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Two Things that Fled from Ibn `Umar [RA] (Ahadith 2699 – 2700)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2698 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 301 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) performed ‘Umra, setting out from Al-Jarana where he distributed the war booty of Hunain.

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 302 :
Narrated by Nafi
Once a slave of Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) fled and joined the Byzantine. Khalid bin Al-Walid (radiallaahu `anhu) got him back and returned him to ‘Abdullah (bin ‘Umar) (radiallaahu `anhu). Once a horse of Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) also ran away and followed the Byzantines, and he (i.e. Khalid) got it back and returned it to ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu).

time_to_flee

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 303 :
Narrated by Ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he was riding a horse on the day, the Muslims fought (against the Byzantines), and the commander of the Muslim army was Khalid bin Al-Walid (radiallaahu `anhu) who had been appointed by Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu). The enemy took the horse away, and when the enemy was defeated, Khalid (radiallaahu `anhu) returned the horse to him.

If a Muslim’s property is captured by non-Muslims and is returned as war booty to the Muslims, does the original owner have more right on it or the fighters? Scholars have disputed in this matter, but it looks like Imam Bukhari takes evidence in these ahadith from the fact that Khalid bin Waleed (radiallaahu `anhu) returned Ibn `Umar’s (radiallaahu `anhu) slave and horse to him without any hesitation. All the major sahaabah were present at that time, including Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu). It’s highly unlikely of them to not speak up against a wrongdoing when they see it.

P.S. isn’t it funny how the slave that fled and the horse that was captured both belonged to Ibn `Umar (radiallaahu `anhu). Coincidence?

Read more on the ruling on war booty.

Of Bells and Chimes (Hadith No. 2645)

Bismillah.

Long time, eh? May Allah forgive me for my shortcomings. :(

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 249 :
Narrated by Abu Bashir Al-Ansari (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he was in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) on some of his journeys. (The sub-narrator ‘Abdullah adds, “I think that Abu Bashir (radiallaahu `anhu) also said, ‘And the people were at their sleeping places.”) Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent a messenger ordering: “There shall not remain any necklace of string or any other kind of necklace round the necks of camels except it is cut off.”

One of the opinions on theses ‘necklaces’ is that they refer to the bells that are hung round the necks of animals. Muslim narrated in his Saheeh (2113) from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The angels do not accompany any group with whom there is a dog or a bell.” 

And he narrated (2114) also from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Bells are the musical instruments of the Shaytaan.” 

A common animal bell.

A common animal bell.

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: As for bells, it was said that the reason why the angels dislike them is that they are similar to church bells, or because they are one of the hanging things that are forbidden. And it was said that the reason why they are disliked is their sound, which is supported by the report which mentions “the musical instruments of the shaytaan.”

Al-Nawawi commented on this hadith in Riyad-us-Saaliheen (chapter 307):

Dog” here stands for that dog which is prohibited to keep. Dogs kept for the purpose of hunting and security do not fall in this category. Angels signify angels of mercy; otherwise we are attended all the time by the angels who record our deeds for us. Bell in this context refers to the bell which is placed in the neck of animals and rings when they move. End quote.

The reason why their sound is disliked is that it is akin to musical instruments, which are forbidden.

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: To sum up, the sound has two qualities, one which is the strength of the sound and the other is its tune, and because of its musical tune it was prohibited, and the reason was given as being because they are “the musical instruments of the shaytaan.”

Cute? Sure. Allowed? No.

Cute? Sure. Allowed? No. Ditch the bell plis.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: (The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) told us that the angels do not accompany people with whom there is a bell, because when the animals walk, it will make a sound like music, and it is known that musical instruments are haraam. End quote. Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen (4/340).

[IslamQA]

For further reading (in Arabic), click here.

Can You Ride an Unsaddled Horse? (Ahadith 2512 – 2513)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 117 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) put his feet in the stirrup and the she-camel got up carrying him he would start reciting Talbiya at the mosque of Dhul-Hulaifa.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 118 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) met them (i.e. the people) while he was riding an unsaddled horse with his sword slung over his shoulder.

bay-horse-stirrup-saddle

Stirrup in focus.

We get to know from the above narrations that the Prophet (SAW) could ride a horse saddled and otherwise. He said: “Teach your children swimming, archery and horse riding”. In another narration, he said, “Practice archery and horseback riding.” [Sahih Muslim]

Horse riding, archery and swimming must be part of an average Muslim’s skill set. And I personally think that today’s children should be taught driving and gun shooting as well, so when push comes to shove, they’re able to save their and/or others’ lives whichever way possible. And it’s not important to learn these things just for saving lives, but to maintain an active, healthy lifestyle (driving I must exclude from this :P).

