Assassination of Ka`b Ibn Ashraf (Ahadith 2667 – 2668)
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 270 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf who has really hurt Allah and His Apostle?” Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Do you like me to kill him?” He replied in the affirmative. So, Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) went to him (i.e. Ka’b) and said, “This person (i.e. the Prophet) has put us to task and asked us for charity.” Ka’b replied, “By Allah, you will get tired of him.” Muhammad (radiallaahu `anhu) said to him, “We have followed him, so we dislike to leave him till we see the end of his affair.” Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) went on talking to him in this way till he got the chance to kill him.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 271 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Ashraf (i.e. a Jew).” Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “Do you like me to kill him?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied in the affirmative. Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Then allow me to say what I like.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “I do (i.e. allow you).”
Safi-ur-Rahmna Mubarakpuri writes in The Sealed Nectar:
Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf was the most resentful Jew at Islam and the Muslims, the keenest on inflicting harm on the Messenger of Allâh and the most zealous advocate of waging war against him. He belonged to Tai’ tribe but his mother to Banu Nadeer. He was a wealthy man known for his handsomeness, and a poet living in luxury in his fort south east of Madinah at the rear of Banu Nadeer’s habitations.
On hearing the news of Badr, he got terribly exasperated and swore that he would prefer death to life if the news was true. When this was confirmed he wrote poems satirizing Muhammad , eulogizing Quraish and enticing them against the Prophet . He then rode to Makkah where he started to trigger the fire of war, and kindle rancour against the Muslims in Madinah. When Abu Sufyan asked him which religion he was more inclined to, the religion of the Makkans or that of Muhammad and his companions, he replied that the pagans were better guided. With respect to this situation, Allâh revealed His Words:
“Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture? They believe in Jibt and Taghût, and say to the disbelievers that they are better guided as regards the way than the believers (Muslims).” [4:51]
He then returned to Madinah to start a fresh campaign of slanderous propaganda that took the form of obscene songs and amatory sonnets with a view to defaming the Muslim women.
At this stage, the situation became unbearable and could no longer be put up with. The Prophet gathered his men and said: “Who will kill Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf? He had maligned Allâh, and His Messenger.” Thereupon, Muhammad bin Maslamah, ‘Abbad bin Bishr, Al-Harith bin Aws, Abu ‘Abs bin Hibr and Salkan bin Salamah, Ka‘b’s foster brother, volunteered to do the job.
Muhammad bin Maslamah said: “O Messenger of Allâh, do you wish that I should kill him?” He said: “Yes.” He said: “Permit me to talk (to him in the way I deem fit).” He said: “Talk (as you like).” So, Muhammad bin Maslamah came to Ka‘b and talked to him, saying: “This man (i.e. the Prophet ) has made up his mind to collect charity (from us) and this has put us to a great hardship.” When he heard this, Ka‘b said: “By Allâh you will be put to more trouble by him.” Muhammad bin Maslamah answered: “No doubt, now we have become his followers and we do not like to forsake him until we see what turn his affairs will take. I want that you should give me a loan.” He said: “What will you mortgage?” Muhammad answered: “What do you want?” The immoral and heartless Jew demanded women and children as articles of security against the debt. Muhammad said: “Should we pledge our women whereas you are the most handsome of the Arabs; and the son of one of us may be abused by saying that he was pledged for two wasq (measurement unit of weight) of dates but we can pledge you (our) weapons.” Ka‘b agreed. Salkan bin Salamah, Abu Na’ilah, at another time, went to see Ka‘b for the same purpose and there were more or less the same subjects, only that Abu Na’ilah would bring him some companions. The plan was successful and provided for the presence of both men and weapons. On Rabi‘ Al-Awwal 14th, at night, the year 3 A.H. the people said good bye to the Prophet and set out in the Name of Allâh to implement the