Volume 4, Book 52, Number 276 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) appointed ‘Abdullah bin Jubair (radiallaahu `anhu) as the commander of the infantry men (archers) who were fifty on the day (of the battle) of Uhud. He instructed them, “Stick to your place, and don’t leave it even if you see birds snatching us, till I send for you; and if you see that we have defeated the infidels and made them flee, even then you should not leave your place till I send for you.” Then the infidels were defeated. By Allah, I saw the women fleeing lifting up their clothes revealing their leg-bangles and their legs. So, the companions of ‘Abdullah bin Jubair (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “The booty! O people, the booty ! Your companions have become victorious, what are you waiting for now?” ‘Abdullah bin Jubair (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Have you forgotten what Allah’s Apostle said to you?” They replied, “By Allah! We will go to the people (i.e. the enemy) and collect our share from the war booty.” But when they went to them, they were forced to turn back defeated. At that time Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in their rear was calling them back. Only twelve men remained with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the infidels martyred seventy men from us. On the day (of the battle) of Badr, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions had caused the ‘Pagans to lose 140 men, seventy of whom were captured and seventy were killed. Then Abu Sufyan asked thrice, “Is Muhammad present amongst these people?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered his companions not to answer him. Then he asked thrice, “Is the son of Abu Quhafa present amongst these people?” He asked again thrice, “Is the son of Al-Khattab present amongst these people?” He then returned to his companions and said, “As for these (men), they have been killed.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) could not control himself and said (to Abu Sufyan), “You told a lie, by Allah! O enemy of Allah! All those you have mentioned are alive, and the thing which will make you unhappy is still there.” Abu Sufyan said, “Our victory today is a counterbalance to yours in the battle of Badr, and in war (the victory) is always undecided and is shared in turns by the belligerents, and you will find some of your (killed) men mutilated, but I did not urge my men to do so, yet I do not feel sorry for their deed” After that he started reciting cheerfully, “O Hubal, be high!” On that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to his companions), “Why don’t you answer him back?” They said, “O Allah’s Apostle What shall we say?” He said, “Say, Allah is Higher and more Sublime.” (Then) Abu Sufyan said, “We have the (idol) Al Uzza, and you have no Uzza.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to his companions), “Why don’t you answer him back?” They asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! What shall we say?” He said, “Say, Allah is our Helper and you have no helper.”
وَلَقَدْ صَدَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ إِذْ تَحُسُّونَهُم بِإِذْنِهِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فَشِلْتُمْ وَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ وَعَصَيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا أَرَاكُم مَّا تُحِبُّونَ ۚ مِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الدُّنْيَا وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرِيدُ الْآخِرَةَ ۚ ثُمَّ صَرَفَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ لِيَبْتَلِيَكُمْ ۖ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا عَنكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
“And Allah had certainly fulfilled His promise to you when you were killing the enemy by His permission until [the time] when you lost courage and fell to disputing about the order [given by the Prophet] and disobeyed after He had shown you that which you love. Among you are some who desire this world, and among you are some who desire the Hereafter. Then he turned you back from them [defeated] that He might test you. And He has already forgiven you, and Allah is the possessor of bounty for the believers.” [3:152]
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 270 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf who has really hurt Allah and His Apostle?” Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Do you like me to kill him?” He replied in the affirmative. So, Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) went to him (i.e. Ka’b) and said, “This person (i.e. the Prophet) has put us to task and asked us for charity.” Ka’b replied, “By Allah, you will get tired of him.” Muhammad (radiallaahu `anhu) said to him, “We have followed him, so we dislike to leave him till we see the end of his affair.” Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) went on talking to him in this way till he got the chance to kill him.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 271 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Ashraf (i.e. a Jew).” Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “Do you like me to kill him?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied in the affirmative. Muhammad bin Maslama (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Then allow me to say what I like.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “I do (i.e. allow you).”
Safi-ur-Rahmna Mubarakpuri writes in The Sealed Nectar:
Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf was the most resentful Jew at Islam and the Muslims, the keenest on inflicting harm on the Messenger of Allâh and the most zealous advocate of waging war against him. He belonged to Tai’ tribe but his mother to Banu Nadeer. He was a wealthy man known for his handsomeness, and a poet living in luxury in his fort south east of Madinah at the rear of Banu Nadeer’s habitations.
