Narrated Ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) reached Mecca, circumambulated the Kaba seven times and then offered a two Rakat prayer behind Maqam ibrahim (`alayhissalaam). Then he went towards the Safa. Allah has said, “Verily, in Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) you have a good example.”
Maqaam Ibraaheem (the Station of Ibraaheem) is the stone on which he stood when the building became higher than he could reach. So his son put this famous stone there for him so that he could stand on it when the building grew tall… The footprints of al-Khaleel (Ibraaheem, peace be upon him) remained on the rock until the beginning of Islam.
From al-Bidaayah wa’l-Nihaayah, 1/163
Ibn Hajr said:
What is meant by Maqaam Ibraaheem is the stone on which are the marks of his feet.
Ibn Katheer said:
The marks of his feet were clear on it and were well known; the Arabs were familiar with that during their jaahiliyyah and the Muslims also knew of that, as Anas ibn Maalik said: I saw the Maqaam on which were the marks of his toes and heels.
But they disappeared because of people touching them with their hands.
Ibn Jareer narrated that Qataadah said:
“ ‘And take you (people) the Maqaam (place) of Ibraaheem (Abraham) [or the stone on which Ibraaheem (Abraham) stood while he was building the Ka‘bah] as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak‘at after the Tawaaf of the Ka‘bah at Makkah)’ [al-Baqarah 2:125 – interpretation of the meaning]. This means that they were commanded to pray at that place; they were not commanded to touch it. This ummah went beyond what was prescribed for it, to an extent that no previous nation did. We have heard from those who saw the marks of his heels and toes on it, but this ummah kept touching them until they disappeared.”
From Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 1/117
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said:
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Undoubtedly Maqaam Ibraaheem is proven and that on which the glass enclosure is built is indeed Maqaam Ibraaheem. But the engraved marks that appear on it do not seem to be footprints, because what is well known from an historical point of view is that those footprints disappeared a long time ago. But these engraved marks were meant as a marker only, and we cannot be certain that these are the footprints of Ibraaheem (peace be upon him).
Some pilgrims performing Hajj and ‘Umrah stand at Maqaam Ibraaheem and recite a du’aa’ that was not narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Some of them recite the du’aa’ in a loud voice, and disturb those who are praying the two rak’ahs after tawaaf behind the Maqaam. There is no specific du’aa’ to be recited at the Maqaam, rather the Sunnah is to pray two brief rak’ahs behind it, then to get up immediately after saying the tasleem so as to leave room for those who have more right to it, those who want to pray the two rak’ahs following tawaaf.
Is it obligatory to pray nawafil at this station? Answer here.