and earn your living thereby) rather than ask somebody who may give you or not.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 563 :
Narrated by Husain bin Ali (radiallaahu `anhu)
Ali bin Abi Talib (radiallaahu `anhu) said: “I got a she-camel as my share of the war booty on the day (of the battle) of Badr, and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave me another she-camel. I let both of them kneel at the door of one of the Ansar, intending to carry Idhkhir on them to sell it and use its price for my wedding banquet on marrying Fatima (radiallaahu `anhaa). A goldsmith from Bam Qainqa’ was with me. Hamza bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib (radiallaahu `anhu) was in that house drinking wine and a lady singer was reciting: “O Hamza! (Kill) the (two) fat old she camels (and serve them to your guests).” So Hamza (radiallaahu `anhu) took his sword and went towards the two she-camels and cut off their humps and opened their flanks and took a part of their livers.” (I said to Ibn Shihab, “Did he take part of the humps?” He replied, “He cut off their humps and carried them away.”) ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) further said, “When I saw that dreadful sight, I went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and told him the news. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came out in the company of Zaid bin Haritha (radiallaahu `anhu) who was with him then, and I too went with them. He went to Hamza (radiallaahu `anhu) and spoke harshly to him. Hamza looked up and said, ‘Aren’t you only the slaves of my forefathers?’ The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) retreated and went out. This incident happened before the prohibition of drinking.”

This Hadith shows:

  • we should help out our relatives and friends in need – Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave an extra camel to Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) so he could make some money for the wedding banquet.
  • the dangers and disadvantages of alcohol consumption – the person loses control of his mind and tongue etc. How do you expect him/her to behave in a respectful manner? And this is one of the reasons it’s unlawful to drink alcohol in Islam. Read more on it here.

Family Planning (Hadith No. 1927)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 1926 (below) is a repeat. Read similar narrations here (number 766) and here.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 431 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Amongst the captives was Safiya (radiallaahu `anhaa). First she was given to Dihya Al-Kalbi (radiallaahu `anhu) and then to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 432 :
Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu)
That while he was sitting with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) he said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! We get female captives as our share of booty, and we are interested in their prices, what is your opinion about coitus interruptus?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do you really do that? It is better for you not to do it. No soul that which Allah has destined to exist, but will surely come into existence.

Coitus interruptus, also known as the rejected sexual intercourse, withdrawal or pull-out method, is a method of birth-control in which a man, during intercourse withdraws his penis from a woman’s vagina prior to orgasm (and ejaculation). The man then directs his ejaculate (semen) away from his partner’s vagina in an effort to avoid insemination. [Wikipedia]

Is family planning permissible?

It is permissible to use temporary means of contraception in order to increase the gaps between pregnancies, or to stop them for a limited period of time, if there is a valid shar’i reason for doing so, based on the couple’s estimation and with mutual consultation and agreement, subject to the condition that this does not result in harm and that the means is acceptable according to sharee’ah and will not damage any existing pregnancy.

Taken from: IslamQA

 

It is permissible for the spouses to agree on family planning so long as that is temporary and not a permanent thing – subject to the condition that the means used does not cause any harm to the woman.

Ruling on Coitus Interruptus (`Azl)

It is permissible to engage in coitus interruptus if a person does not want a child, and it is also permissible to use a condom, but that is subject to the condition that the wife gives her permission for that, because she has the right to full enjoyment and also to have a child. The evidence for that is the hadeeth of Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: We used to engage in coitus interruptus at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). News of that reached the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and he did not forbid us to do that. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 250; Muslim, 160

Read more on it here.

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