On hearing the news of Badr, he got terribly exasperated and swore that he would prefer death to life if the news was true. When this was confirmed he wrote poems satirizing Muhammad , eulogizing Quraish and enticing them against the Prophet . He then rode to Makkah where he started to trigger the fire of war, and kindle rancour against the Muslims in Madinah. When Abu Sufyan asked him which religion he was more inclined to, the religion of the Makkans or that of Muhammad and his companions, he replied that the pagans were better guided. With respect to this situation, Allâh revealed His Words:
“Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture? They believe in Jibt and Taghût, and say to the disbelievers that they are better guided as regards the way than the believers (Muslims).” [4:51]
He then returned to Madinah to start a fresh campaign of slanderous propaganda that took the form of obscene songs and amatory sonnets with a view to defaming the Muslim women.
At this stage, the situation became unbearable and could no longer be put up with. The Prophet gathered his men and said: “Who will kill Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf? He had maligned Allâh, and His Messenger.” Thereupon, Muhammad bin Maslamah, ‘Abbad bin Bishr, Al-Harith bin Aws, Abu ‘Abs bin Hibr and Salkan bin Salamah, Ka‘b’s foster brother, volunteered to do the job.
Muhammad bin Maslamah said: “O Messenger of Allâh, do you wish that I should kill him?” He said: “Yes.” He said: “Permit me to talk (to him in the way I deem fit).” He said: “Talk (as you like).” So, Muhammad bin Maslamah came to Ka‘b and talked to him, saying: “This man (i.e. the Prophet ) has made up his mind to collect charity (from us) and this has put us to a great hardship.” When he heard this, Ka‘b said: “By Allâh you will be put to more trouble by him.” Muhammad bin Maslamah answered: “No doubt, now we have become his followers and we do not like to forsake him until we see what turn his affairs will take. I want that you should give me a loan.” He said: “What will you mortgage?” Muhammad answered: “What do you want?” The immoral and heartless Jew demanded women and children as articles of security against the debt. Muhammad said: “Should we pledge our women whereas you are the most handsome of the Arabs; and the son of one of us may be abused by saying that he was pledged for two wasq (measurement unit of weight) of dates but we can pledge you (our) weapons.” Ka‘b agreed. Salkan bin Salamah, Abu Na’ilah, at another time, went to see Ka‘b for the same purpose and there were more or less the same subjects, only that Abu Na’ilah would bring him some companions. The plan was successful and provided for the presence of both men and weapons. On Rabi‘ Al-Awwal 14th, at night, the year 3 A.H. the people said good bye to the Prophet and set out in the Name of Allâh to implement the carefully drawn plan. The Prophet stayed back praying for them and supplicating Allâh to render them success. The men went and called upon him at night. He came down although his wife warned him not to meet them alleging that: “I hear a voice which sounds like the voice of murder.” He said: “It is only Muhammad bin Maslamah and my foster brother Abu Na’ilah. When a gentleman is called at night even if he be pierced with a spear, he should respond to the call.” Abu Na’ilah said to his companions: “As he comes down, I will extend my hand towards his head to smell and when I hold him fast, you should do your job.” So when he came down, they talked together for about an hour. They then invited him to go out and spend a nice time in the moonlight. On the way out, Abu Na’ilah remarked: “I smell the nicest perfume from you.” Ka‘b said: “Yes, I have with me a mistress who is the most scented of the women of Arabia.” Abu Na’ilah again said: “Allow me to smell (the scent on your head)”. He said: “Yes, you may smell.” So he caught it and smelt. Then he said: “Allow me to do so(once again).” He then held his head fast and said to his companions: “Do your job.” And they killed him. The group of men came back after fulfilling their mission. One of them Al-Harith bin Aws was wounded by mistake with the swords of his men, and was bleeding badly. When they reached Baqee‘ Al-Gharqad, they shouted, “Allâh is Great”. The Prophet heard them and realized that they had killed the enemy of Allâh. As they saw him, he said: “Cheerful faces are yours.” In reply, they said: “And yours O Messenger of Allâh.” They handed the head of the tyrant over to him. He entertained Allâh’s praise for their success. He then applied his saliva to Al-Harith’s wound and it healed on the spot.
