Volume 4, Book 52, Number 203 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The ‘Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It is obligatory for one to listen to and obey (the ruler’s orders) unless these orders involve one disobedience (to Allah); but if an act of disobedience (to Allah) is imposed, he should not listen to or obey it.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 204 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
That heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “We are the last but will be the foremost to enter Paradise).” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, “He who obeys me, obeys Allah, and he who disobeys me, disobeys Allah. He who obeys the chief, obeys me, and he who disobeys the chief, disobeys me. The Imam is like a shelter for whose safety the Muslims should fight and where they should seek protection. If the Imam orders people with righteousness and rules justly, then he will be rewarded for that, and if he does the opposite, he will be responsible for that.”
The ruler who does not rule according to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger should be obeyed in matters that do not involve disobedience towards Allaah and His Messenger, and it is not obligatory to fight him because of that; rather it is not permissible to do so unless he reaches the level of kufr, in which case it becomes obligatory to oppose him and he has no right to be obeyed by the Muslims.
Ruling according to anything other than that which is in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger reaches the level of kufr when two conditions are met:
1. When he knows the ruling of Allaah and His Messenger; if he is unaware of it, then he does not commit kufr by going against it.
2. When what makes him rule by something other than that which Allaah has revealed is the belief that it is a ruling that is not suitable for our time and that something else is more suitable than it and more beneficial for people.
If these two conditions are met, then ruling by something other than that which Allaah has revealed constitutes kufr which puts a person beyond the pale of Islam, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whosoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the Kaafiroon (i.e. disbelievers)” [al-Maa’idah 5:44]. The authority of the ruler becomes invalid and he has no right to be obeyed by the people; it becomes obligatory to fight him and remove him from power.
But if he rules by something other than that which Allaah has revealed whilst believing that ruling by that – i.e. that which Allaah has revealed — is what is obligatory, and that it is more suitable for the people, but he goes against it because of some whims and desires on his part or because he wants to wrong the people under his rule, then he is not a kaafir; rather he is a faasiq (evildoer) or a zaalim (wrongdoer). His authority remains, and obeying him in matters that do not involve disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger is obligatory, and it is not permissible to fight him or remove him from power by force or to rebel against him, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) forbade rebelling against rulers unless we see blatant kufr for which we have proof from Allaah. End quote.
Is it permissible to rebel against the ruler?
The basic comprehensive principle of sharee’ah is that it is not permitted to remove an evil by means of a greater evil; evil must be warded off by that which will remove it or reduce it. Warding off evil by means of a greater evil is not permitted according to the scholarly consensus (ijmaa’) of the Muslims. If this group which wants to get rid of this ruler who is openly committing kufr is able to do so, and can bring in a good and righteous leader without that leading to greater trouble for the Muslims or a greater evil than the evil of this ruler, then that is OK. But if rebellion would result in greater trouble and lead to chaos, oppression and the assassination of people who do not deserve to be assassinated, and other forms of major evil, then that is not permitted. Rather it is essential to be patient and to hear and obey in matters of good, and to offer sincere advice to the authorities, and to pray that they may be guided to good, and to strive to reduce evil and increase good. This is the correct way which should be followed, because that is in the general interests of the Muslims, and because it will reduce evil and increase good, and because this will keep the peace and protect the Muslims from a greater evil.
[Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah li Samaahat al-Shaykh al-‘Allaamah ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him), vol. 8, p. 202]
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 101 :
Narrated by Malik bin Al-Huwairith (radiallaahu `anhu)
On my departure from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) he said to me and to a friend of mine, “You two, pronounce the Adhan and the Iqama for the prayer and let the elder of you lead the prayer.”
We’ve established previously that the minimum number of people required for a congregational prayer is two. This hadith further proves the importance of the adhaan and iqaamah regardless of the number of people in congregation and the place. Adhaan and iqaamah are NOT limited to the mosque, they should be established wherever the congregation is being held – even while traveling.