carefully drawn plan. The Prophet stayed back praying for them and supplicating Allâh to render them success. The men went and called upon him at night. He came down although his wife warned him not to meet them alleging that: “I hear a voice which sounds like the voice of murder.” He said: “It is only Muhammad bin Maslamah and my foster brother Abu Na’ilah. When a gentleman is called at night even if he be pierced with a spear, he should respond to the call.” Abu Na’ilah said to his companions: “As he comes down, I will extend my hand towards his head to smell and when I hold him fast, you should do your job.” So when he came down, they talked together for about an hour. They then invited him to go out and spend a nice time in the moonlight. On the way out, Abu Na’ilah remarked: “I smell the nicest perfume from you.” Ka‘b said: “Yes, I have with me a mistress who is the most scented of the women of Arabia.” Abu Na’ilah again said: “Allow me to smell (the scent on your head)”. He said: “Yes, you may smell.” So he caught it and smelt. Then he said: “Allow me to do so(once again).” He then held his head fast and said to his companions: “Do your job.” And they killed him. The group of men came back after fulfilling their mission. One of them Al-Harith bin Aws was wounded by mistake with the swords of his men, and was bleeding badly. When they reached Baqee‘ Al-Gharqad, they shouted, “Allâh is Great”. The Prophet heard them and realized that they had killed the enemy of Allâh. As they saw him, he said: “Cheerful faces are yours.” In reply, they said: “And yours O Messenger of Allâh.” They handed the head of the tyrant over to him. He entertained Allâh’s praise for their success. He then applied his saliva to Al-Harith’s wound and it healed on the spot.
When the Jews learned about the death of their tyrant, Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf, they were scared and even their stonelike hearts were in the grip of inexpressible panic. They realized that the Messenger of Allâh would thenceforth never hesitate to use force when good words and admonition failed. They remained silent and resigned, and faked adherence to covenants.
Now the Prophet was free to collect his thoughts and give himself up to resolving foreign affairs, and facing dangers that could be carried with hostile wind blowing again from Makkah.
Watch this video for a detailed analysis of this incident by Yasir Qadhi:
Assassination of Abu Rafi` (Ahadith 2660 – 2661)
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 264 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent a group of Ansari men to kill Abu-Rafi. One of them set out and entered their (i.e. the enemies) fort. That man said, “I hid myself in a stable for their animals. They closed the fort gate. Later they lost a donkey of theirs, so they went out in its search. I, too, went out along with them, pretending to look for it. They found the donkey and entered their fort. And I, too, entered along with them. They closed the gate of the fort at night, and kept its keys in a small window where I could see them. When those people slept, I took the keys and opened the gate of the fort and came upon Abu Rafi and said, ‘O Abu Rafi. When he replied me, I proceeded towards the voice and hit him. He shouted and I came out to come back, pretending to be a helper. I said, ‘O Abu Rafi, changing the tone of my voice. He asked me, ‘What do you want; woe to your mother?’ I asked him, ‘What has happened to you?’ He said, ‘I don’t know who came to me and hit me.’ Then I drove my sword into his belly and pushed it forcibly till it touched the bone. Then I came out, filled with puzzlement and went towards a ladder of theirs in order to get down but I fell down and sprained my foot. I came to my companions and said, ‘I will not leave till I hear the wailing of the women.’ So, I did not leave till I heard the women bewailing Abu Rafi, the merchant pf Hijaz. Then I got up, feeling no ailment, (and we proceeded) till we came upon the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and informed him.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 265 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent a group of the Ansar to Abu Rafi. Abdullah bin Atik entered his house at night and killed him while he was sleeping.
See similar narrations (list of) here.
The Expedition of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Atik (Arabic: عبد الله بن عتيك) also known as the Assassination of Abu Rafi’ ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq (Arabic: أبو رافع بن أبي الحُقَيْق), took place in December, 624AD.