When the Jews learned about the death of their tyrant, Ka‘b bin Al-Ashraf, they were scared and even their stonelike hearts were in the grip of inexpressible panic. They realized that the Messenger of Allâh would thenceforth never hesitate to use force when good words and admonition failed. They remained silent and resigned, and faked adherence to covenants.
Now the Prophet was free to collect his thoughts and give himself up to resolving foreign affairs, and facing dangers that could be carried with hostile wind blowing again from Makkah.
Watch this video for a detailed analysis of this incident by Yasir Qadhi:
Volume 3, Book 39, Number 529 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
While the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was passing the night at his place of rest in Dhul-Hulaifa in the bottom of the valley (of Aqiq), he saw a dream and it was said to him, “You are in a blessed valley.” Musa said, “Salim let our camels kneel at the place where ‘Abdullah used to make his camel kneel, seeking the place where Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to take a rest, which is situated below the mosque which is in the bottom of the valley; it is midway between the mosque and the road.”
Volume 3, Book 39, Number 530 :
Narrated by ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
While the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was in Al-‘Aqiq he said, “Someone (meaning Gabriel) came to me from my Lord tonight (in my dream) and said, ‘Offer the prayer in this blessed valley and say (I intend to perform) Umra along with Hajj (together).’ “
More on its geography here: http://www.madina2013.com/pages.aspx?ln=en&p=62
Volume 3, Book 30, Number 110:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
Whenever the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned from a journey and observed the walls of Medina, he would make his Mount go fast, and if he was on an animal (i.e. a horse), he would make it gallop because of his love for Medina.
Volume 3, Book 30, Number 111:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
(The people of) Bani Salama intended to shift near the mosque (of the Prophet) but Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) disliked to see Medina vacated and said, “O the people of Bani Salama! Don’t you think that you will be rewarded for your footsteps which you take towards the mosque?” So, they stayed at their old places.
Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) didn’t want people to abandon Madinah so he encouraged them to stay back reminding them of the rewards. :)
Heaven is a Place on Earth (in Madinah)
Volume 3, Book 30, Number 112:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “There is a garden from the gardens of Paradise between my house and my pulpit, and my pulpit is on my Lake Fount (Al-Kauthar).”
Volume 3, Book 30, Number 113:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) reached Medina, Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu) became ill. When Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu)’s fever got worse, he would recite (this poetic verse): “Everybody is staying alive with his People, yet Death is nearer to him than His shoe laces.” And Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu), when his fever deserted him, would recite: “Would that I could stay overnight in A valley wherein I would be Surrounded by Idhkhir and Jalil (kinds of good-smelling grass). Would that one day I could Drink the water of the Majanna, and Would that (The two mountains) Shama and Tafil would appear to me!” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Allah! Curse Shaiba bin Rabi’a and ‘Utba bin Rabi’a and Umaiya bin Khalaf as they turned us out of our land to the land of epidemics.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then said, “O Allah! Make us love Medina as we love Mecca or even more than that. O Allah! Give blessings in our Sa and our Mudd (measures symbolizing food) and make the climate of Medina suitable for us, and divert its fever towards Aljuhfa.”
Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) added: When we reached Medina, it was the most unhealthy of Allah’s lands, and the valley of Bathan (the valley of Medina) used to flow with impure colored water.
Here’s the Arabic version of the verses (for poetry/Arabic lovers):
Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu)’s lines:
كُلُّ امْرِئٍ مُصَبَّحٌ فِى أَهْلِهِ
وَالْمَوْتُ أَدْنَى مِنْ شِرَاكِ نَعْلِهِ
Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu)’s lines:
أَلا لَيْتَ شِعْرِى هَلْ أَبِيتَنَّ لَيْلَةً
وَهَلْ أَرِدَنْ يَوْمًا مِيَاهَ مَجَنَّةٍ
بِوَادٍ وَحَوْلِى إِذْخِرٌ وَجَلِيلُ
وَهَلْ يَبْدُوَنْ لِى شَامَةٌ وَطَفِيلُ