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Giving Bay`ah – the Pledge of Allegiance (Ahadith 2600 – 2603)


Volume 4, Book 52, Number 205 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
When we reached (Hudaibiya) in the next year (of the treaty of Hudaibiya), not even two men amongst us agreed unanimously as to which was the tree under which we had given the pledge of allegiance, and that was out of Allah’s Mercy. (The sub narrator asked Naf’i, “For what did the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) take their pledge of allegiance, was it for death?” Naf’i replied “No, but he took their pledge of allegiance for patience.”)

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 206 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu)
That in the time (of the battle) of Al-Harra a person came to him and said, “Ibn Hanzala is taking the pledge of allegiance from the people for death.” He said, “I will never give a pledge of allegiance for such a thing to anyone after Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 207 :
Narrated by Yazid bin Ubaid
Salama (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I gave the Pledge of allegiance (Al-Ridwan) to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and then I moved to the shade of a tree. When the number of people around the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) diminished, he said, ‘O Ibn Al-Akwa ! Will you not give to me the pledge of Allegiance?’ I replied, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! I have already given to you the pledge of Allegiance.’ He said, ‘Do it again.’ So I gave the pledge of allegiance for the second time.” I asked ‘O Abu Muslim! For what did you give he pledge of Allegiance on that day?” He replied, “We gave the pledge of Allegiance for death.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 208 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
On the day (of the battle) of the Trench, the Ansar were saying, “We are those who have sworn allegiance to Muhammad for Jihad (forever) as long as we live.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied to them, “O Allah! There is no life except the life of the Hereafter. So honor the Ansar and emigrants with Your Generosity.” And narrated Mujashi: My brother and I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and I requested him to take the pledge of allegiance from us for migration. He said, “Migration has passed away with its people.” I asked, “For what will you take the pledge of allegiance from us then?” He said, “I will take (the pledge) for Islam and Jihad.”

Bay’ah can only be given to the leader of the Muslims, and bay’ah is given by the decision makers – i.e., the scholars and people of virtue and status. Once they give their allegiance to him, his position of leadership is confirmed, and the common folk do not have to give allegiance to him themselves, rather they have to obey him so long as that does not entail disobedience towards Allaah.

Al-Maaziri said: With regard to bay’ah being given to the leader of the Muslims, it is sufficient for the decision makers to give him their bay’ah. It is not essential for each individual Muslim to come to him and put his hand in his, rather it is sufficient to commit oneself to obeying him and submitting to him by not going against him or rebel against him.

Quoted from Fath al-Baari.

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Saheeh Muslim:

With regard to bay’ah (oath of allegiance): the scholars are agreed that in order for it to be valid it is not essential for all the people or all the decision makers to give their bay’ah. Rather, if bay’ah is given by those scholars and people of virtue and status who are present, that is sufficient. It is not obligatory for each person to come to the leader and put his hand in his and give his oath of allegiance to him. Rather what is required of each individual is to submit to him and not go against him or rebel against him.

What is narrated in the ahaadeeth narrated in the books of Sunnah about bay’ah refers to giving allegiance to the Muslim leader, such as when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever dies and did not make an oath of allegiance (to the Muslim leader) has died a death of jaahiliyyah.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1851).

And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever gives his oath of allegiance to a leader and gives him his hand and his heart, let him obey him as much as he can. If another one comes and disputes with him (for leadership), kill the second one.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1844)

And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If allegiance is given to two khaleefahs, then kill the second of them.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1853).

All of that undoubtedly has to do with giving allegiance to the Muslim leader.

Pledge of Allegiance.

Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said, answering a question about giving allegiance to the various groups: Bay’ah only has to do with the leader of the Muslims; these various bay’ahs are innovated and they are among the causes of division. The Muslims who are living in one country or one kingdom should have one allegiance to one leader; it is not permissible to have several kinds of bay’ min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, 1/367

With regard to how the allegiance should be given to the leader, in the case of men it is done in word and in deed, namely with a handshake. In the case of women, it is done by word only. This is proven in the ahaadeeth which speak of how allegiance was given to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

For example, ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “No, by Allaah, the hand of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never touched the hand of any (non-mahram) woman. Rather he would accept their allegiance (bay’ah) in words only.”