Sallam ibn Abu al-Huqayq (Abu Rafi) was a Jew, who aided and abetted the Pagan enemies of the Muslims by provisioning and financing them, and denigrating Muhammad with his poetry (hija’). When the Muslims had settled their affair with Banu Quraiza’s betrayal of the Muslims in Medina; the Al-Khazraj tribe, a rival of Al-Aws, asked for Muhammad’s permission to kill him in order to merit a virtue equal to that of Al-Aws who had killed Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf.
According to the Sealed Nectar, a group of 5 men from the Banu Khazraj tribe with ‘Abdullah bin ‘Ateeq at their head, headed for Khaybar where ‘Abu Rafi‘’s fort was situated. When they approached the fortress, ‘Abdullah advised his men to stay a little behind, then went ahead disguised in his cloak, as if he had been relieving himself. When the people of the fort went in, the gate-keeper called him to enter thinking he was one of them. ‘Abdullah went in and lurked inside. He then began to unbolt the doors leading to Salam’s room. There it was absolutely dark but he managed to put him to the sword, and then leave in safety. On his way back, his leg broke so he wrapped it up in a band, and hid in a secret place until morning when someone stood on the wall and announced the death of Salam bin Abi Al-Huqaiq officially. On hearing this news he left and went to see Muhammad, who listened to the whole story, and then asked ‘Abdullah to stretch his leg, which he wiped and the fracture healed on the spot according to Muslim scholar “Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri”. In another version, all five of the group participated in killing that enemy of Islam. This incident took place in Dhul Qa‘dah or Dhul Hijjah in the year five Hijri.
Hassan b. Thabit mentioning the killing of Ka`b bin Ashraf and Sallam (Abu Rafi) said:
God, what a fine band you met,
O Ibnu’l-Huqayq and Ibnu’l-Ashraf!
They went to you with sharp swords,
Brisk as lions in a tangled thicket,
Until they came on you in your dwelling
And made you drink death with their swift-slaying swords,
Despising every risk of hurt.
Did Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) Die a Martyr? (Hadith No. 2284)
Volume 3, Book 47, Number 786:
Narrated Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu):
A Jewess brought a poisoned (cooked) sheep for the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who ate from it. She was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he was asked, “Shall we kill her?” He said, “No.” I continued to see the effect of the poison on the palate of the mouth of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).
Al-Nawawi said: It is as if the poison still left some trace of blackness etc.
The name of this woman was Zaynab bint al-Haarith, the wife of Salaam ibn Mashkam, one of the leaders of the Jews.
The reports differ as to whether or not she was killed. It seems that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not kill her at first, but when Bishr ibn al-Bara’ ibn Ma’roor died as a result of the effects of this food, then he executed her as a qisaas punishment.
Al-Bukhaari (5777) narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: When Khaybar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophet as a gift (by the Jews). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Let all the Jews who have been here, be assembled before me.” The Jews were gathered and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?” They replied, “Yes.” He asked, “Have you poisoned this sheep?” They said, “Yes.” He asked, “What made you do that?” They said, “We wanted to know if you were a liar in which case we would have got rid of you, and if you are a Prophet then the poison would not harm you.”
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to feel ill because of this food, and he would be treated with cupping for that.
That had an impact in causing his death, so he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died as a martyr (shaheed), as Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:
“If I were to swear by Allaah nine times that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was killed, that is more beloved to me than swearing once, because Allaah made him a Prophet and made him a martyr.” Narrated by Ahmad, 3617. The editors said, its isnaad is saheeh according to the conditions of Muslim.
Al-Sindi said: The words “he was killed” mean by the poison in the meat of the sheep’s foreleg that he ate, when the effects of that appeared when he was dying.
Quoted from Haashiyat al-Musnad, 6/116.
Al-Bukhaari narrated in his Saheeh, in a mu’allaq report, and al-Haakim narrated in his Mustadrak in a mawsool report, that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say, in the illness which would be his last, ‘O ‘Aa’ishah, I still feel the pain of the food that I ate in Khaybar, and this time I feel that my aorta is being cut from that poison.”