Next step: find a horse to ride!

Fleeing the Battlefield (Hadith No. 2511)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 116 :
Narrated by Abu Ishaq
Somebody asked Al-Bara bin ‘Azib (radiallaahu `anhu), “Did you flee deserting Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) during the battle of Hunain?” Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “But Allah’s Apostle did not flee. The people of the Tribe of Hawazin were good archers. When we met them, we attacked them, and they fled. When the Muslims started collecting the war booty, the pagans faced us with arrows, but Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not flee. No doubt, I saw him on his white mule and Abu Sufyan (radiallaahu `anhu) was holding its reins and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was saying, ‘I am the Prophet in truth: I am the son of ‘Abdul Muttalib.’ “

Allah says about fleeing the battlefield:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا زَحْفًا فَلَا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الْأَدْبَارَ
وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلَّا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَىٰ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

“O you who have believed, when you meet those who disbelieve advancing [for battle], do not turn to them your backs [in flight]. And whoever turns his back to them on such a day, unless swerving [as a strategy] for war or joining [another] company, has certainly returned with anger [upon him] from Allah , and his refuge is Hell – and wretched is the destination.” [Al-Anfaal: 15-16]

COWARD

Ibn Kathir comments:

Allah said, while warning against fleeing from the battlefield and threatening those who do it with the Fire,

﴿يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحْفاً﴾

(O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve, in a battlefield,) when you get near the enemy and march towards them,

﴿فَلاَ تُوَلُّوهُمُ الأَدْبَارَ﴾

(never turn your backs to them.) do not run away from battle and leave your fellow Muslims behind,

﴿وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفاً لِّقِتَالٍ﴾

(And whoever turns his back to them on such a day — unless it be a stratagem of war…)

The Ayah says, whoever flees from the enemy by way of planning to pretend that he is afraid of the enemy, so that they follow him and he takes the chance and returns to kill the enemy, then there is no sin on him. This is the explanation of Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi. Ad-Dahhak also commented, “Whoever went ahead of his fellow Muslims to investigate the strength of the enemy and make use of it,

﴿أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزاً إِلَى فِئَةٍ﴾

(or to retreat to a troop (of his own)), meaning he leaves from here to another troop of Muslims to assist them or be assisted by them. So that is allowed for him, or even during the battle if he flees from his brigade to the commander. Or going to the grand Imam, would also fall under this permission.”

`Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, said about Abu `Ubayd when he was fighting on the bridge in the land of the Persians, because of the many Zoroastrian soldiers, “If he retreated to me then I would be as a troop for him.”

This is how it was reported by Muhammad bin Sirin from `Umar. In the report of Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi from `Umar, he said: When Abu `Ubayd was fighting, `Umar said, “O people! We are your troop.” Mujahid said that `Umar said, “We are the troop of every Muslim.” Abdul-Malik bin `Umayr reported from `Umar, “O people! Don’t be confused over this Ayah, it was only about the day of Badr, and we are a troop for every Muslim.” Ibn Abi Hatim ﴿recorded﴾ that Nafi` questioned Ibn `Umar, “We are people who are not stationary when fighting our enemy, and we may not know where our troop is, be it that of our Imam or our army.”

So he replied, “The troop is Allah’s Messenger .” I said but Allah said,

﴿إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحْفاًالنَّارِ﴾

(when you meet those who disbelieve in the battlefield) to the end of the Ayah . So he said; “This Ayah was about Badr, not before it nor after it.”

Ad-Dahhak commented that Allah’s statement,

﴿أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزاً إِلَى فِئَةٍ﴾

(or to retreat to a troop), refers to “Those who retreat to the Messenger of Allah and his Companions (when the Messenger was alive), and those who retreat in the present time to his commander or companions.” However, if one flees for any other reason than those mentioned here, then it is prohibited and considered a major sin. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«اِجْتَنِبُوا السَّبْعَ الْمُوبِقَات»

(“Shun the seven great destructive sins.”)

The people inquired, “O Allah’s Messenger! What are they” He said,

«الشِّرْكُ بِاللهِ وَالسِّحْرُ وَقَتْلُ النَّفْسِ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَكْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَكْلُ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ وَالتَّوَلِّي يَوْمَ الزَّحْفِ وَقَذْفُ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَافِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَات»

((They are:) Joining others in worship with Allah, magic taking life which Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law), consuming Riba, consuming an orphan’s wealth, fleeing the battlefield at the time of fighting, and false accusation to chaste women, who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers.)

This is why Allah said here,

﴿فَقَدْ بَآءَ﴾

(he indeed has drawn upon himself…), and returned with,

﴿بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ﴾

(wrath from Allah. And his abode…), destination, and dwelling place on the Day of Return,

﴿جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ﴾

(is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination!)

