Praying Two Nawaafil Before Being Killed – Whose Sunnah is it? (Hadith No. 2678)
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 281 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira
Allah’s Apostle sent a Sariya of ten men as spies under the leadership of ‘Asim bin Thabit al-Ansari, the grandfather of ‘Asim bin Umar Al-Khattab. They proceeded till they reached Hadaa, a place between ‘Usfan, and Mecca, and their news reached a branch of the tribe of Hudhail called Bani Lihyan. About two-hundred men, who were all archers, hurried to follow their tracks till they found the place where they had eaten dates they had brought with them from Medina. They said, “These are the dates of Yathrib (i.e. Medina), “and continued following their tracks. When ‘Asim and his companions saw their pursuers, they went up a high place and the infidels circled them. The infidels said to them, “Come down and surrender, and we promise and guarantee you that we will not kill any one of you” ‘Asim bin Thabit; the leader of the Sariya said, “By Allah! I will not come down to be under the protection of infidels. O Allah! Convey our news to Your Prophet. Then the infidels threw arrows at them till they martyred ‘Asim along with six other men, and three men came down accepting their promise and convention, and they were Khubaib-al-Ansari and Ibn Dathina and another man So, when the infidels captured them, they undid the strings of their bows and tied them. Then the third (of the captives) said, “This is the first betrayal. By Allah! I will not go with you. No doubt these, namely the martyred, have set a good example to us.” So, they dragged him and tried to compel him to accompany them, but as he refused, they killed him. They took Khubaib and Ibn Dathina with them and sold them (as slaves) in Mecca (and all that took place) after the battle of Badr. Khubaib was bought by the sons of Al-Harith bin ‘Amir bin Naufal bin ‘Abd Manaf. It was Khubaib who had killed Al-Harith bin ‘Amir on the day (of the battle of) Badr. So, Khubaib remained a prisoner with those people. Narrated Az-Zuhri: ‘Ubaidullah bin ‘Iyyad said that the daughter of Al-Harith had told him, “When those people gathered (to kill Khubaib) he borrowed a razor from me to shave his pubes and I gave it to him. Then he took a son of mine while I was unaware when he came upon him. I saw him placing my son on his thigh and the razor was in his hand. I got scared so much that Khubaib noticed the agitation on my face and said, ‘Are you afraid that I will kill him? No, I will never do so.’ By Allah, I never saw a prisoner better than Khubaib. By Allah, one day I saw him eating of a bunch of grapes in his hand while he was chained in irons, and there was no fruit at that time in Mecca.” The daughter of Al-Harith used to say, “It was a boon Allah bestowed upon Khubaib.” When they took him out of the Sanctuary (of Mecca) to kill him outside its boundaries, Khubaib requested them to let him offer two Rakat (prayer). They allowed him and he offered Two Rakat and then said, “Hadn’t I been afraid that you would think that I was afraid (of being killed), I would have prolonged the prayer. O Allah, kill them all with no exception.” (He then recited the poetic verse):– “I being martyred as a Muslim, Do not mind how I am killed in Allah’s Cause, For my killing is for Allah’s Sake, And if Allah wishes, He will bless the amputated parts of a torn body” Then the son of Al Harith killed him. So, it was Khubaib who set the tradition for any Muslim sentenced to death in captivity, to offer a two-Rak’at prayer (before being killed). Allah fulfilled the invocation of Asim bin Thabit on that very day on which he was martyred. The Prophet informed his companions of their news and what had happened to them. Later on when some infidels from Quraish were informed that Asim had been killed, they sent some people to fetch a part of his body (i.e. his head) by which he would be recognized. (That was because) ‘Asim had killed one of their chiefs on the day (of the battle) of Badr. So, a swarm of wasps, resembling a shady cloud, were sent to hover over Asim and protect him from their messenger and thus they could not cut off anything from his flesh.