While looking up the importance of adhaan and iqaamah, I came across this absolutely beautiful hadeeth of ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir, who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
‘Your Lord likes it when a shepherd at the top of a mountain pass calls the Adhaan for prayer and then prays. Then Allaah says, “Look at this slave of mine, saying the Adhaan and the Iqaamah for prayer and fearing Me. I ask you to bear witness that I have forgiven My slave and will admit him to Paradise.”’” (Narrated by al-Nisaa’i)
This is just too good to ignore. Such beautiful rewards for an easy act. It also proves the importance of adhaan and iqaamah for a person who’s praying alone (men only). Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said in reply to a related question:
The Sunnah is to give the adhaan and iqaamah. As to whether it is obligatory, there is a difference of opinion among the scholars. It is better and more on the safe side for you to give the adhaan then the iqaamah, because of the general meaning of the evidence. But you should pray in congregation whenever possible. If there is a congregation or you can hear the call to prayer from a mosque near you, then it is obligatory for you to respond to the muezzin and attend the prayer in congregation. If you cannot hear the call and there is no mosque near you, the Sunnah is for you to give the adhaan yourself, then the iqaamah. End quote.
Al-Shaafa’i (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
“If a man neglects to say the Adhaan and Iqaamah when he is praying alone or in congregation, I regard that as makrooh, but he does not have to repeat the prayers he did without the Adhaan or Iqaamah.”
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
السلام علیکم ورحمته اللہ وبرکاته
Inshaa’Allaah in this post and the upcoming one I’ll discuss about the most authentic books and sources of hadeeth, just a little introduction about the hard work of the authors, who dedicated their whole lives for the noble `ilm (knowledge). May Allaah be pleased with them. Aameen.
The early sources of hadeeth fall into three distinct groups.
- Firstly, there were books on Maghaazee (almost synonymous with Seerah) – such as those of Ibn Is’haaq and others – in which hadeeths of a historical nature are to be found.
- Secondly, there were books on Fiqh, such as the Muwatta’ of Imaam Maalik and Kitaab al-Umm of Imaam al-Shaafi‘ee, which contain a large number of legal hadeeths, cited in the context of legal discussions and mingled with rulings and practices of the Companions and their students.
- Finally, there are works that are strictly collections of Hadeeth such as Saheeh al-Bukhari.
Today Inshaa’Allaah I will discuss about Muwatta’ of Imam Maalik..
The Muwatta’ of Imam Maalik:
Maalik ibn Anas ibn ‘Aamir, was born in Madeenah in the year 717 CE. His grandfather, ‘Aamir, was among the major Sahaabah of Madeenah. Maalik May Allaah be pleased with him studied Hadeeth under Az-Zuhree May Allaah be pleased with him who was the greatest hadeeth scholar of his time. as well as under the great hadeeth narrator, Naafi‘, the freed slave of the Sahabee ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar Radiyallaah’anhu. Maalik’s May Allaah be pleased with him only journeys outside of Madeenah were for Hajj, and thus he largely limited himself to the knowledge available in Madeenah. Imaam Maalik continued to teach hadeeth in Madeenah over a period of forty years and he managed to compile a book containing hadeeths of the Prophet Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam and rulings of the Sahaabah and their successors which he named Al-Muwatta’ (the Beaten Path). Abbaasid caliph, Aboo Ja‘far al-Mansoor (754-755 CE) who wanted a comprehensive code of law based on the Prophet’s Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam’s Sunnah which could be applied uniformly throughout his realm. But, on its completion, Imaam Maalik refused to have it forced on the people pointing out that the Sahaabah had scattered throughout the Islamic empire and had taken with them other parts of the Sunnah which also had to be considered in any laws imposed throughout the state. Caliph Haaroon ar-Rasheed (768-809 CE) also made the same request of the Imaam, but he was also turned down. Imaam Maalik died in the city of his birth in the year 801CE at the venerable age of 83.