(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5288; Muslim, 1866)

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Sharh (commentary): “This indicates that for women, allegiance is given in words only, without taking the hand of the leader, and for men it is done in words and by taking his hand.

And Allaah knows best.



I`tikaaf: Miscellaneous (Ahadith 1752 – 1757)


One Cute Incident:

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 257:

Narrated ‘Amra bint ‘Abdur-Rahman from ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practice Itikaf every year in the month of Ramadan. And after offering the morning prayer, he used to enter the place of his Itikaf. ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) asked his permission to let her practice Itikaf and he allowed her, and so she pitched a tent in the mosque. When Hafsa (radiallaahu `anhaa) heard of that, she also pitched a tent (for herself), and when Zainab (radiallaahu `anhaa) heard of that, she too pitched another tent. When, in the morning, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had finished the morning prayer, he saw four tents and asked, “What is this?” He was informed about it. He then said, “What made them do this? Is it righteousness? Remove the tents, for I do not want to see them.” So, the tents were removed. The Prophet did not perform Itikaf that year in the month of Ramadan, but did it in the last ten days of Shawwal.

Types of I`tikaaf:

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 258:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I vowed in the Pre-lslamic period to perform Itikaf in Al-Masjid-al-Haram for one night.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Fulfill your vow.” So, he performed Itikaf for one night.

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 259:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

that ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) had vowed in the Pre-lslamic period to perform Itikaf in Al-Masjid-al-Haram. (A sub-narrator thinks that ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) vowed to perform Itikaf for one night.) Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu), “Fulfill your vow.”

When is I`tikaaf?:

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 260:

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to perform Itikaf every year in the month of Ramadan for ten days, and when it was the year of his death, he stayed in Itikaf for twenty days.

One Cute Incident:

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 261:

Narrated `Amra bint `Abdur-Rahman from `Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):

Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) mentioned that he would practice I`tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan. `Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) asked his permission to perform I`tikaf and he permitted her. Hafsa (radiallaahu `anhaa) asked `Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) to take his permission for her, and she did so. When Zainab bint Jahsh (radiallaahu `anhaa) saw that, she ordered a tent to be pitched for her and it was pitched for her. Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to proceed to his tent after the prayer. So, he saw the tents ans asked, “What is this?” He was told that those were the tents of Aisha, Hafsa, and Zainab (radiallaahu `anhunna). Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Is it righteousness which they intended by doing so? I am not going to perform I`tikaf.” So he returned home. When the fasting month was over, he performed Itikar for ten days in the month of Shawwal.

The Fiqh of I`tikaaf:

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 262:

Narrated ‘Urwa:

Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) during her menses used to comb and oil the hair of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while he used to be in Itikaf in the mosque. He would stretch out his head towards her while she was in her chamber.

Kitaab-ul-I`tikaaf [Book of Retiring to a Mosque for Remembrance of Allah] ends here.

The Fiqh of I`tikaaf (Ahadith 1740 – 1742)


Volume 3, Book 33, Number 245:

Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to (put) bend his head (out) to me while he was in Itikaf in the mosque during my monthly periods and I would comb and oil his hair.

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 246:

Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to let his head in (the house) while he was in the mosque and I would comb and oil his hair. When in Itikaf he used not to enter the house except for a need.

Volume 3, Book 33, Number 247:

Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to embrace me during my menses. He also used to put his head out of the mosque while he was in Itikaf, and I would wash it during my menses.

In view of the fact that the purpose of I’tikaaf is to withdraw oneself from worldly affairs and devote oneself entirely to the remembrance of Allâh, therefore, one must during the course of I’tikaaf avoid unnecessary talk and work. Whatever time one finds, one must spend in performing nawafil (Salâh), tilawah, and other ‘ibâdahdhikr and tasbihat. Moreover, the learning and teaching of ‘ilm of dîn, lectures and study of Islâmic books is not only permissible but also a cause of obtaining thawab.