Isn’t it a beautiful end to a beautiful story? Here are the original verses of Khubaib’s (radiallaahu `anhu) poetry that he said before being martyred:
Haatib ibn Abi Balta’ah (Hadith No. 2647)
Ibn Kathir writes in the beginning of Surah al-Mumtahinah’s tafseer:
The story of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah is the reason behind revealing the beginning of this honorable Surah. Hatib was among the Early Emigrants and participated in the battle of Badr. Hatib had children and wealth in Makkah, but he was not from the tribe of Quraysh. Rather, he was an ally of `Uthman. When the Messenger of Allah decided to conquer Makkah, after its people broke the peace treaty between them, he ordered the Muslims to mobilize their forces to attack Makkah, and then said,
«اللْهُمَّ عَمِّ عَلَيْهِمْ خَبَرَنَا»
(O Allah! Keep our news concealed from them.) Hatib wrote a letter and sent it to the people of Makkah, with a woman from the tribe of Quraysh, informing them of the Messenger’s intent to attack them. He wanted them to be indebted to him ﴿so that they would grant safety to his family in Makkah﴾. Allah the Exalted conveyed this matter to His Messenger , because He accepted the Prophet’s invocation ﴿to Him to conceal the news of the attack﴾. The Prophet sent someone after the woman and retrieved the letter. This story is collected in the Two Sahihs.
And then he goes on to mention this narration..
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 251 :
Narrated by ‘Ubaidullah bin Abi Rafi
I heard ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, “Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent me, Az-Zubair and Al-Miqdad (radiallaahu `anhumaa) somewhere saying, ‘Proceed till you reach Rawdat Khakh. There you will find a lady with a letter. Take the letter from her.’ ” So, we set out and our horses ran at full pace till we got at Ar-Rawda where we found the lady and said (to her). “Take out the letter.” She replied, “I have no letter with me.” We said, “Either you take out the letter or else we will take off your clothes.” So, she took it out of her braid. We brought the letter to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and it contained a statement from Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah (radiallaahu `anhu) to some of the Meccan pagans informing them of some of the intentions of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Hatib! What is this?” Hatib (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “O Allah’s Apostle! Don’t hasten to give your judgment about me. I was a man closely connected with the Quraish, but I did not belong to this tribe, while the other emigrants with you, had their relatives in Mecca who would protect their dependents and property . So, I wanted to recompense for my lacking blood relation to them by doing them a favor so that they might protect my dependents. I did this neither because of disbelief not apostasy nor out of preferring Kufr (disbelief) to Islam.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Hatib has told you the truth.” Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, O Allah’s Apostle! Allow me to chop off the head of this hypocrite.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Hatib participated in the battle of Badr, and who knows, perhaps Allah has already looked at the Badr warriors and said, ‘Do whatever you like, for I have forgiven you.”
Surah al-Mumtahinah’s first ayah was revealed about Hatib (radiallaahu `anhu):
﴿يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ﴾
“O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends.” [60:1]
The ayah goes on to say: “while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth”. It refers to the idolators and the disbelievers who are combatants against Allah, His Messenger and the believers. It is they whom Allah has decided should be our enemies and should be fought. Allah has forbidden the believers to take them as friends, supporters or companions. [Ibn Kathir]
I have one question. If the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) can forgive a man for treason (more or less) based on his past record, why can’t we forgive people for much less complicated mistakes that they make? [Partly referring to the recent NAK incident and partly a general statement..]
Further reading: ruling on revealing secrets.