Respect for Hadeeth:
Ma’n b. ‘Îsa Al-Qazzâz reports:
Whenever Maalik bin ‘Anas Allaah have mercy on him – would sit to narrate hadeeth he would bath and perfume himself. If anyone raised his voice in the gathering [Imam Maalik] would reprimand him and say, “Lower your voice, for Allah tabâraka wa ta’âlâ said:
O Believers! Do not raise your voices over that of the Prophet [Sûrah Al-Hujarât: 2]
Whoever raises his voice over the sound of the hadeeth of Allah’s Messenger Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam then it is as if he is raising his voice over that of the Prophet Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam”
Nasr b. Ibrâhîm Al-Maqdisî in Mukhtasar Al-Hujjah ‘alâ Târik Al-Mahajjah Vol.1 p121.
Lastly I just want to share one of my favorite quote of Imaam Maalik may Allaah be pleased with him:
May Allaah Subhanahu wa ta’laa give us Hidayah and guide us to the path of the righteous people. Aameen.
Once the sun eclipsed and Allah’s Apostle stood up for the prayer and recited a very long Sura and when bowed for a long while and then raised his head and started reciting another Sura. Then he bowed, and after finishing, he prostrated and did the same in the second Raka and then said, “These (lunar and solar eclipses) are two of the signs of Allah and if you see them, pray till the eclipse is over. No doubt, while standing at this place I saw everything promised to me by Allah and I saw (Paradise) and I wanted to pluck a bunch (of grapes) therefrom, at the time when you saw me stepping forward. No doubt, I saw Hell with its different parts destroying each other when you saw me retreating and in it I saw ‘Amr bin Luhai who started the tradition of freeing animals (set them free) in the name of idols.”
Already covered here.
The Prophet saw some sputum on the wall facing the Qibla of the mosque and became furious with the people of the mosque and said, “During the prayer, Allah is in front of everyone of you and so he should not spit (or said, ‘He should not expectorate’).” Then he got down and scratched the sputum with his hand. Ibn ‘Umar said (after narrating), “If anyone of you has to spit during the prayer, he should spit to his left.”
The Prophet said, “Whenever anyone of you is in prayer, he is speaking in private to his Lord and so he should neither spit in front of him nor on his right side but to his left side under his left foot.”
Narrated Sahl bin Sad:
The people used to offer the prayer with the Prophet with their waist-sheets tied round their necks because of the shortness of the sheets and the women were ordered not to lift their heads till the men had sat straight.
I used to greet the Prophet while he was in prayer and he would return my greeting, but when we returned (from Ethiopia) I greeted the Prophet (while he was praying) but he did not return the greeting, and (after finishing the prayer) he said, “In the prayer one is occupied (with a more serious matter).”
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:
Allah’s Apostle sent me for some job and when I had finished it I returned and came to the Prophet and greeted him but he did not return my greeting. So I felt so sorry that only Allah knows it and I said to myself,, ‘Perhaps Allah’s Apostle is angry because I did not come quickly, then again I greeted him but he did not reply. I felt even more sorry than I did the first time. Again I greeted him and he returned the greeting and said, “The thing which prevented me from returning the greeting was that I was praying.” And at that time he was on his Rahila and his face was not towards the Qibla.
Aww. Jabir (RA) must have went through a lot in that experience. Well he didn’t know Prophet (SAW) was praying, so he wasn’t at fault.
