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Shaytaan: The Third Wheel (Hadith No. 2646)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 250 :
Narrated by Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “It is not permissible for a man to be alone with a woman, and no lady should travel except with a Mahram (i.e. her husband or a person whom she cannot marry in any case for ever; e.g. her father, brother, etc.).” Then a man got up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have enlisted in the army for such-and-such Ghazwa and my wife is proceeding for Hajj.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Go, and perform the Hajj with your wife.”

It is not permissible for a man to be alone with a woman who is not his mahram, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No man should be alone with a woman unless there is a mahram with them.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1862) and Muslim (1341). And he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No man is alone with a woman but the Shaytaan is the third one present.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1171) and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.

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Al-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated in Sharh Muslim (14/153) that there was consensus among the scholars that it is haraam for a man to be alone with a woman who is not his mahram. This was narrated by al-Haafiz in al-Fath (4/77).

“Being alone with” (khalwah) refers to when the man and woman are in a place where no one can see them.

The scholars of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fatwas were asked: Does khalwah (“being alone with”) refer to when a man is alone with a woman in some house, far away from the eyes of people, or does it refer to any situation in which a man is alone with a woman, even if they can be seen by others?

They replied: What is meant by the “being alone with” (khalwah) that is forbidden in sharee‘ah is not only when a man is alone with a woman who is not his mahram in a place where they cannot be seen; rather it also includes situations in which he is alone with her in a place where she can converse with him and he can converse with her, even if they can be seen by other people, but their words cannot be heard, whether that is out in the open or in a car or on the roof of a house, and so on. That is because khalwah has been forbidden because it is the harbinger of zina and the means that leads to it. So everything that could lead to that, even making an arrangement to do that later, comes under the ruling of physical khalwah or being alone in a place where they cannot be seen. End quote.

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allah ibn Baaz; Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi; Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Ghadyaan; Shaykh ‘Abd-Allah ibn Qa ‘ood

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 17/57

Khalwah can be avoided with the presence of a mahram or the presence of a righteous woman, according to the correct opinion.

It says in Asna’l-Mataalib (3/407): It is permissible for a man to be alone with two women, but not the opposite; i.e., it is not permissible for two non-mahram men to be alone with a woman even if it is unlikely that they would agree to commit immoral actions, as was clearly stated by al-Nawawi in al-Majmoo‘; that is because a woman feels more shy of another woman than a man feels shy of another man.

End quote.

[IslamQA]

Foster Relationships (Ahadith 2310 – 2313)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2308 – 2309 (below) are repeats. Read them here.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 810 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
A funeral procession passed in front of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the people praised the deceased. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It has been affirmed (Paradise).” Then another funeral procession passed by and the people talked badly of the deceased. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It has been affirmed (Hell).” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! You said it has been affirmed for both?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The testimony of the people (is accepted), (for) the believer are Allah’s witnesses on the earth.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 811 :
Narrated by Abu Al-Aswad
Once I went to Medina where there was an outbreak of disease and the people were dying rapidly. I was sitting with ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) and a funeral procession passed by. The people praised the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed” (Paradise). Then another funeral procession passed by. The people praised the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed.” (Paradise). Then another funeral procession passed by. The people praised the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed (Paradise).” Then a third funeral procession passed by and the people talked badly of the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed (Hell).” I asked Umar (radiallaahu `anhu), “O chief of the believers! What has been affirmed?” He said, “I have said what the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said. He said, ‘Allah will admit into paradise any Muslim whose good character is attested by four persons.’ We asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), ‘If there were three witnesses only?’ He said, ‘Even three.’ We asked, ‘If there were two only?’ He said, ‘Even two.’ But we did not ask him about one witness.”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 812 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Aflah asked the permission to visit me but I did not allow him. He said, “Do you veil yourself before me although I am your uncle?” ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “How is that?” Aflah replied, “You were suckled by my brother’s wife with my brother’s milk.” I asked Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it, and he said, “Aflah is right, so permit him to visit you.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 813 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said about Hamza’s daughter, “I am not legally permitted to marry her, as foster relations are treated like blood relations (in marital affairs). She is the daughter of my foster brother.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 814 :
Narrated by Amra bint ‘Abdur-Rahman
That ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) the wife of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told her uncle that once, while the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was in her house, she heard a man asking Hafsa’s (radiallaahu `anhaa) permission to enter her house. ‘Aisha said, “I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I think the man is Hafsa’s foster uncle.’ ” ‘Aisha added, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! There is a man asking the permission to enter your house.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “I think the man is Hafsa’s foster uncle.” ‘Aisha said, “If so-and-so were living (i.e. her foster uncle) would he be allowed to visit me?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Yes, he would, as the foster relations are treated like blood relations (in marital affairs).”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 815 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Once the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to me while a man was in my house. He said, “O ‘Aisha! Who is this (man)?” I replied, “My foster brothers” He said, “O ‘Aisha! Be sure about your foster brothers, as foster-ship is only valid if it takes place in the suckling period (before two years of age).”