Hudaibiyah – The Clear Victory (Ahadith 2360 – 2362)
إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً
“Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.” [Quran, 48:1]
From Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
This honorable Surah [al-Fath] was revealed after the Messenger of Allah returned from the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah, in the sixth year of Hijrah. This is when the idolators prevented him from reaching Al-Masjid Al-Haram to perform the `Umrah he intended. They stopped the Prophet from reaching Makkah at that time, but then were prone to peace negotiations. A peace treaty was conducted stipulating that the Messenger would return this year and then come back for `Umrah the following year. The Messenger agreed. However, some of the Companions disliked these terms, including `Umar bin Al-Khattab, as we will mention in detail, Allah willing, while explaining this Surah. After the Prophet slaughtered his sacrificial animals in the area where he was stopped and headed back to Al-Madinah, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Surah about what occurred between him and the idolators. Allah declared the Al-Hudaybiyyah peace treaty a manifest victory, because of the benefits peace would carry and the good results that did originate from it. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and other Companions said, “You consider the conquering of Makkah to be Al-Fath (the victory), while to us, Al-Fath is the treaty conducted at Al-Hلudaybiyyah.” Jabir (bin `Abdullah) said, “We only considered Al-Fath to be the day of Hلudaybiyyah!” Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ (bin `Azib) said, “You consider Al-Fath to be the conquest of Makkah, which was indeed a victory. However, we consider Al-Fath to be the pledge of Ar-Ridwan on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. Then, we were fourteen hundred with the Messenger of Allah . Al-Hudaybiyyah had a well, whose water we consumed, not leaving a drop of water in it. When the news of what happened reached the Messenger of Allah , he came towards us and sat on the edge of the well. Then he asked to be brought a bucket of water and used it for ablution. He next rinsed his mouth, invoked Allah and poured that water into the well. Soon after, that well provided us, as well as our animals, with sufficient water, in whatever amount of water we wished. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah on a trip, and I asked him about a matter three times, but he did not answer me. So I said to myself, `May your mother lose you, O son of Al-Khattab! You were stubborn in repeating your question three times to the Messenger of Allah ; each time he did not respond to you.’ So I mounted my animal, my camel, and went ahead for fear that a part of the Qur’an might be revealed in my case. Suddenly, I heard a caller calling, `O `Umar!’ So, I went to the Messenger while fearing that part of the Qur’an was revealed about me. The Prophet said,
«نَزَلَ عَلَيَّ الْبَارِحَةَ سُورَةٌ هِيَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا:
﴿إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ﴾»
(Last night, a Surah was revealed to me that is dearer to me than this life and all that it contains: (Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future.)) Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected this Hadith from several chains of narration through Malik, may Allah grant him His mercy. `Ali bin Al-Madini commented, “This is a good chain of narration consisting of the scholars of Al-Madinah.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “This Ayah was revealed to the Prophet ,
﴿لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ﴾
(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future,) on his return from Al-Hudaybiyyah. The Prophet said,
«لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيَّ اللَّيْلَةَ آيَةٌ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا عَلَى الْأَرْض»
(Tonight, an Ayah, that is dearer to me than all that the earth carries, was revealed to me.) The Prophet recited the Ayah to them. They said, `Congratulations, O Allah’s Messenger! Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has stated what He will do with you. So what will He do with us’ These Ayat were revealed to the Prophet ,
﴿لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ﴾
(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow. ..), until,
(…a supreme success.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said, “The Prophet used to pray until both his feet were swollen. He was asked, `Has not Allah forgiven you all your sins of the past and of future’ He said,
«أَفَلَا أَكُونُ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا؟»
(Should I not be a thankful servant)” The two collectors of the Sahihs collected this Hadith, as well as, the rest of the Group, except Abu Dawud. Allah’s statement,
﴿إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً ﴾
(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.) means, clear and apparent victory. This Ayah is about the treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah, which resulted in great goodness, including people embracing Islam in large crowds and having the chance to meet each other openly. During that time, the believers preached to the idolators and thus beneficial knowledge and faith spread all around.
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 862 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin ‘Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) concluded a peace treaty with the people of Hudaibiya, Ali bin Abi Talib (radiallaahu `anhu) wrote the document and he mentioned in it, “Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle .” The pagans said, “Don’t write: ‘Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle’, for if you were an apostle we would not fight with you.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked Ali to rub it out, but Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I will not be the person to rub it out.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) rubbed it out and made peace with them on the condition that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions would enter Mecca and stay there for three days, and that they would enter with their weapons in cases.
- Write down your contracts/agreements/treaties.
- Compromise for peace – not in your religion though!
