Hadith no. 2757 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 360 :
Narrated by Marwan bin Al-Hakim and Miswar bin Makhrama (radiallaahu `anhumaa)
When the Hawazin delegation came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) after they had embraced Islam and requested him to return their properties and war prisoners to them, Allah’s Apostle said, “To me the best talk is the truest, so you may choose either of two things; the war prisoners or the wealth, for I have delayed their distribution.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had waited for them for over ten days when he returned from Ta’if. So, when those people came to know that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was not going to return to them except one of the two things the said, “We choose our war Prisoners ‘Allah’s Apostle stood up amongst the Muslims, and after glorifying Allah as He deserved, he said, “Now then, these brothers of yours have come to us with repentance, and I see it logical that I should return their captives to them, so whoever of you likes to do that as a favor then he can do it, and whoever amongst you likes to stick to his share, let him give up his prisoners and we will compensate him from the very first Fai’ (i.e. war booty received without fight) which Allah will give us.” On that, all the people said. ‘O Allah’s Apostle! We have agreed willingly to do so (return the captives)” Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to them “I do not know who amongst you has agreed to this and who has not. You should return and let your leaders inform me of your agreement.” The people returned and their leaders spoke to them, and then came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “All the people have agreed willingly to do so and have given the permission to return the war prisoners (without Compensation)” (Az-Zuhri, the sub-narrator states) This is what has been related to us about the captives of Hawazin.
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 361 :
Narrated by Zahdam
Once we were in the house of Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu) who presented a meal containing cooked chicken. A man from the tribe of Bani Taim Allah with red complexion as if he were from the Byzantine war prisoners, was present. Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu) invited him to share the meal but he (apologised) saying. “I saw chickens eating dirty things and so I have had a strong aversion to eating them, and have taken an oath that I will not eat chickens.” Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Come along, I will tell you about this matter (i.e. how to cancel one’s oat ). I went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in the company of a group of Al-Ashariyin, asked him to provide us with means of conveyance. He said, ‘By Allah, I will not provide you with any means of conveyance and I have nothing to make you ride on.’ Then some camels as booty were brought to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he asked for us saying. ‘Where are the group of Al-Ash’ariyun?’ Then he ordered that we should be given five camels with white humps. When we set out we said, ‘What have we done? We will never be blessed (with what we have been given).’ So, we returned to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, ‘We asked you to provide us with means of conveyance, but you took an oath that you would not provide us with any means of conveyance. Did you forget (your oath when you gave us the camels)? He replied. ‘I have not provided you with means of conveyance, but Allah has provided you with it, and by Allah, Allah willing, if ever I take an oath to do something, and later on I find that it is more beneficial to do something different, I will do the thing which is better, and give expiation for my oath.”
Read this hadith in Arabic here.
We’ve had a couple of posts based on oaths and vows before, discussing their types and rulings etc. But I wanted to do this hadith in a separate post since I, personally, can relate to this very well. About 5 years ago, I also decided not to eat chicken because of their unnatural feed and lifestyle in general. I don’t remember exactly how long I stayed away from eating it, but it was definitely more than 6-7 months. My friends had to include non-chicken dishes in their menu if I was on the guest list. Yup, it was that bad! Anyhow, when I broke my ‘vow’, I simply just ate chicken.. I did not offer any expiation for it because there was no need. When you take an oath to not do something and find out later that doing something else is more beneficial, you simply choose to do the latter, according to the above statement of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).
So what was my ‘more beneficial something’? Go to town on KFC? (Ew!) Actually, it’s more to do with supporting local and organic chicken. Seriously, if you were to see the size of chickens available in the market (at least in Canada!) today, you would not be able to differentiate it from a turkey! La hawla wala quwwata illaa billah! I mean, what DO they feed them?!
What’s your take on this?
Hadith no. 1650 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 155:
I saw ‘Uthman (radiallaahu `anhu) performing ablution; he washed his hands thrice, rinsed his mouth and then washed his nose, by putting water in it and then blowing it out, and washed his face thrice, and then washed his right forearm up to the elbow thrice, and then the left-forearm up to the elbow thrice, then smeared his head with water, washed his right foot thrice, and then his left foot thrice and said, “I saw Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) performing ablution similar to my present ablution, and then he said, ‘Whoever performs ablution like my present ablution and then offers two Rakat in which he does not think of worldly things, all his previous sins will be forgiven.”
