إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً
“Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.” [Quran, 48:1]
From Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
This honorable Surah [al-Fath] was revealed after the Messenger of Allah returned from the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah, in the sixth year of Hijrah. This is when the idolators prevented him from reaching Al-Masjid Al-Haram to perform the `Umrah he intended. They stopped the Prophet from reaching Makkah at that time, but then were prone to peace negotiations. A peace treaty was conducted stipulating that the Messenger would return this year and then come back for `Umrah the following year. The Messenger agreed. However, some of the Companions disliked these terms, including `Umar bin Al-Khattab, as we will mention in detail, Allah willing, while explaining this Surah. After the Prophet slaughtered his sacrificial animals in the area where he was stopped and headed back to Al-Madinah, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Surah about what occurred between him and the idolators. Allah declared the Al-Hudaybiyyah peace treaty a manifest victory, because of the benefits peace would carry and the good results that did originate from it. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and other Companions said, “You consider the conquering of Makkah to be Al-Fath (the victory), while to us, Al-Fath is the treaty conducted at Al-Hلudaybiyyah.” Jabir (bin `Abdullah) said, “We only considered Al-Fath to be the day of Hلudaybiyyah!” Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ (bin `Azib) said, “You consider Al-Fath to be the conquest of Makkah, which was indeed a victory. However, we consider Al-Fath to be the pledge of Ar-Ridwan on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. Then, we were fourteen hundred with the Messenger of Allah . Al-Hudaybiyyah had a well, whose water we consumed, not leaving a drop of water in it. When the news of what happened reached the Messenger of Allah , he came towards us and sat on the edge of the well. Then he asked to be brought a bucket of water and used it for ablution. He next rinsed his mouth, invoked Allah and poured that water into the well. Soon after, that well provided us, as well as our animals, with sufficient water, in whatever amount of water we wished. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah on a trip, and I asked him about a matter three times, but he did not answer me. So I said to myself, `May your mother lose you, O son of Al-Khattab! You were stubborn in repeating your question three times to the Messenger of Allah ; each time he did not respond to you.’ So I mounted my animal, my camel, and went ahead for fear that a part of the Qur’an might be revealed in my case. Suddenly, I heard a caller calling, `O `Umar!’ So, I went to the Messenger while fearing that part of the Qur’an was revealed about me. The Prophet said,
«نَزَلَ عَلَيَّ الْبَارِحَةَ سُورَةٌ هِيَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا:
﴿إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ﴾»
(Last night, a Surah was revealed to me that is dearer to me than this life and all that it contains: (Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future.)) Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected this Hadith from several chains of narration through Malik, may Allah grant him His mercy. `Ali bin Al-Madini commented, “This is a good chain of narration consisting of the scholars of Al-Madinah.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “This Ayah was revealed to the Prophet ,
﴿لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ﴾
(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future,) on his return from Al-Hudaybiyyah. The Prophet said,
«لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيَّ اللَّيْلَةَ آيَةٌ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا عَلَى الْأَرْض»
(Tonight, an Ayah, that is dearer to me than all that the earth carries, was revealed to me.) The Prophet recited the Ayah to them. They said, `Congratulations, O Allah’s Messenger! Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has stated what He will do with you. So what will He do with us’ These Ayat were revealed to the Prophet ,
﴿لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ﴾
(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow. ..), until,
(…a supreme success.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said, “The Prophet used to pray until both his feet were swollen. He was asked, `Has not Allah forgiven you all your sins of the past and of future’ He said,
«أَفَلَا أَكُونُ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا؟»
(Should I not be a thankful servant)” The two collectors of the Sahihs collected this Hadith, as well as, the rest of the Group, except Abu Dawud. Allah’s statement,
﴿إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً ﴾
(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.) means, clear and apparent victory. This Ayah is about the treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah, which resulted in great goodness, including people embracing Islam in large crowds and having the chance to meet each other openly. During that time, the believers preached to the idolators and thus beneficial knowledge and faith spread all around.
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 862 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin ‘Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) concluded a peace treaty with the people of Hudaibiya, Ali bin Abi Talib (radiallaahu `anhu) wrote the document and he mentioned in it, “Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle .” The pagans said, “Don’t write: ‘Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle’, for if you were an apostle we would not fight with you.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked Ali to rub it out, but Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I will not be the person to rub it out.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) rubbed it out and made peace with them on the condition that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions would enter Mecca and stay there for three days, and that they would enter with their weapons in cases.
- Write down your contracts/agreements/treaties.
- Compromise for peace – not in your religion though!
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 863 :
Narrated by Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to perform ‘Umra in the month of Dhul-Qada, the people of Mecca did not let him enter Mecca till he settled the matter with them by promising to stay in it for three days only. When the document of treaty was written, the following was mentioned: ‘These are the terms on which Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) agreed (to make peace).’ They said, “We will not agree to this, for if we believed that you are Allah’s Apostle we would not prevent you, but you are Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I am Allah’s Apostle and also Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah.” Then he said to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu), “Rub off (the words) ‘Allah’s Apostle’ “, but ‘Ali said, “No, by Allah, I will never rub off your name.” So, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) took the document and wrote, ‘This is what Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah has agreed upon: No arms will be brought into Mecca except in their cases, and nobody from the people of Mecca will be allowed to go with him (i.e. the Prophet ) even if he wished to follow him and he (the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) will not prevent any of his companions from staying in Mecca if the latter wants to stay.’ When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) entered Mecca and the time limit passed, the Meccans went to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) and said, “Tell your Friend (i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) to go out, as the period (agreed to) has passed.” So, the Prophet went out of Mecca. The daughter of Hamza ran after them (i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions), calling, “O Uncle! O Uncle!” ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) received her and led her by the hand and said to Fatima, “Take your uncle’s daughter.” Zaid and Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhumaa) quarreled about her. ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I have more right to her as she is my uncle’s daughter.” Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “She is my uncle’s daughter, and her aunt is my wife.” Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “She is my brother’s daughter.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) judged that she should be given to her aunt, and said that the aunt was like the mother. He then said to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu), “You are from me and I am from you”, and said to Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhu), “You resemble me both in character and appearance”, and said to Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu), “You are our brother (in faith) and our freed slave.”
- Mother’s sister (aunt) is like a mother.
- Notice how Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) makes everyone happy in the end by complimenting them in one way or the other. Making the right decisions doesn’t necessarily give you enemies.
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 864 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) set out for the ‘Umra but the pagans of Quraish prevented him from reaching the Ka’ba. So, he slaughtered his sacrifice and got his head shaved at Al-Hudaibiya, and agreed with them that he would perform ‘Umra the following year and would not carry weapons except swords and would not stay in Mecca except for the period they allowed. So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) performed the ‘Umra in the following year and entered Mecca according to the treaty, and when he stayed for three days, the pagans ordered him to depart, and he departed.
- Respect your agreements, promises, oaths etc. Come through.
- Know your Seerah!