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 863 :
Narrated by Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to perform ‘Umra in the month of Dhul-Qada, the people of Mecca did not let him enter Mecca till he settled the matter with them by promising to stay in it for three days only. When the document of treaty was written, the following was mentioned: ‘These are the terms on which Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) agreed (to make peace).’ They said, “We will not agree to this, for if we believed that you are Allah’s Apostle we would not prevent you, but you are Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I am Allah’s Apostle and also Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah.” Then he said to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu), “Rub off (the words) ‘Allah’s Apostle’ “, but ‘Ali said, “No, by Allah, I will never rub off your name.” So, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) took the document and wrote, ‘This is what Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah has agreed upon: No arms will be brought into Mecca except in their cases, and nobody from the people of Mecca will be allowed to go with him (i.e. the Prophet ) even if he wished to follow him and he (the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) will not prevent any of his companions from staying in Mecca if the latter wants to stay.’ When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) entered Mecca and the time limit passed, the Meccans went to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) and said, “Tell your Friend (i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) to go out, as the period (agreed to) has passed.” So, the Prophet went out of Mecca. The daughter of Hamza ran after them (i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions), calling, “O Uncle! O Uncle!” ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) received her and led her by the hand and said to Fatima, “Take your uncle’s daughter.” Zaid and Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhumaa) quarreled about her. ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I have more right to her as she is my uncle’s daughter.” Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “She is my uncle’s daughter, and her aunt is my wife.” Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “She is my brother’s daughter.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) judged that she should be given to her aunt, and said that the aunt was like the mother. He then said to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu), “You are from me and I am from you”, and said to Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhu), “You resemble me both in character and appearance”, and said to Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu), “You are our brother (in faith) and our freed slave.”
- Mother’s sister (aunt) is like a mother.
- Notice how Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) makes everyone happy in the end by complimenting them in one way or the other. Making the right decisions doesn’t necessarily give you enemies.
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 864 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) set out for the ‘Umra but the pagans of Quraish prevented him from reaching the Ka’ba. So, he slaughtered his sacrifice and got his head shaved at Al-Hudaibiya, and agreed with them that he would perform ‘Umra the following year and would not carry weapons except swords and would not stay in Mecca except for the period they allowed. So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) performed the ‘Umra in the following year and entered Mecca according to the treaty, and when he stayed for three days, the pagans ordered him to depart, and he departed.
- Respect your agreements, promises, oaths etc. Come through.
- Know your Seerah!
The Story of Zamzam (Hadith No. 2053)
Volume 3, Book 40, Number 556 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “May Allah be merciful to the mother of Ishmael! If she had left the water of Zam-Zam (fountain) as it was, (without constructing a basin for keeping the water), (or said, “If she had not taken handfuls of its water”), it would have been a flowing stream. Jurhum (an Arab tribe) came and asked her, ‘May we settle at your dwelling?’ She said, ‘Yes, but you have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed.”
Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) narrated the story of Haajar, the wife of Ibraaheem and the mother of his son Ismaa’eel. He said:
Ibraaheem brought her and her son Ismaa’eel while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka’bah under a tree on the spot of Zamzam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Makkah, nor was there any water. So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water, and set out homeward. Ismaa’eel’s mother followed him saying, “O Ibraaheem! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?” She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her. Then she asked him, “Has Allah ordered you to do this?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then He will not neglect us,” and returned while Ibraaheem went on his way. When he reached al-Thaniyyah, where they could not see him, he faced the Ka’bah, and raising both hands, prayed to Allaah in the following words:
“O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in an uncultivable valley by Your Sacred House (the Ka‘bah at Makkah) in order, O our Lord, that they may perform As‑Salaah (Iqaamat‑as‑Salaah). So fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allaah) provide them with fruits so that they may give thanks”[Ibraaheem 14:37 – interpretation of the meaning]
Ismaa’eel’s mother went on suckling Ismaa’eel and drinking from the water (she had). When the water in the water-skin had all been used up, she became thirsty and her child also became thirsty. She started looking at him (i.e. Ismaa’eel) tossing in agony (or he said: kicking with his heels). She left him, for she could not endure looking at him, and found that the mountain of al-Safa was the nearest mountain to her on that land. She stood on it and started looking at the valley keenly so that she might see somebody, but she could not see anybody. Then she descended from al-Safa and when she reached the valley, she tucked up her robe and ran in the valley like a person in distress and trouble, till she crossed the valley and reached al-Marwa where she stood and started looking, expecting to see somebody, but she could not see anybody. She repeated that (running between al-Safa and al-Marwa) seven times.