Intercourse while Fasting and its Expiation
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 156:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said that he had been burnt (ruined). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him what was the matter. He replied, “I had sexual intercourse with my wife in Ramadan (while I was fasting).” Then a basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he asked, “Where is the burnt (ruined) man?” He replied, “I am present.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told him to give that basket in charity (as expiation).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 157:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
While we were sitting with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) a man came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I have been ruined.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked what was the matter with him. He replied “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you afford to manumit a slave?” He replied in the negative. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He asked, “Where is the questioner?” He replied, “I (am here).” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity.” The man said, “Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina’s) two mountains who are poorer than I.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) smiled till his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, ‘Feed your family with it.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 158:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “I had sexual intercourse with my wife on Ramadan (while fasting).” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you afford to manumit a slave?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. He asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. (Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu) added): Then a basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he said (to that man), “Feed (poor people) with this by way of atonement.” He said, “(Should I feed it) to poorer people than we? There is no poorer house than ours between its (Medina’s) mountains.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Then feed your family with it.”
If a man has intercourse with his wife during the day in Ramadaan, each of them must offer expiation, which is freeing a Muslim slave. If they are unable to do that, then they must each fast for two consecutive months if she was willing. If they are unable to do that then they must feed sixty poor persons, each of them giving thirty saa’s of the local staple food, one saa’ for each poor person, half on behalf of the man and half on behalf of the woman, if they are unable to free a slave or fast. They also have to make up the fast for the day on which intercourse took place, and repent to Allaah and turn to Him, and regret it, and give it up, and ask for forgiveness, because intercourse during the day in Ramadan is a great evil and it is not permissible for anyone who is obliged to fast. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz (15/302).
Based on that, the amount of food that should be given to the poor person is half a saa’ of rice etc., i.e., approximately one and half kilograms.
Under which circumstances does the woman have to offer expiation? Read this for answer.
Narrated Abu Wail from Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu):
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) asked the people, “Who remembers the narration of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about the affliction?” Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, ‘The affliction of a person in his property, family and neighbors is expiated by his prayers, fasting, and giving in charity.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I do not ask about that, but I ask about those afflictions which will spread like the waves of the sea.” Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “There is a closed gate in front of those afflictions.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) asked, “Will that gate be opened or broken?” He replied, “It will be broken.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Then the gate will not be closed again till the Day of Resurrection.” We said to Masruq, “Would you ask Hudhaifa (radiallaahu `anhu) whether ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) knew what that gate symbolized?” He asked him and he replied “He (‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)) knew it as one knows that there will be night before tomorrow morning.
Talking about the first part of the Hadith, we know that one’s wealth and family is a trial as Allah says:
إِنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ
“Your wealth and your children are only a trial..” [At-Taghabun: 15]
We’re tested by our wealth in the ways we earn it and spend it, and family tests us for the amount of time we spend with them and the way we spend it. Also, we’re tested in our priorities – whether we put Allah before our loved ones or not..
Being human, we always falter. There are shortcomings no matter how hard we try. To make up for those, we can pray extra nawafil (voluntary prayers), keep nafil fasts and give more in charity as suggested by the Hadith above. In doing so, we’ll be offering expiation for our sins and faults committed when it came to wealth and family. InshaAllah.
Hadith no. 1582 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 87:
Narrated Qaza’a, the slave of Ziyad:
Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu) who participated in twelve Ghazawat with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I heard four things from Allah’s Apostle (or I narrate them from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) which won my admiration and appreciation. They are:
1. “No lady should travel without her husband or without a Dhu-Mahram for a two-days’ journey.
2. No fasting is permissible on two days of ‘Id-al-Fitr, and ‘Id-al-Adha.
3. No prayer (may be offered) after two prayers: after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun set and after the morning prayer till the sun rises.
4. Not to travel (for visiting) except for three mosques: Masjid-al-Haram (in Mecca), my Mosque (in Medina), and Masjid-al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem).”
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 88:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw an old man walking, supported by his two sons, and asked about him. The people informed him that he had vowed to go on foot (to the Ka’ba). He said, “Allah is not in need of this old man’s torturing himself,” and ordered him to ride.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 89:
Narrated ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir (radiallaahu `anhu):
My sister vowed to go on foot to the Ka’ba, and she asked me to take the verdict of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it. So, I did and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “She should walk and also should ride.”
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 90:
Narrated Abu-l-Khair from ‘Uqba (radiallaahu `anhu) as above.
I’ve had to do a detailed study on this matter. Bear with me till the end please. I hope I’m able to make the reader understand the concept fully inshaAllah.
Vows are of two types:
- Conditional vows, in which the vow is dependent upon something happening, as when a person says, “If Allaah heals me, I will give such and such in charity, or I will fast such and such a number of days,” and so on.
