Question: what exactly of Hajj/`Umrah can a woman NOT do during menstruation?
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhu):
I was menstruating when I reached Mecca. So, I neither performed Tawaf of the Ka’ba, nor the Tawaf between Safa and Marwa. Then I informed Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it. He replied, “Perform all the ceremonies of Hajj like the other pilgrims, but do not perform Tawaf of the Ka’ba till you get clean (from your menses).”
Tawaaf around the Ka’bah
It is haraam for a menstruating woman to circumambulate the Ka’bah, whether that is obligatory or naafil, and it is not valid if she does it, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to ‘Aa’ishah when she got her menses: “Do everything that the pilgrims do, but do not circumambulate the House until you become pure.”
As for the other actions of Hajj, such as saa’ee between al-Safa and al-Marwah, standing at ‘Arafah, staying overnight in Muzdalifah and Mina, stoning the jamaraat and other rituals of Hajj and ‘Umrah, they are not haraam for her. Based on that, if a female does tawaaf when she is pure, then her period begins immediately after she does tawaaf, or during sa’ee, there is nothing wrong with that.
Tawaaf al-wadaa’ (the farewell tawaaf) is waived in her case
If a female completes the rituals of Hajj and ‘Umrah, then she gets her menses before she goes home and that continues until she leaves, she may depart without doing the farewell tawaaf, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) told the people that the last thing they should do was (tawaaf) around the House, but he made an exception for women who were menstruating . Agreed upon.
But the tawaaf that is required for Hajj and ‘Umrah is not waived, and she must do it when she becomes pure.