Ibn ‘Abbaas said: the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “This is the source of the tradition of the walking between them (i.e. al-Safa and al-Marwa). When she reached al-Marwa (for the last time) she heard a voice and she asked herself to be quiet and listened attentively. She heard the voice again and said, “O (whoever you may be)! You have made me hear your voice; have you got something to help me?” And she saw an angel at the place of Zamzam, digging the earth with his heel (or his wing), till water flowed from that place. She started to make something like a basin around it, using her hand in this way, and started filling her water-skin with water with her hands, and the water started flowing out after she had scooped some of it.”
Ibn ‘Abbaas said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) added, “May Allah bestow Mercy on Ismaa’eel’s mother! Had she left the Zamzam alone (flowing without trying to control it) (or had she not scooped from that water) (to fill her water-skin), Zamzam would have been a stream flowing on the surface of the earth.” The Prophet further added, “Then she drank (water) and suckled her child. The angel said to her, ‘Don’t be afraid of being neglected, for this is the House of Allah which will be built by this boy and his father, and Allah never neglects His people.’ The House (i.e. Ka’bah) at that time was on a high place resembling a hillock, and when torrents came, they flowed to its right and left. She lived in that way till some people from the tribe of Jurhum or a family from Jurhum passed by her and her child, as they (i.e. the Jurhum people) were coming through the way of Kada’. They landed in the lower part of Makkah where they saw a bird that had the habit of flying around water and not leaving it. They said, ‘This bird must be flying around water, though we know that there is no water in this valley.’ They sent one or two messengers who discovered the source of water, and returned to inform them of the water. So, they all came (towards the water).”
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) added, “Ismaa’eel’s mother was sitting near the water. They asked her, ‘Do you allow us to stay with you?’ She replied, ‘Yes, but you will have no right to possess the water.’ They agreed to that.” Ibn ‘Abbaas said: the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) further said, “Ismaa’eel’s mother was pleased with the whole situation as she used to love to enjoy the company of the people. So, they settled there, and later on they sent for their families who came and settled with them so that some families became permanent residents there. The child (i.e. Ismaa’eel) grew up and learnt Arabic from them and (his virtues) caused them to love and admire him as he grew up, and when he reached the age of puberty they made him marry a woman from amongst them.
After Ismaa’eel’s mother had died, Ibraaheem came after Ismaa’eel’s marriage in order to see his family that he had left before…
Then Ibraaheem came back later on. He saw Ismaa’eel under a tree near Zam-zam, sharpening his arrows. When he saw Ibraaheem, he stood up to welcome him, and they greeted each other as a father does with his son and a son does with his father. Ibraaheem said, ‘O Ismaa’eel! Allah has given me an order.’ Ismaa’eel said, ‘Do what your Lord has ordered you to do.’ Ibraaheem asked, ‘Will you help me?’ Ismaa’eel said, ‘I will help you.’ Ibraaheem said, ‘Allah has ordered me to build a house here,’ pointing to a hillock higher than the land surrounding it.” The Prophet added, “Then they raised the foundations of the House (i.e. the Ka’bah). Ismaa’eel brought the stones and Ibraaheem was building, and when the walls became high, Ismaa’eel brought this stone and put it for Ibraaheem who stood on it and carried on building, while Ismaa’eel was handing him the stones, and both of them were saying, ‘Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower’ [al-Baqarah 2:127 – interpretation of the meaning]. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) added, “Then both of them went on building and going round the Ka’ba saying: ‘Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower’ [al-Baqarah 2:127 – interpretation of the meaning] . Saheeh al-Bukhaari, 3113
Taken from IslamQA
The Pledge of Protection Given to Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) (Hadith No. 1990)
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 494 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) (wife of the Prophet)
