Volume 3, Book 41, Number 591 :
Narrated by Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Allah has forbidden for you, (1) to be undutiful to your mothers, (2) to bury your daughters alive, (3) to not to pay the rights of the others (e.g. charity, etc.) and (4) to beg of men (begging). And Allah has hated for you (1) vain, useless talk, or that you talk too much about others, (2) to ask too many questions, (in disputed religious matters) and (3) to waste the wealth (by extravagance).
The Difference between “Forbidden” (Haraam) and “Hated/Disliked” (Makrooh):
Makrooh in Arabic means the opposite of liked or loved.
In the terminology of sharee’ah it means that which the Lawgiver asks us not to do, but not in a definitive manner. It may be said that it means that for which the person who does not do it out of obedience will be rewarded, but the one who does it will not be punished.
Haraam in Arabic means forbidden.
In the terminology of sharee’ah it means, that which the Lawgiver requires us not to do, in a definitive manner. Haraam is the opposite of halaal (permitted). A person will be rewarded for not doing that which is haraam, if he does so out of obedience, and not out of fear, shyness or the inability to do it; in those cases he will not be rewarded for not doing it.
Keeping all this in mind, we’re all in big trouble when it comes to being dutiful to our mothers! May Allah make us more obedient, respectful and loving towards our parents.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 209:
Narrated Um Al-Fadl bint Al-Harith (radiallaahu `anhu):
“While the people were with me on the day of ‘Arafat they differed as to whether the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was fasting or not; some said that he was fasting while others said that he was not fasting. So, I sent to him a bowl full of milk while he was riding over his camel and he drank it.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 210:
Narrated Maimuna (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The people doubted whether the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was fasting on the day of ‘Arafat or not, so I sent milk while he was standing at ‘Arafat, he drank it and the people were looking at him.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 211:
Narrated Abu ‘Ubaid:
(the slave of Ibn Azhar) I witnessed the ‘Id with ‘Umar bin Al-Kattab (radiallaahu `anhu) who said, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) has forbidden people to fast on the day on which you break fasting (the fasts of Ramadan) and the day on which you eat the meat of your sacrifices (the first day of ‘Id ul Fitr and ‘Id ul-Adha).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 212:
Narrated Abu Sa’id (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the fasting of ‘Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha (two feast days) and also the wearing of As-Samma’ (a single garment covering the whole body), and sitting with one’s leg drawn up while being wrapped in one garment. He also forbade the prayers after the Fajr (morning) and the ‘Asr (afternoon) prayers.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 213:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
Two fasts and two kinds of sale are forbidden: fasting on the day of ‘Id ul Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha and the kinds of sale called Mulamasa and Munabadha. (These two kinds of sale used to be practiced in the days of Pre-lslamic period of ignorance; Mulamasa means when you touch something displayed for sale you have to buy it; Munabadha means when the seller throws something to you, you have to buy it.)
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 214:
Narrated Ziyad bin Jubair:
A man went to Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) I. and said, “A man vowed to fast one day (the sub-narrator thinks that he said that the day was Monday), and that day happened to be ‘Id day.” Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Allah orders vows to be fulfilled and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the fasting on this day (i.e. Id).”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 215:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):
(who fought in twelve Ghazawat in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)). I heard four things from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and they won my admiration. He said;
1. “No lady should travel on a journey of two days except with her husband or a Dhi-Mahram;
2. “No fasting is permissible on the two days of Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha;
3. “No prayer (may be offered) after the morning compulsory prayer until the sun rises; and no prayer after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets;
4. “One should travel only for visiting three Masajid (Mosques): Masjid-ul-Haram (Mecca), Masjid-ul-Aqsa (Jerusalem), and this (my) Mosque (at Medina).”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 216:
Narrated ‘Aisha and Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Nobody was allowed to fast on the days of Tashriq except those who could not afford the Hadi (Sacrifice).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 217:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Fasting for those who perform Hajj-at-Tamattu’ (in lieu of the Hadi which they cannot afford) may be performed up to the day of ‘Arafat. And if one does not get a Hadi and has not fasted (before the ‘Id) then one should fast of the days of Mina. (11, 12 and 13th of Dhul Hajja).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 218:
Narrated Salim’s father:
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever wishes may fast on the day of ‘Ashura’.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 219:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered (the Muslims) to fast on the day of ‘Ashura’, and when fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed, it became optional for one to fast on that day (‘Ashura’) or not.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 220:
Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Quraish used to fast on the day of ‘Ashura’ in the Pre-lslamic period, and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) too, used to fast on that day. When he came to Medina, he fasted on that day and ordered others to fast, too. Later when the fasting of the month of Ramadan was prescribed, he gave up fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’ and it became optional for one to fast on it or not.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 221:
Narrated Humaid bin ‘Abdur Rahman:
That he heard Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan (radiallaahu `anhu) on the day of ‘Ashura’ during the year he performed the Hajj, saying on the pulpit, “O the people of Medina! Where are your Religious Scholars? I heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, ‘This is the day of ‘Ashura’. Allah has not enjoined its fasting on you but I am fasting it. You have the choice either to fast or not to fast (on this day).’ “
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 222:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashura. He asked them about that. They replied, “This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We have more claim over Moses than you.” So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 223:
Narrated Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu):
The day of ‘Ashura’ was considered as ‘Id day by the Jews. So the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered, “I recommend you (Muslims) to fast on this day.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 224:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
I never saw the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) seeking to fast on a day more (preferable to him) than this day, the day of ‘Ashura’, or this month, i.e. the month of Ramadan.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 225:
Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered a man from the tribe of Bani Aslam to announce amongst the people that whoever had eaten should fast the rest of the day, and whoever had not eaten should continue his fast, as that day was the day of ‘Ashura’.
