Volume 4, Book 52, Number 68 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned on the day (of the battle) of Al-Khandaq (i.e. Trench), he put down his arms and took a bath. Then Gabriel whose head was covered with dust, came to him saying, “You have put down your arms! By Allah, I have not put down my arms yet.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Where (to go now)?” Gabriel said, “This way,” pointing towards the tribe of Bani Quraiza. So Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went out towards them.
The following account has been taken from the Sealed Nectar, the first paragraph highlighting how Banu Qurayzah broke their treaty with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the rest is about the invasion itself. Happy reading!
During the process of fighting, Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh was shot by an arrow that pierced his artery. Perceiving his end approaching, he invoked Allâh saying: “Oh, Allâh, you know nothing is closer to my heart than striving in Your way against those people (disbelievers) who belied Your Messenger and banished him from his town. Oh, Allâh, I deeply believe that You have decreed that we should fight them, so if there is still more fighting to go with them, let me stay alive in order to strive more against them. If it has settled down, I beseech you to ignite it again so that I breathe my last in its context.”He concluded his supplication beseeching Allâh not to let him die until he had had full revenge on Banu Quraiza. In the midst of these difficult circumstances, plottery and intrigues were in fervent action against the Muslims. The chief criminal of Bani Nadir, Huyai, headed for the habitations of Banu Quraiza to incite their chief Ka‘b bin Asad Al-Qurazi, who had drawn a pact with the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) to run to his aid in times of war. Ka‘b, in the beginning resisted all Huyai’s temptation, but Huyai was clever enough to manipulate him, speaking of Quraish and their notables in Al-Asyal, as well as Ghatfan and their chieftains entrenched in Uhud, all in one mind, determined to exterminate Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his followers. He, moreover, promised to stay in Ka‘b’s fort exposing himself to any potential danger in case Quraish and Ghatfan recanted. The wicked man went on in this manner until he later managed to win Ka‘b to his side and persuade him to break his covenant with the Muslims. Banu Quraiza then started to launch war operations against the Muslims especially the secluded garrisons that housed the women and children of the Muslims.
INVADING BANU QURAIZA:
Archangel Gabriel (Peace be upon him) on the very day the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) came back to Madinah after the previous battle, and while he was washing in Umm Salama’s house, visited him asking that he should unsheathe his sword and head for the habitation of the seditious Banu Quraiza and fight them. Gabriel noted that he with a procession of angels would go ahead to shake their forts and cast fear in their hearts.
The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) , immediately summoned the prayer caller and ordered him to announce fresh hostilities against Banu Quraiza, institued Ibn Umm Maktum as a ruler of Madinah, and entrusted the banner of war to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib who marched towards the appointed target and came close enough to hear the Jews abusing the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him), who on his part set out at the head of three thousand infantry men and thirty horsemen of Ansar (Helpers) and Muhajireen (Emigrants). On their way to encounter the enemy, the afternoon prayer was due. Some Muslims refused to observe it until they had defeated the enemy, while others offered it in its proper time, as usual. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) objected to neither. When they reached the habitations of Banu Quraiza, they laid tight siege to their forts. Seeing this terrible situation they were in, the chief of the Jews Ka‘b bin Asad offered them three alternatives: to embrace Islam, and consequently their life, wealth, women and children would be in full security, and reminded them that such behaviour would not be incongruous with what they had read in their books about the veracity of Muhammad’s Prophethood; to kill their children and women and then challenge the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his followers to the sword to either exterminate the Muslims or be exterminated, or as a third possibility to take Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his people by surprise on Saturday — a day mutually understood to witness no fighting.