The Fiqh of I`tikaaf

  • If one observing I’tikaaf lets a part of his body out of the mosque, he is neither considered to have exited the premises nor does this affect the validity of his I’tikaaf. Therefore, he is allowed to take or give anything through the window or door of the mosque.
  • It is acceptable in the Sharee’ah (Islamic jurisprudence) for one observing I’tikaaf to wash and comb his hair, apply perfume, perform Ghusl (ritual bath for purification), shave and groom himself.
  • It is permissible for one observing the I’tikaaf to look at his wife and be touched by her without lust. And it is valid under the Sharee’ah for the wife to serve her husband, such as cleaning and combing his hair, and washing his clothes, etc.
  • It is impermissible for one in I’tikaaf to exit the mosque, save for the express purpose of fulfilling a natural inevitable necessity, such as urination, excretion and fetching food and water for himself, if there is no one else to bring it to him. The same applies to any essential need which he can not satisfy in the mosque; he has the right to go out for it without fearing for the validity of his I’tikaaf.
  • If a person performing I’tikaaf goes out of the mosque due to a need, it is not binding upon him to move hastily. He should walk at his normal pace, provided that he returns to the mosque as soon as he has achieved his objective.
  • According to the majority of religious scholars, the one observing I’tikaaf must not leave the mosque to visit a patient or even attend a funeral procession. But, he does have the right to inquire about the health of a patient while passing by, without going to him.
  • If one observing I’tikaaf goes out for a necessity, such as the death of his father or son, and he has not previously stipulated that he may have to leave the mosque for a similar critical reason, he must restart his I’tikaaf after he has fulfilled his need.
  • It can be derived from the aforementioned Hadeeth that a wife is to abide in her husband’s house, even if he will not go to her for any purpose or if a Sharee’ah-defined impediment hinders him from going home, such as traveling or I’tikaaf; in all cases, it is forbidden for the wife to go out of his home, without his permission.
  • If one exits his place of seclusion without a necessity, hisI’tikaaf becomes invalid.
  • There is a difference of opinion among scholars with regard to the prerequisites of I’tikaaf, [as it is said one must] be fasting and seclude himself only in a mosque where the Friday prayers are held in congregation. The sound view is that fasting is not a precondition, since the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam, observed I’tikaaf in Shawwaal. Furthermore, it is permissible to do I’tikaaf in the mosque in which, though congregational prayers are offered, the Friday prayer is not, necessarily. In that case, one should go out to attend the Friday prayer and his I’tikaaf will still be valid. But, it is better for one to seclude himself in a mosque in which the Friday prayers are held.

Going Overboard with Fiqh (Ahadith 1415 – 1419)


Hadith no. 1413 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 713:

Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions assumed Ihram for Hajj and none except the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and Talha had the Hadi (sacrifice) with them. ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) arrived from Yemen and had a Hadi with him. ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I have assumed Ihram for what the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) has done.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered his companions to perform the ‘Umra with the lhram which they had assumed, and after finishing Tawaf (of Ka’ba, Safa and Marwa) to cut short their hair, and to finish their lhram except those who had Hadi with them. They (the people) said, “How can we proceed to Mina (for Hajj) after having sexual relations with our wives?” When that news reached the Prophet he said, “If I had formerly known what I came to know lately, I would not have brought the Hadi with me. Had there been no Hadi with me, I would have finished the state of lhram.” ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) got her menses, so she performed all the ceremonies of Hajj except Tawaf of the Ka’ba, and when she got clean (from her menses), she performed Tawaf of the Ka’ba. She said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! (All of you) are returning with the Hajj and ‘Umra, but I am returning after performing Hajj only.” So the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) to accompany her to Tan’im and thus she performed the ‘Umra after the Hajj.