Since I reached the age when I could remember things, I have seen my parents worshipping according to the right faith of Islam. Not a single day passed but Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) visited us both in the morning and in the evening. When the Muslims were persecuted, Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) set out for Ethiopia as an emigrant. When he reached a place called Bark-al-Ghimad, he met Ibn Ad-Daghna, the chief of the Qara tribe, who asked Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu), “Where are you going?” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “My people have turned me out of the country and I would like to tour the world and worship my Lord.” Ibn Ad-Daghna said, “A man like you will not go out, nor will he be turned out as you help the poor earn their living, keep good relation with your Kith and kin, help the disabled (or the dependents), provide guests with food and shelter, and help people during their troubles. I am your protector. So, go back and worship your Lord at your home.” Ibn Ad-Daghna went along with Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and took him to the chiefs of Quraish saying to them, “A man like Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) will not go out, nor will he be turned out. Do you turn out a man who helps the poor earn their living, keeps good relations with Kith and kin, helps the disabled, provides guests with food and shelter, and helps the people during their troubles?” So, Quraish allowed Ibn Ad-Daghna’s guarantee of protection and told Abu- Bakr that he was secure, and said to Ibn Ad-Daghna, “Advise Abu Bakr to worship his Lord in his house and to pray and read what he liked and not to hurt us and not to do these things publicly, for we fear that our sons and women may follow him.” Ibn Ad-Daghna told Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) of all that, so Abu- Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) continued worshipping his Lord in his house and did not pray or recite Qur’an aloud except in his house. Later on Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) had an idea of building a mosque in the court yard of his house. He fulfilled that idea and started praying and reciting Qur’an there publicly. The women and the offspring of the pagans started gathering around him and looking at him astonishingly. Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) was a softhearted person and could not help weeping while reciting Qur’an. This horrified the pagan chiefs of Quraish. They sent for Ibn Ad-Daghna and when he came, they said, “We have given Abu Bakr protection on condition that he will worship his Lord in his house, but he has transgressed that condition and has built a mosque in the court yard of his house and offered his prayer and recited Qur’an in public. We are afraid lest he mislead our women and offspring. So, go to him and tell him that if he wishes he can worship his Lord in his house only, and if not, then tell him to return your pledge of protection as we do not like to betray you by revoking your pledge, nor can we tolerate Abu Bakr’s public declaration of Islam (his worshipping).” ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) added: Ibn Ad-Daghna came to Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and said, “You know the conditions on which I gave you protection, so you should either abide by those conditions or revoke my protection, as I do not like to hear the ‘Arabs saying that Ibn Ad-Daghna gave the pledge of protection to a person and his people did not respect it.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I revoke your pledge of protection and am satisfied with Allah’s protection.” At that time Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was still in Mecca and he said to his companions, “Your place of emigration has been shown to me. I have seen salty land, planted with date-palms and situated between two mountains which are the two Harras.” So, when the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told it, some of the companions migrated to Medina, and some of those who had migrated to Ethiopia returned to Medina. When Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) prepared for emigration, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “Wait, for I expect to be permitted to emigrate.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) asked, “May my father be sacrificed for your sake, do you really expect that?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied in the affirmative. So, Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) postponed his departure in order to accompany Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and fed two camels which he had, with the leaves of Samor trees for four months.
I keep thinking I’ve covered this Hadith before, but the blog search results keep disappointing me. Very well.
Ibn ad-Daghna pledged to protect Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and he announced this to the people of Makkah. It was also a kind of guarantee that he gave to the people of Makkah that Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) won’t be a ‘problem’ anymore. That’s why every time the Quraysh had an issue concerning him, they went to Ibn ad-Daghna to resolve it instead of going directly to him.
And it’s profound how Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) tells him he’s satisfied with Allah’s protection and doesn’t need his. Only a man of faith and trust can say these words when surrounded by danger.. that too, from his own people.