Hadith no. 1899 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 404 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) bought some foodstuff from a Jew on credit and mortgaged his armor to him.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 405 :
Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri and Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhumaa)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) appointed somebody as a governor of Khaibar. That governor brought to him an excellent kind of dates (from Khaibar). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Are all the dates of Khaibar like this?” He replied, “By Allah, no, O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! But we barter one Sa of this (type of dates) for two Sas of dates of ours and two Sas of it for three of ours.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do not do so (as that is a kind of usury) but sell the mixed dates (of inferior quality) for money, and then buy good dates with that money.”
Riba al-Fadl: The riba of exchange surplus. Any commodity-for-commodity exchange transaction (i. e. barter) in which the exchanged commodities are of the same type but of unequal measure, or the delivery of one commodity is postponed.
We’ve already learnt about it in Exchanging Goods, now we know the term for it.
Go through this link for a detailed description and analysis of Riba al-Fadl.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 302:
Narrated ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu):
I got an old she-camel as my share from the booty, and the Prophet had given me another from Al-Khumus. And when I intended to marry Fatima (radiallaahu `anhaa) (daughter of the Prophet), I arranged that a goldsmith from the tribe of Bani Qainuqa’ would accompany me in order to bring Idhkhir and then sell it to the goldsmiths and use its price for my marriage banquet.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 303:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Allah made Mecca a sanctuary and it was neither permitted for anyone before, nor will it be permitted for anyone after me (to fight in it). And fighting in it was made legal for me for a few hours of a day only. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs or to cut down its trees or to chase its game or to pick up its Luqata (fallen things) except by a person who would announce it publicly.” ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul-Muttlib (radiallaahu `anhu) requested the Prophet, “Except Al-Idhkhir, for our goldsmiths and for the roofs of our houses.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Except Al-Idhkhir.” ‘Ikrima said, “Do you know what is meant by chasing its game? It is to drive it out of the shade and sit in its place.” Khalid said, “(‘Abbas said: Al-Idhkhir) for our goldsmiths and our graves.”
We learnt previously that we have to be careful while exchanging goods; one: they have to be of the same kind, two: they have to be of the same amount. For example, good dates for good dates and not bad dates for good dates.
If a person has to exchange one kind of goods with another, the right way to go about it is to sell those goods, and buy the desired goods with the money acquired. And that’s what’s being reiterated here (in the two narrations above). During that time in Arabia, people used to exchange Idhkhir (a kind of grass) with gold. What Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) did for his walima was that he sold whatever Idhkhir he collected to the goldsmiths and used the dirhams/dinars for the banquet preparations.
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 294:
Narrated Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu):
We used to be given mixed dates (from the booty) and used to sell (barter) two Sas of those dates) for one Sa (of good dates). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to us), “No (bartering of) two Sas for one Sa nor two Dirhams for one Dirham is permissible”, (as that is a kind of usury).
Bilaal (may Allaah be pleased with him) brought some good dates to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he said to him: “Where did these come from?” Bilaal said: “We had some bad dates and I paid two saa’s of them for a saa’ so that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) might have some of it.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Oh! Do not do that, (it is) the essence of riba, the essence of riba.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3212.
The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stated that giving more when equal amounts should be exchanged because of the difference in quality is the essence of riba, and it is not permissible to do that. But the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as was his wont, pointed out the permissible way. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told him to sell the bad dates for money (dirhams) and then buy the good dates with the money.
Hadith no. 1228 (below) is a repeat. Read it here (Hadith no. 793).
Narrated Ibn Abbas :
I am a witness that Allah’s Apostle offered the Id prayer before delivering the sermon and then he thought that the women would not be able to hear him (because of the distance), so he went to them along with Bilal who was spreading his garment. The Prophet advised and ordered them to give in charity. So the women started giving their ornaments (in charity). (The sub-narrator Aiyub pointed towards his ears and neck meaning that they gave ornaments from those places such as ear-rings and necklaces.)
Zakah on Shared Property
Abu Bakr wrote to me what was made compulsory by Allah’s Apostle and that was (regarding the payments of Zakat): Neither the property of different people may be taken together nor the joint property may be split for fear of (paying more, or receiving less) Zakat.
Abu Bakr wrote to me what Allah’s Apostle has made compulsory (regarding Zakat) and this was mentioned in it: If a property is equally owned by two partners, they should pay the combined Zakat and it will be considered that both of them have paid their Zakat equally.
- There is no Zakah on land of one does not intend to sell it. Details.
- Shares in land – to be treated as trade goods. Calculate their value each year and pay Zakah. Details.
- In partnership (mudaarbah), each partner pays Zakah on his share. Details.
- Zakah on shares.
It’s all a bit too much to take in at once, I agree. Took a lot of time making sense out of it myself. Basic principle is quite simple and direct, it gets complex when we get into the nitty gritty. Some might not agree with me. Well.