Narrated Sahl bin Sad:
The news about the differences amongst the people of Bani ‘Amr bin ‘Auf at Quba reached Allah’s Apostle and so he went to them along with some of his companions to affect a reconciliation. Allah’s Apostle was delayed there and the time for the prayer became due. Bilal came to Abu Bakr! and said, “O Abu Bakr! Allah’s Apostle is detained (there) and the time for the prayer is due. Will you lead the people in prayer?” Abu Bakr replied, “Yes, if you wish.” So Bilal pronounced the Iqama and Abu Bakr went forward and the people said Takbir. In the meantime, Allah’s Apostle came piercing through the rows till he stood in the (first) row and the people started clapping. Abu Bakr, would never look hither and thither during the prayer but when the people clapped much he looked back and saw Allah’s Apostle. The Prophet beckoned him to carry on. Abu Bakr raised both his hands, praised Allah and retreated till he stood in the row and Allah’s Apostle went forward and led the people in the prayer. When he had finished the prayer, he addressed the people and said, “O people! Why did you start clapping when something happened to you in the prayer? Clapping is for women. Whenever one is confronted with something unusual in the prayer one should say, ‘Sub Han Allah’.” Then the Prophet looked towards Abu Bakr and asked, “What prevented you from leading the prayer when I beckoned you to carry on?” Abu Bakr replied, “It does not befit the son of Al Quhafa to lead the prayer in the presence of Allah’s Apostle.
Placing hands on hips
Narrated Abu Huraira:
It was forbidden to keep the hands on the hips during the prayer. (This is narrated by Abu Huraira from the Prophet.)
Narrated Abu Huraira:
It was forbidden to pray with the hands over one’s hips.
Leaving prayer place immediately
Narrated ‘Uqba bin Al-Harith:
I offered the ‘Asr prayer with the Prophet and after finishing the prayer with Taslim he got up quickly and went to some of his wives and then came out. He noticed the signs of astonishment on the faces of the people caused by his speed. He then said, “I remembered while I was in my prayer that a piece of gold was Lying in my house and I disliked that it should remain with us throughout the night, and so I have ordered it to be distributed.”
Narrated Abu Huraira,
Allah’s Apostle said, “When the Adhan for the prayer is pronounced, then Satan takes to his heels passing wind so that he may not hear the Adhan and when the Muadh-dhin finishes, he comes back; and when the Iqama is pronounced he again takes to his heels and when it is finished, he again comes back and continues reminding the praying person of things that he used not to remember when not in prayer till he forgets how much he has prayed.” Abu Salama bin ‘Abdur-Rahman said, “If anyone of you has such a thing (forgetting the number of Rakat he has prayed) he should perform two prostrations of Sahu (i.e. forgetfulness) while sitting.” Abu Salama narrates this from Abu Huraira.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
People say that I narrate too many narrations of the Prophet; once I met a man (during the life-time of the Prophet) and asked him, “Which Sura did Allah’s Apostle s recite yesterday in the ‘Isha’ prayer?” He said, “I do not know.” I said, “Did you not attend the prayer?” He said, “Yes, (I did).” I said, “I know. He recited such and such Sura.”
Abu Hurairah stands at the top of the list of Hadith transmitters. This is because of the sheer bulk of his narrations. He was regarded by the Prophet himself as the most eager, among all Muslims, to acquire the knowledge of Hadith.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Buhaina:
Allah’s Apostle once led us in a prayer and offered two Rakat and got up (for the third Raka) without sitting (after the second Raka). The people also got up with him, and when he was about to finish his prayer, we waited for him to finish the prayer with Taslim but he said Takbir before Taslim and performed two prostrations while sitting and then finished the prayer with Taslim.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Buhaina:
Allah’s Apostle got up after the second Raka of the Zuhr prayer without sitting in between (the second and the third Rakat). When he finished the prayer he performed two prostrations (of Sahu) and then finished the prayer with Tasllm.