None of those alternatives appealed them, so their chief, angrily and indignantly, turned to them saying: “You have never been decisive in decision-making since you were born” The gloomy future already visible, they made contacts with some Muslims, who had maintained good relation with them, in order to learn about their fate in the light of the current circumstances. They requested that Abu Lubaba be despatched to them for advice. On his arrival, the men began to implore, women and children to cry desperately. In answer to their demand for advice he pointed to his throat saying it was homicide awaiting them. He then immediately realized that he had betrayed the Prophet’s trust, so he headed directly for the mosque in Madinah and tied himself to a wooden tall pole swearing that no one would untie him save the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him), and added that he would never enter the habitation of Banu Quraiza in recompense for the deadly mistake he made. When the Messenger (Peace be upon h im) was informed of this incident, he said, “ I would have begged Allâh to forgive him if he had asked me, but since he had tied himself out of his own free will, then it was Allâh Who would turn to him in forgiveness.”
The Jews of Banu Quraiza could have endured the siege much longer because food and water were plentifully available and their strongholds were greatly fortified, whereas the Muslims were in the wild bare land suffering a lot from cold and hunger, let alone too much fatigue consequent on endless warfare operations that had started even before the battle of Confederates. Nevertheless, this was a battle of nerves, for Allâh had cast fear in the the Jews’ hearts, and their morale had almost collapsed especially when two Muslim heroes, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib and Az-Zubair bin ‘Awwam (May Allah be pleased with him) proceeded with ‘Ali swearing that he would never stop until he had either stormed their garrisons or been martyred like Hamza (a former Muslim martyr).
In the light of this reluctance, they had nothing except to comply with the Messenger’s judgement. The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) ordered that the men should handcuffed, and this was done under the supervision of Muhammad bin Salamah Al-Ansari while the women and children were isolated in confinement. Thereupon Al-Aws tribe interceded begging the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to be lenient towards them. He suggested that Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh, a former ally, be deputed to give verdict about them, and they agreed.
Sa‘d meanwhile stayed behind in Madinah due to a serious wound he sustained in the Confederates Battle. He was summoned and brought on a donkey. On his way to the Prophet (Peace be upon him), the Jews used to exhort him to be lenient in his judgement on account of former friendship. Sa‘d remained silent but when they persisted he uttered: “It is time for Sa‘d not to be afraid of the blame of the blamers.” On hearing this decisive attitude, some of them returned to Madinah waiting for desperate doom.
On arrival, he alighted with the help of some men. He was informed that the Jews had agreed to accept his verdict about them. He immediately wondered if his judgement would pass on all the people present, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) included, turning his face away in honour of him. The reply was positive.
He decided that all the able-bodied male persons belonging to the tribe should be killed, women and children taken prisoners and their wealth divided among the Muslim fighters. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) accepted his judgement saying that Sa‘d had adjudged by the Command of Allâh. In fact, the Jews deserved that severe punitive action for the ugly treachery they had harboured against Islam, and the large arsenal they have amassed and which consisted of one thousand and five hundred swords, two thousand spears, three hundred armours and five hundred shields, all of which went into the hands of the Muslims. Trenches were dug in the bazaar of Madinah and a number of Jews between six and seven hundred were beheaded therein. Hot beds of intrigue and treachery were thus exterminated once and for all.
Huyai, a chief criminal of war, a devil of Bani Nadir and Safiyah’s father, had joined the ranks of Banu Quraiza when Quraish and Ghatfan defected, was admitted into the audience of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) with his hands tied to his neck with a rope. In audacious defiance, he declared obstinate enmity to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) but admitted that Allâh’s Will was to be fulfilled and added that he was resigned to his fate. He was ordered to sit down, and was beheaded
on the spot.
Only one woman of the Jews was killed because she had killed a Muslim warrior by flinging a grinding stone upon him. A few elements of the enemy embraced Islam and their lives, wealth and children were spared. As for the spoils of the war, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) divided them, after putting a fifth aside, in accordance with Allâh’s injunctions. Three shares went to the horseman and one to the infantry fighter. Women captives were sent to Najd to be bartered with horses and weaponry. For himself, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) selected Rehana bint ‘Amr bin Khanaqah, manumitted and married her in the year 6 Hijri. She died shortly after the farewell pilgrimage and was buried in Al-Baqi‘.