One for the Rider, Two for the Horse (Hadith No. 2510)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2507 – 25 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 112 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Horses are kept for one of three purposes; for some people they are a source of reward, for some others they are a means of shelter and for some others they are a source of sins. The one for whom they are a source of reward, is he who keeps a horse for Allah’s Cause (i.e. Jihad) tying it with a long tether on a meadow or in a garden with the result that whatever it eats from the area of the meadow or the garden where it is tied will be counted as good deeds for his benefit, and if it should break its rope and jump over one or two hillocks then all its dung and its foot marks will be written as good deeds for him; and if it passes by a river and drinks water from it even though he had no intention of watering it, even then he will get the reward for its drinking. As for the man for whom horses are a source of sins, he is the one who keeps a horse for the sake of pride and pretense and showing enmity for Muslims: such a horse will be a source of sins for him. When Allah’s Apostle was asked about donkeys, he replied, “Nothing has been revealed to me about them except this unique, comprehensive Verse: “Then anyone who does an atom’s (or a small ant’s) weight of good shall see it; And anyone who does an atom’s (or a small ant’s) weight of evil, shall see it.’ (101.7-8)

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 113 :
Narrated by Muslim from Abu Aqil from Abu Al-Mutawakkil An-Naji
I called on Jabir bin ‘Abdullah Al-Ansari (radiallaahu `anhu) and said to him, “Relate to me what you have heard from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” He said, “I accompanied him on one of the journeys.” (Abu Aqil said, “I do not know whether that journey was for the purpose of Jihad or ‘Umra.”) “When we were returning,” Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) continued, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Whoever wants to return earlier to his family, should hurry up.’ We set off and I was on a black red tainted camel having no defect, and the people were behind me. While I was in that state the camel stopped suddenly (because of exhaustion). On that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to me, ‘O Jabir, wait!’ Then he hit it once with his lash and it started moving on a fast pace. He then said, ‘Will you sell the camel?’ I replied in the affirmative when we reached Medina, and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went to the Mosque along with his companions. I, too, went to him after tying the camel on the pavement at the Mosque gate. Then I said to him, ‘This is your camel.’ He came out and started examining the camel and saying, ‘The camel is ours.’ Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent some Awaq (i.e. an amount) of gold saying, ‘Give it to Jabir.’ Then he asked, ‘Have you taken the full price (of the camel)?’ I replied in the affirmative. He said, ‘Both the price and the camel are for you.’ ”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 114 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
There was a feeling of fright in Medina, so the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) borrowed a horse called Mandub belonging to Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) and mounted it. (On his return), he said, “I did not see anything of fright and I found this horse very fast.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 115 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) fixed two shares for the horse and one share for its rider (from the war booty).

With regard to ghaneemah (booty), it is obligatory according to sharee’ah for the imaam (leader) or the commander of the mujaahideen or the one who is responsible for them or in charge of them, to gather the booty and divide it into five equal parts, one of which is to be distributed to the groups mentioned by Allaah in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“And know that whatever of war-booty that you may gain, verily, one-fifth (1/5th) of it is assigned to Allaah, and to the Messenger, and to the near relatives [of the Messenger (Muhammad)], (and also) the orphans, Al‑Masaakin (the poor) and the wayfarer” [al-Anfaal 8:41]

The other four-fifths are to be shared out among the mujaahideen who took part in the fighting, by giving one share to each foot-soldier and three shares to each horseman (one share for him and two for his horse – this is if horses were used in the fighting). This wealth is permissible and good for the Muslim army, and has been allowed for them by Allaah, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): “So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good’ [al-Anfaal 8:69].

What is meant by al-khums (the one-fifth), is what referred to in the aayah [al-Anfaal 8:41] and this is this first share to be distributed. The way it is to be distributed is as follows:

1.     A share for Allaah and His Messenger, which is to be used to serve the common interest of the Muslims, not for any specific person(s). Allaah has stated that this is for Him and for His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Allaah and His Messenger have no need of it, therefore we know that it is for the slaves of Allaah. The fact that Allaah did not state that it was for anyone in particular indicates that it should be spent to serve the common interests of all. (Tafseer Ibn Sa’di, 3/169)

2.     A share for the relatives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) from Bani Haashim and Bani al-Muttalib. They are all equally entitled to it, rich and poor, male and female.

3.     Orphans – those who have lost their fathers whilst they are still young i.e., before the age of puberty.

4.     The poor and needy.

5.     The wayfarer, i.e. travellers who are cut off and need money in order to get back home.

Taken from IslamQA

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