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The Bond of Brotherhood (Ahadith 1985 – 1987)

Bismillah.

Chapter Kafalah (Guarantee) under the Book of Debt Transfer starts here.

Kafalah is a guarantee contract between two or more parties where the Kafeel (guarantor) offers a guarantee or takes responsibility for a liability. Modern forms of guarantees are very similar.

Hadith no. 1984 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 37, Number 488 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “An Israeli man asked another Israeli to lend him one thousand Dinars. The second man required witnesses. The former replied, ‘Allah is sufficient as a witness.’ The second said, ‘I want a surety.’ The former replied, ‘Allah is sufficient as a surety.’ The second said, ‘You are right,’ and lent him the money for a certain period. The debtor went across the sea. When he finished his job, he searched for a conveyance so that he might reach in time for the repayment of the debt, but he could not find any. So, he took a piece of wood and made a hole in it, inserted in it one thousand Dinars and a letter to the lender and then closed (i.e. sealed) the hole tightly. He took the piece of wood to the sea and said. ‘O Allah! You know well that I took a loan of one thousand Dinars from so-and-so. He demanded a surety from me but I told him that Allah’s Guarantee was sufficient and he accepted Your guarantee. He then asked for a witness and I told him that Allah was sufficient as a Witness, and he accepted You as a Witness. No doubt, I tried hard to find a conveyance so that I could pay his money but could not find, so I hand over this money to You.’ Saying that, he threw the piece of wood into the sea till it went out far into it, and then he went away. Meanwhile he started searching for a conveyance in order to reach the creditor’s country. One day the lender came out of his house to see whether a ship had arrived bringing his money, and all of a sudden he saw the piece of wood in which his money had been deposited. He took it home to use for fire. When he sawed it, he found his money and the letter inside it. Shortly after that, the debtor came bringing one thousand Dinars to him and said, ‘By Allah, I had been trying hard to get a boat so that I could bring you your money, but failed to get one before the one I have come by.’ The lender asked, ‘Have you sent something to me?’ The debtor replied, ‘I have told you I could not get a boat other than the one I have come by.’ The lender said, ‘Allah has delivered on your behalf the money you sent in the piece of wood. So, you may keep your one thousand Dinars and depart guided on the right path.’ “

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 3, Book 37, Number 489 :
Narrated by Said bin Jubair (radiallaahu `anhu)
Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “In the verse: “To every one We have appointed Muwaliya” (Mawaliya means one’s heirs) (4.33). (And regarding the verse) ‘And those with whom your right hands have made a pledge.’ Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “When the emigrants came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in Medina, the emigrant would inherit the Ansari while the latter’s relatives would not inherit him because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) established between them (i.e. the emigrants and the Ansar). When the verse: ‘And to everyone We have appointed heirs’ (4.33) was revealed, it cancelled (the bond (the pledge) of brotherhood regarding inheritance).” Then he said, “The verse: ‘To those also to whom your right hands have pledged’, remained valid regarding co-operation and mutual advice, while the matter of inheritance was excluded and it became permissible to assign something in one’s testament to the person who had the right of inheriting before.

Volume 3, Book 37, Number 490 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf (radiallaahu `anhu) came to us and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) established a bond of brotherhood between him and Sad bin Rabi’a (radiallaahu `anhu).

Volume 3, Book 37, Number 491 :
Narrated by Asim
I heard Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu), “Have you ever heard that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘There is no alliance in Islam?’ ” He replied, “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) made alliance between Quarish and the Ansar in my house.”

The ayah that Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) is talking about:

﴿وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِىَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَلِدَنِ وَالاٌّقْرَبُونَ وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ فَـَاتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ شَهِيداً ﴾

And to everyone, We have appointed Mawali of that left by parents and relatives. To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood), give them their due portion (by wills). Truly, Allah is Ever a Witness over all things. [Quran, 4:33]

Ibn Kathir’s commentary:

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Qatadah, Zayd bin Aslam, As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak, Muqatil bin Hayyan, and others said that Allah’s statement,

﴿وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِىَ﴾

(And to everyone, We have appointed Mawali) means, “Heirs.” Ibn `Abbas was also reported to have said that Mawali refers to relatives. Ibn Jarir commented, “The Arabs call the cousin a Mawla.” Ibn Jarir continued, “Allah’s statement,

﴿مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَلِدَنِ وَالاٌّقْرَبُونَ﴾

(of that (property) left by parents and relatives.) means, from what he inherited from his parents and family members. Therefore, the meaning of the Ayah becomes: `To all of you, O people, We appointed relatives (such as children) who will later inherit what you inherited from your own parents and relatives.” Allah’s statement,

﴿وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ فَـَاتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ﴾

(To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood), give them their due portion.) means, “Those with whom you have a pledge of brotherhood, give them their share of inheritance, thus fulfilling the ratified pledges that you gave them. Allah has witnessed all of you when you gave these pledges and promises.” This practice was followed in the beginning of Islam, but was later on abrogated when Muslims were commanded to fulfill the pledges (brotherhood) they had already given, but to refrain from making any new pledges after that. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

﴿وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِىَ﴾

(And to everyone, We have appointed Mawali) “meaning, heirs;

﴿وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ﴾

(To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood)) When the emigrants came to Al-Madinah, the emigrant would inherit from the Ansari, while the latter’s relatives would not inherit from him because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet established between them (the emigrants and the Ansar). When the verse,

﴿وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِىَ﴾

(And to everyone We have appointed Mawali) was revealed, it cancelled (the pledge of brotherhood regarding inheritance).” Then he said, “The verse,

﴿وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَـنُكُمْ فَـَاتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ﴾

(To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood), give them their due portion.) remained valid for cases of co-operation and mutual advice, while the matter of inheritance was excluded and it became permissible to assign something in one’s will to the person who had the right of inheriting before.”