- Unconditional vows (which are not connected to anything), such as saying, “I will fast such and such a number of days for Allaah.”
Both types of vows must be fulfilled, if what is vowed is to do an act of worship. (Because if it’s not, it’s impermissible to do it anyway.)
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Whoever vows to obey Allaah, let him obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Him let him not disobey Him.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6696.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) condemned those who made vows but did not fulfill them. Muslim (2535) narrated from ‘Imraan ibn Husayn that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
The best of you are my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.
‘Imraan said: I do not know whether the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “and those who follow them” two times or three.
Then after them will come people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, who will betray and not be trustworthy, who will make vows but not fulfill them, and fatness will appear among them.
One must do everything in his capacity to fulfill his vow. If he falls short, he has to offer kaffaarah as mentioned in Surah al-Maa’idah:
“Allaah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masaakeen (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families, or clothe them or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allaah makes clear to you His Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful.
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:
Whoever swears an oath then sees that something else is better than it, let him do that and offer expiation for his oath.
Narrated by Muslim, 1650
Exception/Difference of Opinion
The scholars have differed on this: if the vow entails extreme unnecessary hardship, should it still be fulfilled? The sound and more correct opinion is that it’s better to break that vow. And no expiation is to be offered for breaking (only) this kind of vow as the narrations above indicate. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not order that man to offer any expiation. He was only asked to break his vow since it was bringing unnecessary hardship.
Book of Penalty Of Hunting While on Pilgrimage ends here.
Narrated Abu ‘Uthman:
‘Abdur Rahman bin Abi Bakr said, “The Suffa Companions were poor people and the Prophet said, ‘Whoever has food for two persons should take a third one from them (Suffa companions). And whosoever has food for four persons he should take one or two from them. Abu Bakr took three men and the Prophet took ten of them.”
‘Abdur Rahman added, my father my mother and I were there (in the house). (The sub-narrator is in doubt whether ‘Abdur Rahman also said, ‘My wife and our servant who was common for both my house and Abu Bakr’s house). Abu Bakr took his supper with the Prophet and remained there till the ‘Isha’ prayer was offered. Abu Bakr went back and stayed with the Prophet till the Prophet took his meal and then Abu Bakr returned to his house after a long portion of the night had passed. Abu Bakr’s wife said, ‘What detained you from your guests (or guest)?’ He said, ‘Have you not served them yet?’ She said, ‘They refused to eat until you come. The food was served for them but they refused.” ‘Abdur Rahman added, “I went away and hid myself (being afraid of Abu Bakr) and in the meantime he (Abu Bakr) called me, ‘O Ghunthar (a harsh word)!’ and also called me bad names and abused me and then said (to his family), ‘Eat. No welcome for you.’ Then (the supper was served). Abu Bakr took an oath that he would not eat that food. The narrator added: By Allah, whenever any one of us (myself and the guests of Suffa companions) took anything from the food, it increased from underneath. We all ate to our fill and the food was more than it was before its serving.
Abu Bakr looked at it (the food) and found it as it was before serving or even more than that. He addressed his wife (saying) ‘O the sister of Bani Firas! What is this?’ She said, ‘O the pleasure of my eyes! The food is now three times more than it was before.’ Abu Bakr ate from it, and said, ‘That (oath) was from Satan, meaning his oath (not to eat). Then he again took a morsel (mouthful) from it and then took the rest of it to the Prophet. So that meal was with the Prophet. There was a treaty between us and some people, and when the period of that treaty had elapsed the Prophet divided us into twelve (groups) (the Prophet’s companions) each being headed by a man. Allah knows how many men were under the command of each (leader). So all of them (12 groups of men) ate of that meal.”
The story has numerous lessons in it. Taking one aspect of it: ‘satanic oaths’, a few things to be noted:
- Do not take oaths that keep you away from good. As in Abu Bakr’s example, his oath only kept him from eating food.
- Break your oath as soon as you realize it was from Shaytaan.
- When you decide to break an oath, there’s a kaffarah (expiation) you need to pay.
[Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will take you to task for the oaths which ye swear in earnest. The expiation thereof is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that wherewith ye feed your own folk, or the clothing of them, or the liberation of a slave, and for him who findeth not (the wherewithal to do so) then a three day fast. This is the expiation of your oaths when ye have sworn; and keep your oaths. Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His revelations in order that ye may give thanks.] (Al-Ma’idah 5:89)
- This Hadith does not mention Abu Bakr (RA) paying expiation for breaking his oath. Reason: it was a ‘satanic oath’. So the expiation of a ‘laghw‘ oath, is breaking it.