Volume 4, Book 53, Number 347 :
Narrated by Khaula Al-Ansariya (radiallaahu `anhaa)
I heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “Some people spend Allah’s Wealth (i.e. Muslim’s wealth) in an unjust manner; such people will be put in the (Hell) Fire on the Day of Resurrection.”
This specifically talks about distribution of war booty, as it’s mentioned in the chapter of Khumus in Bukhari. Those in charge of the wealth must see to the fair distribution among the poor and the weak.
Ibn Al-Jawzi said:
“Injustice necessitates two sins: usurping others’ rights and defying Allaah The Exalted with disobedience. The sin of doing injustice is more evil than other sins because it is usually committed against the weak, who are powerless to fend for themselves. The cause of injustice is the darkness of the heart; a man whose heart is lit with guidance would not commit injustice.”
Further reading: Dire Consequences of Injustice
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 259 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent us on a mission (i.e. am army-unit) and said, “If you find so-and-so and so-and-so, burn both of them with fire.” When we intended to depart, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I have ordered you to burn so-and-so and so-and-so, and it is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them, kill them.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 260 :
Narrated by Ikrima
Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) burnt some people and this news reached Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu), who said, “Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Don’t punish (anybody) with Allah’s Punishment.’ No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.’ “
It is impermissible to punish by fire in Islam, as clear from the above ahadith. When it comes to apostates, execution is the prescribed punishment but there are some guidelines that must be followed. For example, the apostate is not to be murdered in cold blood, he deserves to be given a chance to repent. What follows is some basic information about apostasy and what it constitutes of. Read on for clarity.
The ruling of execution because of a word that somebody utters is what the Muslim scholars call al-riddah (apostasy). What is apostasy and what constitutes apostasy? What is the ruling on the apostate (al-murtadd)?
1 – Riddah (apostasy) refers to when a Muslim becomes a disbeliever by saying a clear statement to that effect, or by uttering words which imply that (i.e., which imply kufr or disbelief), or he does something that implies that (i.e., an action which implies kufr or disbelief).
2 – What constitutes apostasy
The matters which constitute apostasy are divided into four categories:
(a) Apostasy in beliefs, such as associating others with Allaah, denying Him, or denying an attribute which is proven to be one of His attributes, or by affirming that Allaah has a son. Whoever believes that is an apostate and a disbeliever.
(b) Apostasy in words, such as insulting Allaah or the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
(c) Apostasy in actions, such as throwing the Qur’an into a filthy place, because doing that shows disrespect towards the words of Allaah, so it is a sign that one does not believe. Other such actions include prostrating to an idol or to the sun or moon.
(d) Apostasy by omission, such as not doing any of the rituals of Islam, or turning away from following it altogether.
3 – What is the ruling on the apostate?
If a Muslim apostatizes and meets the conditions of apostasy – i.e., he is of sound mind, an adult and does that of his own free will – then his blood may be shed with impunity. He is to be executed by the Muslim ruler or by his deputy – such as the qaadi or judge, and he is not to not be washed (after death, in preparation for burial), the funeral prayer is not to be offered for him and he is not to be buried with the Muslims.
The evidence that the apostate is to be executed is the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “Whoever changes his religion, execute him.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2794). What is meant by religion here is Islam (i.e., whoever changes from Islam to another religion).
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “It is not permissible to shed the blood of a Muslim who bears witness that there is no god except Allaah and that I am His Messenger, except in one of three cases: a soul for a soul (i.e., in the case of murder); a married man who commits adultery; and one who leaves his religion and splits form the jamaa’ah (main group of Muslims).” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6878; Muslim, 1676)
To read more on some of the rulings on apostasy and apostates, click here.
Let’s do an exercise. Pause and think about the most pious person you know of. Think about the good that they do, the devoutness in their worship, the unfailing motivation they’re blessed with.. What comes to mind when you think of their result in the Hereafter? Hold that thought.
Now think of a person who’s the least practicing in your circle. The person who struggles with the daily prayers, the one who can barely read Quran, the one who has ‘issues’ with his/her faith. What do you think about their result? And stop right there!