Volume 3, Book 40, Number 556 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “May Allah be merciful to the mother of Ishmael! If she had left the water of Zam-Zam (fountain) as it was, (without constructing a basin for keeping the water), (or said, “If she had not taken handfuls of its water”), it would have been a flowing stream. Jurhum (an Arab tribe) came and asked her, ‘May we settle at your dwelling?’ She said, ‘Yes, but you have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed.”
Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) narrated the story of Haajar, the wife of Ibraaheem and the mother of his son Ismaa’eel. He said:
Ibraaheem brought her and her son Ismaa’eel while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka’bah under a tree on the spot of Zamzam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Makkah, nor was there any water. So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water, and set out homeward. Ismaa’eel’s mother followed him saying, “O Ibraaheem! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?” She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him, “Has Allah ordered you to do this?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then He will not neglect us,” and returned while Ibraaheem went on his way. When he reached al-Thaniyyah, where they could not see him, he faced the Ka’bah, and raising both hands, prayed to Allaah in the following words:
“O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in an uncultivable valley by Your Sacred House (the Ka‘bah at Makkah) in order, O our Lord, that they may perform As‑Salaah (Iqaamat‑as‑Salaah). So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allaah) provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks”[Ibraaheem 14:37 – interpretation of the meaning]
Ismaa’eel’s mother went on suckling Ismaa’eel and drinking from the water (she had). When the water in the water-skin had all been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty. She started looking at him (i.e. Ismaa’eel) tossing in agony (or he said: kicking with his heels). She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of al-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended from al-Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached al-Marwa where she stood and started looking, expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between al-Safa and al-Marwa) seven times.
Ibn ‘Abbaas said: the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “This is the source of the tradition of the walking between them (i.e. al-Safa and al-Marwa). When she reached al-Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said, “O (whoever you may be)! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?” And she saw an angel at the place of Zamzam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing), till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands, and the water started flowing out after she had scooped some of it.”
Ibn ‘Abbaas said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) added, “May Allah bestow Mercy on Ismaa’eel’s mother! Had she left the Zamzam alone (flowing without trying to control it) (or had she not scooped from that water) (to fill her water-skin), Zamzam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.” The Prophet further added, “Then she drank (water) and suckled her child. The angel said to her, ‘Don’t be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.’ The House (i.e. Ka’bah) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left. She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child, as they (i.e. the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada’. They landed in the lower part of Makkah where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They said, ‘This bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.’ They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water, and returned to inform them of the water. So, they all came (towards the water).”
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) added, “Ismaa’eel’s mother was sitting near the water. They asked her, ‘Do you allow us to stay with you?’ She replied, ‘Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed to that.” Ibn ‘Abbaas said: the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) further said, “Ismaa’eel’s mother was pleased with the whole situation as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people. So, they settled there, and later on they sent for their families who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (i.e. Ismaa’eel) grew up and learnt Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up, and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.
After Ismaa’eel’s mother had died, Ibraaheem came after Ismaa’eel’s marriage in order to see his family that he had left before…
Then Ibraaheem came back later on. He saw Ismaa’eel under a tree near Zam-zam, sharpening his arrows. When he saw Ibraaheem, he stood up to welcome him, and they greeted each other as a father does with his son and a son does with his father. Ibraaheem said, ‘O Ismaa’eel! Allah has given me an order.’ Ismaa’eel said, ‘Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.’ Ibraaheem asked, ‘Will you help me?’ Ismaa’eel said, ‘I will help you.’ Ibraaheem said, ‘Allah has ordered me to build a house here,’ pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it.” The Prophet added, “Then they raised the foundations of the House (i.e. the Ka’bah). Ismaa’eel brought the stones and Ibraaheem was building, and when the walls became high, Ismaa’eel brought this stone and put it for Ibraaheem who stood on it and carried on building, while Ismaa’eel was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying, ‘Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower’ [al-Baqarah 2:127 – interpretation of the meaning]. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) added, “Then both of them went on building and going round the Ka’ba saying: ‘Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower’ [al-Baqarah 2:127 – interpretation of the meaning] . Saheeh al-Bukhaari, 3113
Taken from IslamQA
Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) recited the verse: “They had a choice either to fast or to feed a poor person for every day, and said that the order of this Verse was cancelled.