Once Allah’s Apostle offered five Rakat in the Zuhr prayer, and somebody asked him whether there was some increase in the prayer. Allah’s Apostle said, “What is that?” He said, “You have offered five Rakat.” So Allah’s Apostle performed two prostrations of Sahu after Taslim.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet led us in the ‘Asr or the Zuhr prayer and finished it with Taslim. Dhul-Yadain said to him, “O Allah’s Apostle! Has the prayer been reduced?” The Prophet asked his companions in the affirmative. So Allah’s Apostle I offered two more Rakat and then performed two prostrations (of Sahu). Sad said, “I saw that ‘Ursa bin Az-Zubair had offered two Rakat in the Maghrib prayer and finished it with Taslim. He then talked (and when he was informed about it) he completed the rest of his prayer and performed two prostrations, and said, ‘The Prophet prayed like this.’ “
Narrated Abu Huraira.
Once Allah’s Apostle offered two Rakat and finished his prayer. So Dhul-Yadain asked him, “Has the prayer been reduced or have you forgotten?” Allah’s Apostle said, “Has DhulYadain spoken the truth?” The people replied in the affirmative. Then Allah’s Apostle stood up and offered the remaining two Rakat and performed Taslim, and then said Takbir and performed two prostrations like his usual prostrations, or a bit longer, and then got up.
Narrated Salama bin ‘Alqama:
I asked Muhammad (bin Sirin) whether Tashah-hud should be recited after the two prostrations of Sahu. He replied, “It is not (mentioned) in Abu Huraira’s narration . “
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet offered one of the evening prayers (the sub-narrator Muhammad said, “I think that it was most probably the ‘Asr prayer”) and he finished it after offering two Rakat only. He then stood near a price of wood in front of the Mosque and put his hand over it. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were amongst those who were present, but they dared not talk to him about that (because of excessive respect for him), and those who were in a hurry went out. They said, “Has the prayer been reduced?” A man who was called DhulYadain by the Prophet said (to the Prophet), “Has the prayer been reduced or have you forgotten?” He said, “Neither have I forgotten, nor has the prayer been reduced.” He said, “Certainly you have forgotten.” So the Prophet offered two more Rakat and performed Taslim and then said Takbir and performed a prostration of Sahu like his ordinary prostration or a bit longer and then raised his head and said Takbir and then put his head down and performed a prostration like his ordinary prostration or a bit longer, and then raised his head and said Takbir.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Buhaina Al-Asdi:
(the ally of Bani ‘Abdul Muttalib) Allah’s Apostle stood up for the Zuhr prayer and he should have sat (after the second Raka but he stood up for the third Raka without sitting for Tashah-hud) and when he finished the prayer he performed two prostrations and said Takbir on each prostration while sitting, before ending (the prayer) with Taslim; and the people too performed the two prostrations with him instead of the sitting he forgot.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “When the call for prayer is made, Satan takes to his heels passing wind so that he may not hear the Adhan and when the call is finished he comes back, and when the Iqama is pronounced, Satan again takes to his heels, and when the Iqama is finished he comes back again and tries to interfere with the person and his thoughts and say, “Remember this and that (which he has not thought of before the prayer)”, till the praying person forgets how much he has prayed. If anyone of you does not remember whether he has offered three or four Rakat then he should perform two prostrations of Sahu while sitting.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “When anyone of you stands for the prayers, Satan comes and puts him in doubts till he forgets how many Rakat he has prayed. So if this happens to anyone of you, he should perform two prostrations of Sahu while sitting.
Delay in Salah
I was sent to Aisha by Ibn Abbas, Al-Miswar bin Makhrama and ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Azhar . They told me to greet her on their behalf and to ask her about the offering of the two Rakat after the ‘Asr prayer and to say to her, “We were informed that you offer those two Rakat and we were told that the Prophet had forbidden offering them.” Ibn Abbas said, “I along with ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab used to beat the people whenever they offered them.” I went to Aisha and told her that message. ‘Aisha said, “Go and ask Um Salama about them.” So I returned and informed them about her statement. They then told me to go to Um Salama with the same question with which t sent me to ‘Aisha. Um Salama replied, “I heard the Prophet forbidding them. Later I saw him offering them immediately after he prayed the ‘Asr prayer. He then entered my house at a time when some of the Ansari women from the tribe of Bani Haram were sitting with me, so I sent my slave girl to him having said to her, ‘Stand beside him and tell him that Um Salama says to you, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have heard you forbidding the offering of these (two Rakat after the ‘Asr prayer) but I have seen you offering them.” If he waves his hand then wait for him.’ The slave girl did that. The Prophet beckoned her with his hand and she waited for him. When he had finished the prayer he said, “O daughter of Bani Umaiya! You have asked me about the two Rakat after the ‘Asr prayer. The people of the tribe of ‘Abdul-Qais came to me and made me busy and I could not offer the two Rakat after the Zuhr prayer. These (two Rakat that I have just prayed) are for those (missed) ones.