There are two conditions for breastfeeding and foster relationship to be valid:

1. It should be five or more breastfeedings, because of the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said: “Among the things that were revealed of the Qur’aan was that ten definite breastfeedings make a person a mahram, then that was abrogated and replaced with five definite breastfeedings,” Narrated by Muslim, no. 1452.

2. That should be within the first two years of the child’s life, because of what is proven from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) in the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “There is no breastfeeding except that which fills the stomach.” Narrated by Ibn Maajah (1946); see also Saheeh al-Jaami‘, no. 7495. al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his Saheeh: “Chapter: One who says: There is no breastfeeding after two years because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ‘The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling’ [al-Baqarah 2:233]”.

Breastfeeding means that the infant takes the nipple and suckles from it, then lets it go by himself, in order to breathe or move and the like. Based on that, the five breastfeedings may take place in one sitting.

The shar’i rulings concerning relationships through breastfeeding are not the same as the rulings concerning relationships through blood ties. Breastfeeding (radaa’ah) does not mean that one is obliged to spend on those relatives, or that one is entitled to inherit from them, or that one may be a guardian for the purpose of marriage – unlike the case with ties of blood.

What they have in common is that people related in either way are forbidden to marry, and may look at one another and be alone with one another, and are regarded as mahrams for the purpose of travel. Read more on this here.

Giving Preference to Others (Ahadith 1580 – 1581)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 29, Number 85:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A woman should not travel except with a Dhu-Mahram (her husband or a man with whom that woman cannot marry at all according to the Islamic Jurisprudence), and no man may visit her except in the presence of a Dhu-Mahram.” A man got up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I intend to go to such and such an army and my wife wants to perform Hajj.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Go along with her (to Hajj).”


Volume 3, Book 29, Number 86:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):

When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned after performing his Hajj, he asked Um Sinan Al-Ansari (radiallaahu `anhaa), “What did forbid you to perform Hajj?” She replied, “Father of so-and-so (i.e. her husband) had two camels and he performed Hajj on one of them, and the second is used for the irrigation of our land.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to her), “Perform ‘Umra in the month of Ramadan, (as it is equivalent to Hajj or Hajj with me (in reward).”

1. The ruling on a woman travelling alone can be read upon here.

2. I repeat this statement to emphasize on it: “no man may visit her except in the presence of a Dhu-Mahram“. PLEASE follow this advice. Visiting can be physical and virtual (online/phone etc.), if you know what I mean..

3. Sometimes one must give preference to their spouse’s needs instead of their own. In the above (top) narration, Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked the husband to (forget about going with the army and) take his wife to Hajj. Aww. :P
And in the second narration, the wife herself stayed back and sacrificed so her husband could perform Hajj easily.. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) consoled her advising her to perform `Umrah in Ramadan so she wouldn’t miss out on the reward.

Women – Traveling (Ahadith 891 – 893)

Assalamu`alaykum,
Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 20, Number 192:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

The Prophet said, “A woman should not travel for more than three days except with a Dhi-Mahram (i.e. a male with whom she cannot marry at all, e.g. her brother, father, grandfather, etc.) or her own husband.)”

Volume 2, Book 20, Number 193:

Narrated Ibn’Umar:

The Prophet said, “A woman should not travel for more than three days except with a Mahram.”

Volume 2, Book 20, Number 194:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to travel for one day and night except with a Mahram.”

The saheeh (authentic) Sunnah indicates that it is not permissible for a woman to travel except with a mahram. This travelling is not defined by a specific distance, as is the case with shortening the prayers or breaking the fast, rather everything that is called travelling, whether it is long or short, is not permitted for a woman unless she has a mahram with her.

Al-Bukhaari (1729) and Muslim (2391) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel except with a mahram.”

The fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that it is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram, except in a few exceptional cases, such as travelling for the obligatory Hajj, for which some of them have permitted a women to travel with trustworthy companions. Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: al-Baghawi said: They did not differ concerning the fact that a woman may not travel for anything but the obligatory Hajj except with a husband or mahram, except a kaafir woman who becomes Muslim in daar al-harb or a female captive who escapes. Others added: or a woman who becomes separated from her group and is found by a trustworthy man, in which case it is permissible for him to accompany her until he brings her back to her group. End quote from Fath al-Baari (4/76).

For a very detailed and satisfactory answer, including the wisdom and reasons behind this ruling, read this.

Wassalam.

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