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Umar’s [RA] Leadership (Hadith No. 2689)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2686 – 2688 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 290 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) and a group of the companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) set out with the Prophet to Ibn Saiyad. He found him playing with some boys near the hillocks of Bani Maghala. Ibn Saiyad at that time was nearing his puberty. He did not notice (the Prophet’s presence) till the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) stroked him on the back with his hand and said, “Ibn Saiyad! Do you testify that I am Allah’s Apostle?” Ibn Saiyad looked at him and said, “I testify that you are the Apostle of the illiterates.” Then Ibn Saiyad asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “Do you testify that I am the apostle of Allah?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “I believe in Allah and His Apostles.” Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to Ibn Saiyad). “What do you see?” Ibn Saiyad replied, “True people and false ones visit me.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Your mind is confused as to this matter.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, ” I have kept something (in my mind) for you.” Ibn Saiyad said, “It is Ad-Dukh.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Shame be on you! You cannot cross your limits.” On that ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Allow me to chop his head off.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If he should be him (i.e. Ad-Dajjal) then you cannot overpower him, and should he not be him, then you are not going to benefit by murdering him.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 290 :
Narrated by Ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
(Later on) Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (once again) went along with Ubai bin Ka’b (radiallaahu `anhu) to the garden of date-palms where Ibn Saiyad was staying. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) entered the garden, he started hiding himself behind the trunks of the date-palms as he wanted to hear something from the Ibn Saiyad before the latter could see him. Ibn Saiyad was lying in his bed, covered with a velvet sheet from where his murmurs were heard. Ibn Saiyad’s mother saw the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while he was hiding himself behind the trunks of the date-palms. She addressed Ibn Saiyad, “O Saf!” (And this was his name). Ibn Saiyad got up. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Had this woman let him to himself, he would have revealed the reality of his case.” Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got up amongst the people, glorifying Allah as He deserves, he mentioned Ad-Dajjal, saying, “I warn you about him (i.e. Ad-Dajjal) and there is no prophet who did not warn his nation about him, and Noah warned his nation about him, but I tell you a statement which no prophet informed his nation of. You should understand that he is a one-eyed man and Allah is not one-eyed.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 291 :
Narrated by Usama bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu)
I asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) during his Hajj, “O Allah’s Apostle! Where will you stay tomorrow?” He said, “Has Aqil left for us any house?” He then added, “Tomorrow we will stay at Khaif Bani Kinana, i.e. Al-Muhassab, where (the Pagans of) Quraish took an oath of Kufr (i.e. to be loyal to heathenism) in that Bani Kinana got allied with Quraish against Bani Hashim on the terms that they would not deal with the members of the is tribe or give them shelter.” (Az-Zuhri said, “Khaif means valley.”) (See Hadith No. 659, Vol. 2)

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 292 :
Narrated by Aslam
Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) appointed a freed slave of his, called Hunai, manager of the Hima (i.e. a pasture devoted for grazing the animals of the Zakat or other specified animals). He said to him, “O Hunai! Don’t oppress the Muslims and ward off their curse (invocations against you) for the invocation of the oppressed is responded to (by Allah); and allow the shepherd having a few camels and those having a few sheep (to graze their animals), and take care not to allow the livestock of ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf and the livestock of (‘Uthman) bin ‘Affan (radiallaahu `anhumaa), for if their livestock should perish, then they have their farms and gardens, while those who own a few camels and those who own a few sheep, if their livestock should perish, would bring their dependents to me and appeal for help saying, ‘O chief of the believers! O chief of the believers!’ Would I then neglect them? (No, of course). So, I find it easier to let them have water and grass rather than to give them gold and silver (from the Muslims’ treasury). By Allah, these people think that I have been unjust to them. This is their land, and during the pre-lslamic period, they fought for it and they embraced Islam (willingly) while it was in their possession. By Him in Whose Hand my life is! Were it not for the animals (in my custody) which I give to be ridden for striving in Allah’s Cause, I would not have turned even a span of their land into a Hima.”