This ayah is 184 of Surah al-Baqarah:
Fast for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you if only you know.
In the Tafsir, Ibn Kathir says:
Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that `A’ishah said, “(The day of) `Ashura’ was a day of fasting. When the obligation to fast Ramadan was revealed, those who wished fasted, and those who wished did not.” Al-Bukhari recorded the same from Ibn `Umar and Ibn Mas`ud.
﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ﴾
(…those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).)
Mu`adh commented, “In the beginning, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not fast and fed a poor person for each day.” Al- Bukhari recorded Salamah bin Al-Akwa` saying that when the Ayah:
﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ﴾
(…those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).) was revealed, those who did not wish to fast, used to pay the Fidyah (feeding a poor person for each day they did not fast) until the following Ayah (2:185) was revealed abrogating the previous Ayah. It was also reported from `Ubaydullah from Nafi` that Ibn `Umar said; “It was abrogated.” As-Suddi reported that Murrah narrated that `Abdullah said about this Ayah:
﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ﴾
(those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).) “It means `those who find it difficult (to fast).’ Formerly, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not but fed a poor person instead.” Allah then said:
﴿فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا﴾
(But whoever does good of his own accord) meaning whoever fed an extra poor person,
﴿فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ وَأَن تَصُومُواْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ﴾
(it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you) Later the Ayah:
﴿فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ﴾
(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month) (2:185) was revealed and this abrogated the previous Ayah (2:184).
The Fidyah (Expiation) for breaking the Fast is for the Old and the Ailing
Al-Bukhari reported that `Ata heard Ibn `Abbas recite:
﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ﴾
(And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).)
Ibn `Abbas then commented, “(This Ayah) was not abrogated, it is for the old man and the old woman who are able to fast with difficulty, but choose instead to feed a poor person for every day (they do not fast).” Others reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr mentioned this from Ibn `Abbas. So the abrogation here applies to the healthy person, who is not traveling and who has to fast, as Allah said:
﴿فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ﴾
(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month.) (2:185)
As for the old man (and woman) who cannot fast, he is allowed to abstain from fasting and does not have to fast another day instead, because he is not likely to improve and be able to fast other days. So he is required to pay a Fidyah for every day missed. This is the opinion of Ibn `Abbas and several others among the Salaf who read the Ayah:
﴿وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ﴾
(And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man)) to mean those who find it difficult to fast as Ibn Mas`ud stated. This is also the opinion of Al-Bukhari who said, “As for the old man (person) who cannot fast, (he should do like) Anas who, for one or two years after he became old fed some bread and meat to a poor person for each day he did not fast.”
This point, which Al-Bukhari attributed to Anas without a chain of narrators, was collected with a continuous chain of narrators by Abu Ya`la Mawsuli in his Musnad, that Ayyub bin Abu Tamimah said; “Anas could no longer fast. So he made a plate of Tharid (broth, bread and meat) and invited thirty poor persons and fed them.” The same ruling applies for the pregnant and breast-feeding women if they fear for themselves or their children or fetuses. In this case, they pay the Fidyah and do not have to fast other days in place of the days that they missed.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 116:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) observed the fast on the 10th of Muharram (‘Ashura), and ordered (Muslims) to fast on that day, but when the fasting of the month of Ramadan was prescribed, the fasting of the ‘Ashura’ was abandoned. ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) did not use to fast on that day unless it coincided with his routine fasting by chance.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 117:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhu):
(The tribe of) Quraish used to fast on the day of Ashura’ in the Pre-lslamic period, and then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered (Muslims) to fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed; whereupon the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He who wants to fast (on ‘Ashura’) may fast, and he who does not want to fast may not fast.”
Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’. He said, ‘What is this?’ They said, ‘This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Musa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We have more right to Musa than you,’ so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day.” [Reported by al-Bukhari, 1865] “This is a righteous day” – in a report narrated by Muslim, [the Jews said:] “This is a great day, on which Allah saved Musa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people.” “Musa fasted on this day” – a report narrated by Muslim adds: ” … in thanksgiving to Allah, so we fast on this day.” According to a report narrated by al-Bukhari: ” … so we fast on this day to venerate it.” A version narrated by Imam Ahmad adds: “This is the day on which the Ark settled on Mount Judi, so Nuh fasted this day in thanksgiving,” and “commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day” – according to another report also narrated by al-Bukhari: “He said to his Companions: ‘You have more right to Musa than they do, so fast on that day.’ ”
The practice of fasting on ‘Ashura’ was known even in the days of Jahiliyyah, before the Prophet’s mission. It was reported that ‘A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: “The people of Jahiliyyah used to fast on that day … ”
Al-Qurtubi said: “Perhaps Quraysh used to fast on that day on the basis of some past law, such as that of Ibrahim, upon whom be peace.”
It was also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to fast on ‘Ashura’ in Makkah, before he migrated to Madinah. When he migrated to Madinah, he found the Jews celebrating this day, so he asked them why, and they replied as described in the hadith quoted above. He commanded the Muslims to be different from the Jews, who took it as a festival, as was reported in the hadithof Abu Musa (may Allah be pleased with him), who said: “The Jews used to take the day of ‘Ashura’ as a festival [according to a report narrated by Muslim: the day of ‘Ashura’ was venerated by the Jews, who took it as a festival. According to another report also narrated by Muslim: the people of Khaybar (the Jews) used to take it as a festival and their women would wear their jewellery and symbols on that day].The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ‘So you [Muslims] should fast on that day.’ ” [Reported by al-Bukhari] Apparently the motive for commanding the Muslims to fast on this day was the desire to be different from the Jews, so that the Muslims would fast when the Jews did not, because people do not fast on a day of celebration. [Summarized from the words of al-Hafidh Ibn Hajar – may Allah have mercy on him – in Fath al-Bari Sharh ‘ala Sahih al-Bukhari]
Fasting on ‘Ashura’ was a gradual step in the process of introducing fasting as a prescribed obligation in Islam. Fasting appeared in three forms. When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah, he told the Muslims to fast on three days of every month and on the day of ‘Ashura’, then Allah made fasting obligatory when He said (interpretation of the meaning): ” … observing the fasting is prescribed for you … ” [Al-Qur’an 2:183] [Ahkam al-Qur’an by al-Jassas, part 1]
The obligation was transferred from the fast of ‘Ashura’ to the fast of Ramadhan, and this one of the proofs in the field of Usul al-Fiqh that it is possible to abrogate a lighter duty in favour of a heavier duty.
Before the obligation of fasting ‘Ashura’ was abrogated, fasting on this day was obligatory, as can be seen from the clear command to observe this fast. Then it was further confirmed later on, then reaffirmed by making it a general command addressed to everybody, and once again by instructing mothers not to breastfeed their infants during this fast. It was reported from Ibn Mas’ud that when fasting Ramadhan was made obligatory, the obligation to fast ‘Ashura’ was lifted, i.e., it was no longer obligatory to fast on this day, but it is still desirable (mustahabb).
[Taken from SunnahOnline.com]
When the wall fell on them (i.e. graves) during the caliphate of Al-Walid bin ‘Abdul Malik, the people started repairing it, and a foot appeared to them. The people got scared and thought that it was the foot of the Prophet. No-one could be found who could tell them about it till I (‘Urwa) said to them, “By Allah, this is not the foot of the Prophet but it is the foot of Umar.”
Aisha narrated that she made a will to ‘Abdullah bin Zubair, “Do not bury me with them (the Prophet and his two companions) but bury me with my companions (wives of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) ) in Al-Baqi as I would not like to be looked upon as better than I really am (by being buried near the Prophet).”