Hadith no. 1414 (below) is also a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 714:

Narrated Hafsa (radiallaahu `anhaa):

(On ‘Id) We used to forbid our virgins to go out (for ‘Id prayer). A lady came and stayed at the Palace of Bani Khalaf. She mentioned that her sister was married to one of the companions of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who participated in twelve Ghazawats along with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and her sister was with him in six of them. She said, “We used to dress the wounded and look after the patients.” She (her sister) asked Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “Is there any harm for a woman to stay at home if she doesn’t have a veil?” He said, “She should cover herself with the veil of her companion and she should take part in the good deeds and in the religious gatherings of the believers.” When Um ‘Atiyya (radiallaahu `anhaa) came, I asked her. “Did you hear anything about that?” Um ‘Atiyya (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “Bi Abi” and she never mentioned the name of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) without saying “Bi Abi” (i.e. ‘Let my father be sacrificed for you’). We asked her, “Have you heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying so and so (about women)?” She replied in the affirmative and said, “Let my father be sacrificed for him. He told us that unmarried mature virgins who stay often screened or unmarried young virgins and mature girls who stay often screened should come out and take part in the good deeds and in the religious gatherings of the believers. But the menstruating women should keep away from the Musalla (praying place).” I asked her, “The menstruating women?” She replied, “Don’t they present themselves at ‘Arafat and at such and such places?”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 715:

Narrated ‘Abdul ‘Aziz bin Rufai:

I asked Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu), “Tell me what you remember from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (regarding these questions): Where did he offer the Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers on the day of Tarwiya (8th day of Dhul-Hajja)?” He replied, “(He offered these prayers) at Mina.” I asked, “Where did he offer the ‘Asr prayer on the day of Nafr (i.e. departure from Mina on the 12th or 13th of Dhul-Hijja)?” He replied, “At Al-Abtah,” and then added, “You should do as your chiefs do.”

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 716:

Narrated ‘Abdul ‘Aziz:

I went out to Mina on the day of Tarwiya and met Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) going on a donkey. I asked him, “Where did the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) offer the Zuhr prayer on this day?” Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “See where your chiefs pray and pray similarly.”

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 717:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) offered a two-Rakat prayer at Mina. Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu), ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) and ‘Uthman (radiallaahu `anhu), (during the early years of his caliphate) followed the same practice.

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 718:

Narrated Haritha bin Wahab Al-Khuza’i (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) led us in a two-Rakat prayer at Mina although our number was more than ever and we were in better security than ever.

Volume 2, Book 26, Number 719:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Masud (radiallaahu `anhu):

I offered (only a) two Rakat prayer with the Prophet (at Mina), and similarly with Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and with ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu), and then you differed in opinions. Wish that I would be lucky enough to have two of the four Rakat accepted (by Allah).

  1. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) shortened salah in Minaa. Should we do it or not? Answer here.
  2. There’s no need to fight over this issue, as Abdullah ibn Mas`ud (radiallaahu `anhu) comments in the last narration. Because the real question is whether those 2 or four rak`aat will be accepted by Allah or not?
    It often happens that we get so engrossed in Fiqh issues that the spirit in worship gets lost somewhere. Must prevent that! Yes, knowing the ‘how’ is very important, but we shouldn’t forget the ‘why’ in the process. Allahul Musta`aan!

A Good Example (Hadith No. 389)


Hadith no. 388 is a repeat. Read here.

Volume 1, Book 8, Number 389:

Narrated ‘Amr bin Dmar:

I asked Ibn ‘Umar, “Can a person who has performed the Tawaf around the Ka’ba for ‘Umra but has not performed the (Sa’i) Tawaf of Safa and Marwa, have a sexual relation with his wife?” Ibn ‘Umar replied “When the Prophet reached Mecca he performed the Tawaf around the Ka’ba (circumambulated it seven times) and offered a two-Rak’at prayer (at the place) behind the station (of Abraham) and then performed the Tawaf (Sa’i) of Safa and Marwa, and verily in Allah’s Apostle you have a good example.” Then we put the same question to Jabir bin ‘Abdullah and he too replied, “He should not go near his wife (for sexual relation) till he has finished the Tawaf of Safa and Marwa.”

We have a lot of questions about what we can and can’t do according to Islam. We argue and try to prove our own point of view right. But if we remember just one simple rule, we’ll save up so much of our time.

Verily, in Allah’s Apostle (SAW) you have a good example.

Whatever your question is, try to find the answer in the life of Allah’s Messenger (SAW). You’ll definitely find it! He was sent as a Messenger for all mankind, not just the people of his time. His life has answers for you too. You just have to start believing in it, for real.


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