Look at Umar’s (radiallaahu `anhu) instructions to his freed slave.. he’s asking him to prefer the weak and poor over the rich and powerful. Everything he did in his caliphate speaks volumes about his wisdom and remarkable justice. He raised the bar to such heights for all future leaders of the ummah. Has anyone even come close yet?

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Superfluous Land (Ahadith 2299 – 2300)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 47, Number 801 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
Some men had superfluous land and they said that they would give it to others to cultivate on the condition that they would get one-third or one-fourth or one half of its yield. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his brother or keep it uncultivated.”
Narrated Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu): A bedouin came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and asked him about emigration. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “May Allah be merciful to you. The matter of emigration is difficult. Have you got some camels?” He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “Do you pay their Zakat?” He replied in the affirmative. He asked, “Do you lend them so that their milk may be utilized by others?” The bedouin said, “Yes.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Do you milk them on the day of watering them?” He replied, “Yes.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do good deeds beyond the cities and Allah will never disregard any of your deeds.”

This Bedouin wanted to come to Madinah for work leaving his family behind. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) feared that he might not be able to live like that and fulfill his family’s rights so he asked him to stay where he was and work there, assuring him all the while that Allah will not disregard any of his deeds.

Volume 3, Book 47, Number 802 :
Narrated by Tawus
That he was told by the most learned one amongst them (i.e. Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)) that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went towards some land which was flourishing with vegetation and asked to whom it belonged. He was told that such and such a person took it on rent. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It would have been better (for the owner) if he had given it to him gratis rather than charging him a fixed rent.

Just like it was discussed in the matter of superfluous water, if someone has excess land that they can’t look after, they shouldn’t withhold it lest others benefit from it.

Taking Someone’s Land Unjustly (Ahadith 2129 – 2131)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2128 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 43, Number 631:
Narrated Sahl bin Sad As-Sa’idi (radiallaahu `anhu):
A drink (milk mixed with water) was brought to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who drank some of it. A boy was sitting to his right, and some old men to his left. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to the boy, “Do you allow me to give the rest of the drink to these people?” The boy said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I will not give preference to anyone over me to drink the rest of it from which you have drunk.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then handed the bowl (of drink) to the boy.

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 3, Book 43, Number 632:
Narrated Said bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, his neck will be encircled with it down the seven earths (on the Day of Resurrection). “

Volume 3, Book 43, Number 633:
Narrated Abu Salama (radiallaahu `anhu):
That there was a dispute between him and some people (about a piece of land). When he told ‘Aisha about it, she said, “O Abu Salama! Avoid taking the land unjustly, for the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Whoever usurps even one span of the land of somebody, his neck will be encircled with it down the seven earths.”

Volume 3, Book 43, Number 634:
Narrated Salim’s father (i.e. ‘Abdullah) (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever takes a piece of the land of others unjustly, he will sink down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.”

This shows us how a minor(-looking) injustice can bring about such grave punishment in the Hereafter. Be honest and just, no matter what!

 

 

Reviving Neglected Land (Hadith No. 2025)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 528 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He who cultivates land that does not belong to anybody is more rightful (to own it).” ‘Urwa said, “Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gave the same verdict in his Caliphate.”

Land that has no owner and does not serve and purpose– such as watercourses, places where firewood is gathered, grazing land and public amenities – may be taken possession of by reviving it, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever revives disused land, it becomes his.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (3073) and at-Tirmidhi (1378); classed as hasan by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar in Buloogh al-Maraam (897); he also mentioned other isnaads for this hadeeth in al-Fath (5/19), then he said: There is some weakness in its isnaads, but they strengthen one another. See also Irwa’ al-Ghaleel (5/553).

Reviving land may be done by building fences around it, digging a well in it and extracting water from it, or diverting a stream of water to it.

It says in Zaad al-Mustaqni‘: The one who encloses disused land, or digs a well in it and finds water, or brings water to it from a spring, and the like, or diverts water away from it in order to cultivate it, has revived it. End quote. See also ash-Sharh al-Mumti‘ (10/329).