Islamic Calendar & The Months of `Eid (Ahadith 1625 – 1632)

Bismillah.

The Islamic Calendar – Astronomy

In the Islamic calendar, each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the hilal (crescent moon) shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th. Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. [Wikipedia]

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 130:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) mentioned Ramadan and said, “Do not fast unless you see the crescent (of Ramadan), and do not give up fasting till you see the crescent (of Shawwal), but if the sky is overcast (if you cannot see it), then act on estimation (i.e. count Sha’ban as 30 days).”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 131:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The month (can be) 29 nights (i.e. days), and do not fast till you see the moon, and if the sky is overcast, then complete Sha’ban as thirty days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 132:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The month is like this and this,” (at the same time he showed the fingers of both his hands thrice) and left out one thumb on the third time.


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 133:

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) or Abu-l-Qasim said, “Start fasting on seeing the crescent (of Ramadan), and give up fasting on seeing the crescent (of Shawwal), and if the sky is overcast (and you cannot see it), complete thirty days of Sha’ban.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 134:

Narrated Um Salama (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) vowed to keep aloof from his wives for a period of one month, and after the completion of 29 days he went either in the morning or in the afternoon to his wives. Someone said to him “You vowed that you would not go to your wives for one month.” He replied, “The month is of 29 days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 135:

Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) vowed to keep aloof from his wives for one month, and he had dislocation of his leg. So, he stayed in a Mashruba for 29 nights and then came down. Some people said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! You vowed to stay aloof for one month,” He replied, “The month is of 29 days.”


Volume 3, Book 31, Number 136:

Narrated Abu Bakra (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The two months of ‘Id i.e. Ramadan and Dhul-Hijja, do not decrease (in superiority).”

This has been interpreted in two ways by the scholars:

  1. the two months of Eid (Ramadan and Dhul Hijjah) do not decrease in number (in the same year). For example, if this year, Ramadan is 29 days, then Dhul Hijjah will definitely be 30. And if Dhul Hijjah is 29, then Ramadan will be 30. Both cannot be 29 simultaneously.
    This does not have to be the case each time. This is why the second opinion is preferred and more correct. Allah knows best.
  2. these two months do not decrease in superiority. Even if the number decreases to 29, the reward of the people who do good in these two months will not be decreased. :)

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 137:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We are an illiterate nation; we neither write, nor know accounts. The month is like this and this, i.e. sometimes of 29 days and sometimes of thirty days.”

Like Bricks of a Wall (Hadith No. 468)

Salam,
Bismillah.

Volume 1, Book 8, Number 468:

Narrated Abu Musa:

The Prophet said, “A faithful believer to a faithful believer is like the bricks of a wall, enforcing each other.” While (saying that) the Prophet clasped his hands, by interlacing his fingers.

We’re supposed to be like those bricks ^. Each one of them has its own special place, and each one of them is significant in its own way. Even if one of them falls out of its place, the wall will lose its strength. Allah says in the Qur’an:

“The Believers are but a single Brotherhood.” [Al-Hujurat 49:10]

Further:

“The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin the ma`roof (all of Islam), and forbid the munkar (all that is evil; kufr): they observe regular prayers, pay Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.” [9:71]

Allah’s Messenger (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

“A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, forsake him, or despise him.”

“It is sufficient evil for a Muslim that he should look down upon his brother. The life, wealth, and honor of a Muslim are inviolable by another Muslim.” [Sahih Muslim]

It is related by Abu Hurairah (ra) that the Prophet said,

“There are five claims of a Muslim upon a Muslim: to return his greetings when he greets; to visit him when he falls ill; to attend his funeral; to accept his invitation to a meal and to pray for him, when he sneezes, by saying ‘yarhamukallah’ (May the mercy of Allah be on you).”

Anas (ra) reports that Rasulullah (s) once said:

“I swear by the Holy Being in whose power my life is, any one of you cannot be a true believer unless he desires for his fellow-brother what he desires for himself.”

“Brotherhood is synonymous with Islam. It is a force for good, a purveyor of peace and justice for everyone. It provides stability in a quarrelsome world. To the downtrodden and oppressed everywhere in the past, it provided freedom. When it was powerful, it even saved the Jews and Christians in Palestine and Spain from each other.” -Z.B. Asghar

So much for the past. What about the present? Do we understand the noble concept of Islamic brotherhood? Do we practice it? Do we belong to it?

Wassalam.

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