Did you instantly brand the first one as Jannati and the other one Jahannami? If yes, know that you can be completely wrong. The first one can end up in Hell despite all their good and worship. And it’s because of the following hadith:
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 147 :
Narrated by Sahl bin Sad As-Sa’idi (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the pagans faced each other and started fighting. When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned to his camp and when the pagans returned to their camp, somebody talked about a man amongst the companions of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who would follow and kill with his sword any pagan going alone. He said, “Nobody did his job (i.e. fighting) so properly today as that man.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Indeed, he is amongst the people of the (Hell) Fire.” A man amongst the people said, “I shall accompany him (to watch what he does)” Thus he accompanied him, and wherever he stood, he would stand with him, and wherever he ran, he would run with him. Then the (brave) man got wounded seriously and he decided to bring about his death quickly. He planted the blade of the sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he leaned on the sword and killed himself. The other man came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “I testify that you are Allah’s Apostle.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “What has happened?” He replied, “(It is about) the man whom you had described as one of the people of the (Hell) Fire. The people were greatly surprised at what you said, and I said, ‘I will find out his reality for you.’ So, I came out seeking him. He got severely wounded, and hastened to die by slanting the blade of his sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he eased on his sword and killed himself.” when Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A man may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact he is from the people of the Hell) Fire, another may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of Hell (Fire), while in fact he is from the people of Paradise.”
So no matter what you see in people, do not judge them based on their appearances. Always hope for the best, yes, make dua for their success in this world and the next, but never say for sure that such and such will go to Paradise and so and so to Hell. That is for Allah alone to decide. He knows the apparent and the hidden and He is the best of all judges.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 93 :
Narrated by Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu)
I heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “Indeed, anyone who fasts for one day for Allah’s Pleasure, Allah will keep his face away from the (Hell) fire for (a distance covered by a journey of) seventy years.”
This hadith is new to me. Or at least to my memory. I’ve always considered fasting special because of the special rewards (for example, the well-known narration “fasting is for Me and I will reward for it”). Still my passion and motivation for voluntary fasting rarely, if ever, goes beyond the six of Shawwaal, nine of Dhul Hijjah and two of Muharram. Why do I never make an effort to fast Mondays, Thursdays and the 13th, 14th and 15th of the lunar months, I ask myself. Why not even more than that? Did not Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) fast most of his days? Did not Dawud (`alayhissalaam) fast every other day – the best kind of fasting there is. Why do I feel content with my routine worship overall? Why do I not strive to up my game every day, month and year?
It is because of this stagnancy in worship that the state of my imaan is such, I feel. How do I expect Allah to increase His love, mercy and grace for me when I don’t increase my worship and love for Him? Surely the two must be connected.
It all comes down to Jihad. Of the nafs. I need to give up my love for eating more often so I can please Allah and increase my distance from the Hellfire as much as possible. If one day of fasting gets me seventy years away, I could be farthest from it in no time inshaAllah. May Allah give me the strength, accept my efforts and be pleased with me.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 66 :
Narrated by Abu Abs (who is ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Jabir) (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said,” Anyone whose both feet get covered with dust in Allah’s Cause will not be touched by the (Hell) fire.”
We’ve seen numerous ahadith on the superiority and rewards for Jihad these past couple of weeks. It is not a small matter in the sight of Allah when one man goes out to spread the word of Allah risking his life and spending his wealth for the cause seeking nothing but the pleasure of his Lord. This is why Allah has promised so much in return. He says:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
“Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah , so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah ? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment.” [9:111]
A few ayahs later, Allah talks about the people who stayed back from the battle of Tabuk:
مَا كَانَ لِأَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُم مِّنَ الْأَعْرَابِ أَن يَتَخَلَّفُوا عَن رَّسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَرْغَبُوا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ عَن نَّفْسِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ ظَمَأٌ وَلَا نَصَبٌ وَلَا مَخْمَصَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَطَئُونَ مَوْطِئًا يَغِيظُ الْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّ نَّيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُم بِهِ عَمَلٌ صَالِحٌ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
It was not [proper] for the people of Madinah and those surrounding them of the bedouins that they remain behind after [the departure of] the Messenger of Allah or that they prefer themselves over his self. That is because they are not afflicted by thirst or fatigue or hunger in the cause of Allah , nor do they tread on any ground that enrages the disbelievers, nor do they inflict upon an enemy any infliction but that is registered for them as a righteous deed. Indeed, Allah does not allow to be lost the reward of the doers of good. [9:120]
So this is the context in which we are to see today’s hadith in. Anything a person does in the path of Allah, any difficulty he faces, it is all written as good deeds for him. Allah does not take this matter lightly, obviously. All one needs to do is go out and take the risk, get their feet dirty. :]