Taken from IslamQA

Umar (RA)’s Policy Regarding Conquered Lands (Hadith No. 2024)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2017 – 2022 (below) are related to ‘sharecropping’, which has been discussed in this post already.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 520 :
Narrated by Rafi’ bin Khadij (radiallaahu `anhu)
We worked on farms more than anybody else in Medina. We used to rent the land at the yield of specific delimited portion of it to be given to the landlord. Sometimes the vegetation of that portion was affected by blights etc., while the rest remained safe and vice versa, so the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade this practice. At that time gold or silver were not used (for renting the land). If they provided the seeds, they would get so-and-so much.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 521 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) concluded a contract with the people of Khaibar to utilize the land on the condition that half the products of fruits or vegetation would be their share. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to give his wives one hundred Wasqs each, eighty Wasqs of dates and twenty Wasqs of barley. (When ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) became the Caliph) he gave the wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) the option of either having the land and water as their shares, or carrying on the previous practice. Some of them chose the land and some chose the Wasqs, and ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) chose the land.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 522 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) made a deal with the people of Khaibar that they would have half the fruits and vegetation of the land they cultivated.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 523 :
Narrated by ‘Amr 
I said to Tawus, “I wish you would give up Mukhabara (Share-cropping), for the people say that the Prophet forbade it.” On that Tawus replied, “O ‘Amr! I give the land to share-croppers and help them. No doubt; the most learned man, namely Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) told me that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had not forbidden it but said, ‘It is more beneficial for one to give his land free to one’s brother than to charge him a fixed rental.”

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 524 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave the land of Khaibar to the Jew’s on the condition that they work on it and cultivate it, and be given half of its yield.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 525 :
Narrated by Rafi (radiallaahu `anhu)
We worked on farms more than anybody else in Medina. We used to rent the land and say to the owner, “The yield of this portion is for us and the yield of that portion is for you (as the rent).” One of those portions might yield something and the other might not. So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade us to do so.

Hadith no. 2023 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 526 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “While three men were walking, It started raining and they took shelter (refuge) in a cave in a mountain. A big rock rolled down from the mountain and closed the mouth of the cave. They said to each other, “Think of good deeds which you did for Allah’s sake only, and invoke Allah by giving reference to those deeds so that He may remove this rock from you.” One of them said, ‘O Allah! I had old parents and small children and I used to graze the sheep for them. On my return to them in the evening, I used to milk (the sheep) and start providing my parents first of all before my children. One day I was delayed and came late at night and found my parents sleeping. I milked (the sheep) as usual and stood by their heads. I hated to wake them up and disliked to give milk to my children before them, although my children were weeping (because of hunger) at my feet till the day dawned. O Allah! If I did this for Your sake only, kindly remove the rock so that we could see the sky through it.’ So, Allah removed the rock a little and they saw the sky. The second man said, ‘O Allah! I was in love with a cousin of mine like the deepest love a man may have for a woman. I wanted to outrage her chastity but she refused unless I gave her one hundred Dinars. So, I struggled to collect that amount. And when I sat between her legs, she said, ‘O Allah’s slave! Be afraid of Allah and do not deflower me except rightfully (by marriage).’ So, I got up. O Allah! If I did it for Your sake only, please remove the rock.’ The rock shifted a little more. Then the third man said, ‘O Allah! I employed a laborer for a Faraq of rice and when he finished his job and demanded his right, I presented it to him, but he refused to take it. So, I sowed the rice many time till I gathered cows and their shepherd (from the yield). (Then after some time) He came and said to me, ‘Fear Allah (and give me my right).” I said, ‘Go and take those cows and the shepherd.’ He said, ‘Be afraid of Allah! Don’t mock at me.’ I said, ‘I am not mocking at you. Take (all that).’ So, he took all that. O Allah! If I did that for Your sake only, please remove the rest of the rock.’ So, Allah removed the rock.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 527 :
Narrated by Zaid bin Aslam from his father
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Were it not for the future Muslim generations, I would have distributed the land of the villages I conquer among the soldiers as the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) distributed the land of Khaibar.”

Umar (RA) did not divide the conquered lands among the soldiers of the successful army, even though he would’ve liked to do so. Sayyid Ali Asghar Razwy says in his book “A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims”:

Since he wanted the Arabs to be a purely fighting and ruling class, he did not allow them to buy land and to settle down or to become farmers in the conquered territories.

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