Narrated Sahl bin Sad As-Sa’idi :
The news about the differences amongst the people of Bani’Amr bin ‘Auf reached Allah’s Apostle and so he went to them along with some of his companions to affect a reconciliation between them. Allah’s Apostle was delayed there, and the time of the prayer was due. Bilal went to Abu Bakr and said to him, “Allah’s Apostle has been delayed (there) and the time of prayer is due. So will you lead the people in prayer?” Abu Bakr said, “Yes, if you wish.” Bilal pronounced the Iqama and Abu Bakr, went forward and said Takbir for the people. In the mean-time Allah’s Apostle came crossing the rows (of the praying people) and stood in the (first) row and the people started clapping. Abu Bakr, would never glance side-ways in his prayer but when the people clapped much he looked back and (saw) Allah’s Apostle . Allah’s Apostle beckoned him to carry on the prayer. Abu Bakr raised his hands and thanked Allah, and retreated till he reached the (first) row. Allah’s Apostle went forward and led the people in the prayer. When he completed the prayer he faced the people and said, “O people! Why did you start clapping when something unusual happened to you in the prayer? Clapping is only for women. So whoever amongst you comes across something in the prayer should say, ‘Subhan-Allah’ for there is none who will not turn round on hearing him saying Subhan-Allah. O Ab-u Bakr! What prevented you from leading the people in the prayer when I beckoned you to do so?” Abu Bakr replied, “How dare the son of Abu Quhafa lead the prayer in the presence of Allah’s Apostle ?”
Covered above under ‘clapping’.
I went to ‘Aisha and she was standing praying and the people, too, were standing (praying). So I said, “What is the matter with the people?” She beckoned with her head towards the sky.
I said, “(Is there) a sign?” She nodded intending to say, “Yes.”
It was the eclipse prayer = voluntary salah. Aisha (RA) did not speak, but used body language to convey the message to her sister.
Narrated ‘Aisha the wife of the Prophet:
Allah’s Apostle during his illness prayed in his house sitting, whereas some people followed him standing, but the Prophet beckoned them to sit down. On completion of the prayer he said, “The Imam is to be followed. So, bow when he bows, and raise your head when he raises his head.” (See Hadith No. 657 Vol 1 for taking the verdict).
Book of Actions While Praying ends here.