The categories of rulings are five: obligatory (waajib), forbidden (muharram), encouraged (mustahabb), disliked (makrooh) and permissible (mubaah).
1. Obligatory fasts
(i) The Ramadaan fast
(ii) Making up missed Ramadaan fasts
(iii) Expiatory fasts (expiation for accidental killing, expiation for zihaar (a form of jaahili divorce), expiation for having intercourse during the day in Ramadaan, and expiation for breaking an oath)
(iv) Fasting for the pilgrim who does tamattu’ in Hajj if he does not have a sacrificial animal. “and whosoever performs the ‘Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu‘ and Al-Qiraan), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Sawm (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home)” [al-Baqarah 2:196 – interpretation of the meaning].
(v) Fasting in fulfilment of a vow
2. Mustahabb (encouraged) fasts
(i) Fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’
(ii) Fasting the day of ‘Arafah
(iii) Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays each week
(iv) Fasting three days of each month
(v) Fasting six days of Shawwaal
(vi) Fasting most of the month of Sha’baan
(vii) Fasting the month of Muharram
(viii) Fasting alternate days – which is the best of fasting
3. Makrooh (disliked) fasts
(i) Singling out Friday for fasting – because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on a Friday unless you fast a day before or a day afterwards.” Agreed upon
(ii) Singling out Saturday for fasting – because the Messenger(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast, even if one of you cannot find anything other than grape stalks or the bark of a tree (to suck on, to make sure that he is not fasting).” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 744, who classed it as hasan. Also narrated by Abu Dawood, 2421; Ibn Maajah, 1726; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 960.
Al-Tirmidhi said: What is meant by its being makrooh is that a man should not single out Saturday for fasting because the Jews venerate Saturday. End quote.
4. Forbidden fasts
(i) Fasting on Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and the days of Tashreeq, which are the three days after Eid al-Adha.
(ii) Fasting on the “day of doubt” – which is the thirtieth of Sha’baan, if the sky was cloudy and the new moon could not be sighted. But if the sky was clear there can be no doubt.
(iii) Fasts observed by women who are menstruating and bleeding following childbirth.
5. Permissible fasts – these are fasts that do not come under any of the four headings mentioned above.
What is meant by permissible here is that there is no report enjoining or forbidding fasting on this day in particular, such as Tuesdays and Wednesdays, even though in principle, observing a voluntary fast is an act of worship that is encouraged.
See al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 28/10-19; al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 6/457-483
Book of Fasting ends here.
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 694:
Narrated Urwa from Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Some people performed Tawaf (of the Kaba) after the morning prayer and then sat to listen to a preacher till sunrise, and then they stood up for the prayer. Then Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) commented, “Those people kept on sitting till it was the time in which the prayer is disliked and after that they stood up for the prayer.”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 695:
Narrated Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu):
heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbidding the offering of prayers at the time of sunrise and sunset.
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 696:
Narrated Abida bin Humaid:
Abdul, Aziz bin Rufai Said, “I saw Abdullah bin Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu) performing Tawaf of the Kaba after the morning prayer then offering the two Rakat prayer.” Abdul Aziz added, “I saw Abdullah bin Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu) offering a two Rakat prayer after the Asr prayer.” He informed me that Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) told him that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to offer those two Rakat whenever he entered her house.”
This is the last Hadith from Kitaab-ut-Tahajjud [Book of Night Prayer].