There are two narrations in this regard:
Onne from Hisham bin `Urwah who narrated from his father:
كان الناس يصلون إلى القبر فأمر به عمر بن عبد العزيز فرفع حتى لا يصلي إليه أحد ، فلما هدم بدت قدم بساق وركبة ، ففزع عمر بن عبد العزيز ، فأتاه عروة ، فقال : هذا ساق عمر وركبته…الخ
When the wall of the quarter of Prophet (SAW) fell, people started praying towards it so Omar bin Abdul Aziz (RA) ordered it to be rebuilt to an extent that no one could pray towards it. When it was demolished, shin and the knee became apparent. Omar bin Abdul Aziz started crying then came Urwah to him and said: this is the shin and knee of Omar (RA). End quote.
In the same way there is another narration:
وروى الآجري من طريق مالك بن مغول ، عن رجاء بن حيوة ، قال : كتب الوليد بن عبد الملك إلى عمر بن عبد العزيز – وكان قد اشترى حجر أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم – أن اهدمها ووسع بها المسجد ، فقعد عمر في ناحية ، ثم أمر بهدمها ، فما رأيته باكيا أكثر من يومئذ . ثم بناه كما أراد . فلما أن بنى البيت على القبر وهدم البيت الأول ظهرت القبور الثلاثة ، وكان الرمل الذي عليها قد انهار ، ففزع عمر بن عبد العزيز ، وأراد أن يقوم فيسويها بنفسه ، فقلت له : أصلحك الله ، إنك إن قمت قام الناس معك ، فلو أمرت رجلا أن يصلحها ، ورجوت أنه يأمرني بذلك ، فقال : يا مزاحم – يعني مولاه – قم فأصلحها
And it is narrated by Al-Aajiri from the chain of Malik bin Mighwal, who narrated from Rajaa bin Hayawah, who said: Walid bin Abdul Malik wrote to Umar bin Abdul Aziz who bought the quarter of Prophet’s wives in order to demolish it and extend the premises of Masjid, so Umar bin Abdul Aziz stood on one side and ordered for its fall and from that day onward I never saw Umar crying more than what he cried at that time. Then he built as it was planned. When (after extending) the house was being rebuilt, three graves became apparent and the sand on them was crumpled (graves were cracked) so Omar bin Abdul Aziz started crying and then he thought of repairing and leveling it himself, he said to him: May Allah reform you, if you stand, people will stand with you, if you had ordered a man would have done it, and I hoped that he would order me to do so. He said: O friend! Stand and reform it!
Anyway, this incident is taken as proof that bodies of martyrs don’t get degenerated by the soil. But it is better not to say this because the preferred opinion in this regard is we can’t say anything for sure because there is no evidence for such claim. There are many contrary situations witnessed as well. Moreover, it is not necessary that the body was saved because it was of Omar (RA) who was martyred and not Abu Bakr (RA)’s who wasn’t.
When there is no evidence for distinguishing between martyrs and other Muslims then it would fall under the general principle:
كل ابن آدم يأكله التراب إلا عجب الذنب منه خلق وفيه يركب *
أخرجه البخاري والنسائي وأبو داود وابن ماجه وأحمد في المسند ومالك في الموطأ
Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: “The earth would consume every son of Adam except his spinal chord from which his body would be reconstituted (on the Day of Resurrection)“. Narrated by Bukhari, an-Nasai, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad in his Musnad and Malik in Muwatta.
Hence, Allah preserves the bodies of His beloved people whenever He wills and whomever He wills, whether he is a martyr or not.
The bodies of Prophets would be considered as an exception as there is an evidence for the exception. Allahu A`lam [Allah knows best].
As for the second part, Aishah (RA) gave up her position (near the Prophet [SAW]) where she wanted to be buried, because Umar (RA) had asked her if he could be buried there. She preferred him over herself saying that “I would not like to be looked upon as better than I really am”. SubhanAllah. [More on this tomorrow inshaAllah.]