Narrated Sahl bin Sad:
The Prophet went out to affect a reconciliation between the tribes of Bani ‘Amr bin ‘Auf and the time of the prayer became due; Bilal went to Abu Bakr and said, “The Prophet is detained. Will you lead the people in the prayer?” Abu Bakr replied, “Yes, if you wish.” So Bilal pronounced the Iqama and Abu Bakr led the prayer. In the meantime the Prophet came crossing the rows (of the praying people) till he stood in the first row and the people started clapping. Abu Bakr never looked hither and thither during the prayer but when the people clapped too much, he looked back and saw the Prophet in the (first) row. The Prophet waved him to remain at his place, but Abu Bakr raised both his hands and sent praises to Allah and then retreated and the Prophet went forward and led the prayer. (See Hadith No. 295 & 296)
Another longer version of this narration:
It was narrated from Sahl ibn Sa’d al-Saa’idi that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went to Bani ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf to reconcile between them. (In the meantime) the time for prayer came, and the muezzin came to Abu Bakr and said, “Will you lead the people in prayer, and should I say the iqaamah?” He said, “Yes.” So Abu Bakr started to lead the prayer. Then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came when the people were still praying, and he passed through the rows until he stood in the first row. The people clapped but Abu Bakr used not to glance sideways whilst he was praying. When the people’s clapping continued, he turned and saw the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gestured to him to stay where he was, so Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) raised his hands and praised Allaah for what the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had told him to do. Then Abu Bakr stepped back until he was level with the row and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came forward and led the rest of the prayer. When he finished he said, “O Abu Bakr, what kept you from staying put when I told you to?” Abu Bakr said, “It was not right for the son of Abu Quhaafah [referring to himself] to lead the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in prayer.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,
Why did you clap so much? If something happens to anyone during his prayer, let him say Subhaan Allaah, for if he says Subhaan Allaah, people will take notice. Clapping is only for women.
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 652; Muslim, 421)
Ibn Hajar said:
He did not let women say Subhaan Allaah because they are commanded to lower their voices in prayer in all circumstances, because of the fear that their voices may cause fitnah (temptation). He forbade men to clap because this is something for women.
Fath al-Baari, 3/77
Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said:
Some of the scholars said: It is makrooh for woman to say Subhaan-Allaah (in such circumstances) and it is permissible for them to clap because most women’s voices are soft and a woman’s voice may distract the men who are praying with her.
The scholars prescribed clapping for woman in all circumstances, and undoubtedly this applies when a woman is in the presence of non-mahram men. If she is with women or men who are her mahrams, then she may say Subhaan Allaah, like reciting out loud in their presence.
Mughni al-Muhtaaj, 1/418
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Masud:
We used to say the greeting, name and greet each other in the prayer. Allah’s Apostle heard it and said:–“Say, ‘At-tahiyyatu lil-lahi was-salawatu wat-taiyibatu . Assalamu ‘Alaika aiyuha-n-Nabiyu wa-rahmatu-l-lahi wa-barakatuhu. _ Assalamu alaina wa-‘ala ‘ibadi-l-lahi as-salihin.. Ashhadu an la ilaha illa-l-lah wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abdu hu wa Rasuluh. (All the compliments are for Allah and all the prayers and all the good things (are for Allah). Peace be on you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings (are on you). And peace be on us and on the good (pious) worshipers of Allah. I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Apostle.) So, when you have said this, then you have surely sent the greetings to every good (pious) worshiper of Allah, whether he be in the Heaven or on the Earth . “
Narrated Abu Huraira :
The Prophet said, “The saying ‘Sub Han Allah’ is for men and clapping is for women.” (If something happens in the prayer, the men can invite the attention of the Imam by saying “Sub Han Allah”. And women, by clapping their hands).
Narrated Sahl bin Sad,
The Prophet said, “The saying ‘Sub Han Allah’ is for men and clapping is for women.
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
While Abu Bakr was leading the people in the morning prayer on a Monday, the Prophet came towards them suddenly having lifted the curtain of ‘Aisha’s house, and looked at them as they were standing in rows and smiled. Abu Bakr tried to come back thinking that Allah’s Apostle wanted to come out for the prayer. The attention of the Muslims was diverted from the prayer because they were delighted to see the Prophet. The Prophet waved his hand to them to complete their prayer, then he went back into the room and let down the curtain. The Prophet expired on that very day.
Actions allowed in prayer:
- Saying SubhanAllah if something alarms you, or the imaam makes a mistake.
- for men in all circumstances.
- women may say it when non-mahrams can’t hear them.
- Clapping if the imaam makes a mistake –> for women only.
- Walking forward during prayer to take the imaam’s position, if the need arises.
- One may take one or two steps to adjust his/her position as well. Not more than that.