The aorta is the vein that is towards the back and is connected to the heart; if it is cut then the person will die.
The conquest of Khaybar took place in Muharram or Rabee’ al-Awwal of the year 7 AH. So this event took place four years before the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died.
Taken from IslamQA.
Muslim-Jew Quarrels (Ahadith 2091 – 2093)
Volume 3, Book 41, Number 594:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
Two persons, a Muslim and a Jew, quarreled. The Muslim said, “By Him Who gave Muhammad superiority over all the people! The Jew said, “By Him Who gave Moses superiority over all the people!” At that the Muslim raised his hand and slapped the Jew on the face. The Jew went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and informed him of what had happened between him and the Muslim. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent for the Muslim and asked him about it. The Muslim informed him of the event. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do not give me superiority over Moses, for on the Day of Resurrection all the people will fall unconscious and I will be one of them, but I will. be the first to gain consciousness, and will see Moses standing and holding the side of the Throne (of Allah). I will not know whether (Moses) has also fallen unconscious and got up before me, or Allah has exempted him from that stroke.”
Volume 3, Book 41, Number 595:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):
While Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was sitting, a Jew came and said, “O Abul Qasim! One of your companions has slapped me on my face.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked who that was. He replied that he was one of the Ansar. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent for him, and on his arrival, he asked him whether he had beaten the Jew. He (replied in the affirmative and) said, “I heard him taking an oath in the market saying, ‘By Him Who gave Moses superiority over all the human beings.’ I said, ‘O wicked man! (Has Allah given Moses superiority) even over Muhammad I became furious and slapped him over his face.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do not give a prophet superiority over another, for on the Day of Resurrection all the people will fall unconscious and I will be the first to emerge from the earth, and will see Moses standing and holding one of the legs of the Throne. I will not know whether Moses has fallen unconscious or the first unconsciousness was sufficient for him.”
Volume 3, Book 41, Number 596:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
A Jew crushed the head of a girl between two stones. The girl was asked who had crushed her head, and some names were mentioned before her, and when the name of the Jew was mentioned, she nodded agreeing. The Jew was captured and when he confessed, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered that his head be crushed between two stones.
- Notice how the Jews go to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) for justice, and not their own courts. Says something about the establishment of justice in Madinah, doesn’t it?
- In both cases, Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked the defendant his side of the story and gave him a chance to confess. Fair and square.
- In the case of the slap, Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not settle for retaliation. Reasons could be one or more of these:
- While it’s not allowed to be unjust to the Dhimmi (non-Muslim in a Muslim land), there is no qisaas (retaliation/settlement of accounts) between a Muslim and a non-Muslim.
- The statement of the Jew “By Him Who gave Moses superiority over all human beings”, was incorrect, so the Muslim getting enraged wasn’t inappropriate. Still, instead of encouraging the Muslim on this behavior, Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) admonished by saying that one Prophet should not be given superiority over the other.
- It is likely that the Jew did not request for qisaas, or maybe the Prophet did order it but it wasn’t mentioned in the hadith. Allah knows best.
A Child’s Religion (Hadith No. 1137)
Volume 2, Book 23, Number 438:
A young Jewish boy used to serve the Prophet and he became sick. So the Prophet went to visit him. He sat near his head and asked him to embrace Islam. The boy looked at his father, who was sitting there; the latter told him to obey Abu-l-Qasim and the boy embraced Islam. The Prophet came out saying: “Praises be to Allah Who saved the boy from the Hell-fire.”
A child is on his/her parents’ religion, as we get to know from another Hadith. When he’s born, he’s on fitrah, but his parents make him a Jew or a Christian etc.
This young Jewish boy was invited to Islam on his death bed by Prophet (SAW). This means that if he died without accepting it, he would’ve entered the Hell-fire. So yes, children deserve da`wah as well.
What if one of the parents is Muslim? What religion is a child on then? Read more on it here.