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Vows (Ahadith 1583 – 1585)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 1582 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 29, Number 87:

Narrated Qaza’a, the slave of Ziyad:

Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu) who participated in twelve Ghazawat with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I heard four things from Allah’s Apostle (or I narrate them from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) which won my admiration and appreciation. They are:

1. “No lady should travel without her husband or without a Dhu-Mahram for a two-days’ journey.

2. No fasting is permissible on two days of ‘Id-al-Fitr, and ‘Id-al-Adha.

3. No prayer (may be offered) after two prayers: after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun set and after the morning prayer till the sun rises.

4. Not to travel (for visiting) except for three mosques: Masjid-al-Haram (in Mecca), my Mosque (in Medina), and Masjid-al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem).”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 3, Book 29, Number 88:

Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw an old man walking, supported by his two sons, and asked about him. The people informed him that he had vowed to go on foot (to the Ka’ba). He said, “Allah is not in need of this old man’s torturing himself,” and ordered him to ride.


Volume 3, Book 29, Number 89:

Narrated ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir (radiallaahu `anhu):

My sister vowed to go on foot to the Ka’ba, and she asked me to take the verdict of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it. So, I did and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “She should walk and also should ride.”


Volume 3, Book 29, Number 90:

Narrated Abu-l-Khair from ‘Uqba (radiallaahu `anhu) as above.

I’ve had to do a detailed study on this matter. Bear with me till the end please. I hope I’m able to make the reader understand the concept fully inshaAllah.

Understanding Vows

Vows are of two types:

  1. Conditional vows, in which the vow is dependent upon something happening, as when a person says, “If Allaah heals me, I will give such and such in charity, or I will fast such and such a number of days,” and so on.
  2. Unconditional vows (which are not connected to anything), such as saying, “I will fast such and such a number of days for Allaah.”

Both types of vows must be fulfilled, if what is vowed is to do an act of worship. (Because if it’s not, it’s impermissible to do it anyway.)

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

Whoever vows to obey Allaah, let him obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Him let him not disobey Him.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6696.

Condemnation

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) condemned those who made vows but did not fulfill them. Muslim (2535) narrated from ‘Imraan ibn Husayn that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

The best of you are my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.

‘Imraan said: I do not know whether the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “and those who follow them” two times or three.

Then after them will come people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, who will betray and not be trustworthy, who will make vows but not fulfill them, and fatness will appear among them.

Breaking Vows

One must do everything in his capacity to fulfill his vow. If he falls short, he has to offer kaffaarah as mentioned in Surah al-Maa’idah:

“Allaah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masaakeen (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families, or clothe them or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allaah makes clear to you His Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful.
[al-Maa’idah 5:89]

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:

Whoever swears an oath then sees that something else is better than it, let him do that and offer expiation for his oath.
Narrated by Muslim, 1650

Exception/Difference of Opinion

The scholars have differed on this: if the vow entails extreme unnecessary hardship, should it still be fulfilled? The sound and more correct opinion is that it’s better to break that vow. And no expiation is to be offered for breaking (only) this kind of vow as the narrations above indicate. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not order that man to offer any expiation. He was only asked to break his vow since it was bringing unnecessary hardship.

Book of Penalty Of Hunting While on Pilgrimage ends here.

To Kill in Ihraam (Ahadith 1575 – 1578)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 29, Number 52:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It is not sinful of a Muhrim to kill five kinds of animals.”


Volume 3, Book 29, Number 53:

One of the wives of the Prophet narrated:

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A Muhrim can kill (five kinds of animals.)”


Volume 3, Book 29, Number 54:

Narrated Hafsa (radiallaahu `anhaa):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It is not sinful (of a Muhrim) to kill five kinds of animals, namely: the crow, the kite, the mouse, the scorpion and the rabid dog.”


Volume 3, Book 29, Number 55:

Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Five kinds of animals are harmful and could be killed in the Haram (Sanctuary). These are: the crow, the kite, the scorpion, the mouse and the rabid dog.”

Al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad said: I heard ‘Aa’ishah, the wife of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), say: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say:

“There are four things which are faasiq (corrupt) and may be killed at all times, whether one is in a state of ihraam [for Hajj and ‘Umrah] or not: kites, crows, mice/rats and mad dogs.”
Narrated by Muslim, 1198.

Ibn ‘Abbaas said: a mouse (or rat) came and started dragging the wick (of the lamp). It threw it in front of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), onto the mat on which he was sitting, and it burnt a hole the size of a dirham. He said, “When you go to sleep, extinguish your lamps, for the Shaytaan will tell creatures like this to do something like this so that you will be burned.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 5427.

The mice or rats that may live in people’s houses are among the harmful creatures or vermin (fuwaysiqah) which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to kill in all situations, whether we are in ihraam or not. The root of the word fuwaysiqah (fasaqa) means to deviate from the right way and to do harm; hence a sinner is described as “faasiq”, and these animals are called fawaasiq, as a metaphor for their evil nature; or it was said that it is because it is not haraam to kill them, whether one is in ihraam or not, for they have no sanctity or protection in any circumstances.

Read more on killing rats and mice, and an interesting comment on the Mickey Mouse here. :P

Game and Ihraam (Hadith No. 1574)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 29, Number 51:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):

From As-Sa’b bin Jath-thama Al-Laithi that the latter presented an onager to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while he was at Al-Abwa’ or at Waddan, and he refused it. On noticing the signs of some unpleasant feeling of disappointment on his (As-Sab’s) face, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “I have only returned it because I am Muhrim.”

Apparently there’s ikhtilaaf (difference) between today’s hadith and yesterday’s post. And due to this ikhtilaaf, scholars have also differed in their opinions regarding the ruling for a muhrim eating game. One group says a muhrim is allowed to eat game because of Abu Qatada’s hadith, and the other group says a muhrim must not eat game because of the above hadith and this ayah:

..forbidden is (the pursuit of) land-game as long as you are in a state of Ihram (for Hajj or ‘Umrah). [5:96]

The correct and balanced opinion, that of most scholars (including Imaam Maalik, Shafi`i and Ahmad etc.), is that a muhrim is allowed to eat the game that was not hunted for him specifically. But the game that was hunted for him, as it was done in the above mentioned hadith, he cannot eat it, nor accept it.

If it so happens that someone offers you something that’s forbidden in Ihraam while you’re in Ihraam, you may refuse them politely, saying something like “a muhrim is not allowed to have such-and-such”. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) refused politely as well, and when he saw the person getting disappointed, he told him the reason. Remember, accepting something that’s forbidden in Ihraam while you’re in Ihraam for the fear of offending the other person is not allowed. Fear disobeying Allah more.

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