Narrated Qaza’a Maula (freed slave of Ziyad):
I heard Abu Saeed Al-Khudri narrating four things from the Prophet and I appreciated them very much. He said, conveying the words of the Prophet:
(1) “A woman should not go on a two-day journey except with her husband or a Dhi-Mahram.
(2) No fasting is permissible on two days: ‘Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha.
(3) No prayer after two prayers, i.e. after the Fajr prayer till the sunrises and after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets.
(4) Do not prepare yourself for a journey except to three Mosques, i.e. Al-Masjid-Al-Haram, the Mosque of Aqsa (Jerusalem) and my Mosque.”
1. Travelling of a Woman:
The saheeh Sunnah indicates that it is not permissible for a woman to travel except with a mahram. This travelling is not defined by a specific distance, as is the case with shortening the prayers or breaking the fast, rather everything that is called travelling, whether it is long or short, is not permitted for a woman unless she has a mahram with her.
Al-Bukhaari (1729) and Muslim (2391) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel except with a mahram.”
The fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that it is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram, except in a few exceptional cases, such as travelling for the obligatory Hajj, for which some of them have permitted a women to travel with trustworthy companions. Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: al-Baghawi said: They did not differ concerning the fact that a woman may not travel for anything but the obligatory Hajj except with a husband or mahram, except a kaafir woman who becomes Muslim in daar al-harb or a female captive who escapes. Others added: or a woman who becomes separated from her group and is found by a trustworthy man, in which case it is permissible for him to accompany her until he brings her back to her group. End quote from Fath al-Baari (4/76).
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Saheeh Muslim, explaining that travel in this case is not defined by a specific distance:
Everything that is called travelling, it is forbidden for a woman to do without her husband or a mahram, whether it is three days, two days or one day, or anything else, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas, according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel without a mahram.” This includes everything that is called travel. And Allaah knows best.
And it says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (17/339): It is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram in all cases, whether the journey is long or short. End quote.
Based on this, if going from your city to this place is regarded as travelling according to the people’s customs, then it is not permissible for you to go there without a mahram. If it is not regarded as travelling according to custom then there is nothing wrong with you going there without a mahram.
The fact that the route is filled with cities, schools and farms does not alter this ruling.
[Taken from IslamQA]
2. Fasting on Eid
Yes, it’s prohibited. Check out this link to find out more about the categories of fasts: obligatory, encouraged, disliked, forbidden and permissible.
3. Forbidden to Pray
he definition of times when voluntary prayer is forbidden varies from one country to another, and from one season to another. Hence we cannot explain what these times are by the clock for all lands and in all seasons. But we will explain the general principles which will make it easy for every Muslim to work out when these times are. Hence we say that the times when prayer is forbidden are three:
- From when dawn breaks until approximately a quarter of an hour after the sun has risen. You can find out the time of sunrise from the timetables that are available in all countries.
- Approximately a quarter of an hour before the time for Zuhr prayer begins, until the time for Zuhr begins.
- After you have prayed ‘Asr – even if it is an hour after the time for it began – until the disk of the sun has set completely. So the beginning of the time when prayer is forbidden is when one has prayed ‘Asr, not the beginning of the time for ‘Asr prayer, because the Muslim may offer ‘Asr prayer some time after the time for it begins. In that case the Muslim may offer voluntary prayers so long as he has not yet prayed ‘Asr, even if the time for ‘Asr has begun. Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (1/429): We do not know of any difference of opinion concerning that among those who say that prayer is not allowed after ‘Asr. End quote.
The evidence for these times is mentioned in several ahaadeeth, among the clearest and most comprehensive of which is the lengthy hadeeth which was narrated by Imam Muslim in his Saheeh (832) from ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah (may Allaah be pleased with him), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him: “Pray Fajr, then refrain from praying until the sun has risen and become high, for when it rises, it rises between the horns of the Shaytaan and at that time the kuffaar prostrate to it. Then pray, for the prayer is witnessed and attended until the shadow of a spear falls directly north (i.e., noon). Then refrain from praying, for at that time Hell is stoked up. Then when the shadow moves forward, pray, for the prayer is witnessed and attended, until you have prayed ‘Asr. Then refrain from praying until the sun has set, for it sets between the horns of the Shaytaan and at that time the kuffaar prostrate to it.”
We should point out that what is forbidden is prayer that is purely voluntary at these times. As for prayers for which there is a reason, such as “greeting the mosque” (tahiyyat al-masjid) or the two rak’ahs after wudoo’ or the two rak’ahs after tawaaf and so on, they may be offered at any time according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions.
[Taken from IslamQA]
4. The 3 Special Mosques
Read this post.