Volume 4, Book 52, Number 98 :
Narrated by Ibn Aun
Once Musa bin Anas while describing the battle of Yamama, said, “Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu) went to Thabit bin Qais (radiallaahu `anhu), who had lifted his clothes from his thighs and was applying Hunut to his body. Anas asked, ‘O Uncle! What is holding you back (from the battle)?’ He replied, ‘O my nephew! I am coming just now,’ and went on perfuming himself with Hunut, then he came and sat (in the row). Anas then mentioned that the people fled from the battle-field. On that Thabit (radiallaahu `anhu) said, ‘Clear the way for me to fight the enemy. We would never do so (i.e. flee) in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). How bad the habits you have acquired from your enemies!”
Applying Hunut = putting on perfume. It’s done in order to prepare oneself for the meeting with angels. Only a person eager for martyrdom, also sure of it, would care for such detail when putting on his armor in preparation for battle.
We see this eagerness again when Thabit (radiallaahu `anhu) marches towards the enemy while others were fleeing/backing away. As we get to know from the reports of the Battle of Yamama, Musaylamah’s army wasn’t easy to defeat. It took a lot of strategizing and and toil to corner the enemy. Being brave and enthusiastic in such circumstances isn’t an easy thing to do. When everyone around you is being negative, losing hope, it’s close to impossible to remain firm on your ground. Such was the character of this sahabi.
More on Thabit bin Qays (radiallaahu `anhu):
His full name was Thâbit bin Qays bin Shammas bin Zahîr al-Ansâri. He is also referred to as Abu Muhammad or Abu Abdul Rahmân, meaning the father of Muhammad or the father of Abdul Rahmân. Both his sons were killed in the battle of Harra while defending Madina. Thâbit bin Qays was known as the Speaker of the Ansâr (Khatîb al- Ansâr) as he would eloquently address the Ansâr on behalf of the Messenger, upon him be peace. He was also known as Khatib al-Rasûl, the one who gave the sermon for the Messenger, upon him be peace.
There were several verses of Qurân revealed about him. One of the verses related to divorce was revealed after his wife complained to the Messenger that ‘although she did not complain about his character or religion’, she did not want to remain married to him. The Messenger, upon him be peace, then asked her if she were willing to return the garden that he had given her in dowry. She agreed and the Messenger, upon him be peace, instructed him to ‘accept the garden and pronounce the divorce’.
Another verse was revealed with regard his generosity. When his fruit was ripe he decided he would give anyone that came to him that day some dates as a gift. By the end of the day he had no dates left for himself or his family and Allah revealed the verse, “It is He Who produces gardens, with trellises and without, and dates, and tilth with produce of all kinds, and olives and pomegranates, similar (in kind) and different (in variety): eat of their fruit in their season, but render the dues that are proper on the day that the harvest is gathered. But waste not by excess: for Allah loves not the wasters” (6:141).
There were two verses that were revealed about other people that he feared were about him. The first was where some companions were told ‘O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as you may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and you perceive not (49:2). He had a loud voice and was fearful that the verse was a direct rebuke to him. He hid away for some days until the Messenger; himself went to see what was wrong with him. Thâbit explained that he has a loud voice and was afraid that he would be one whose ‘deeds become vain’. The Messenger, upon him be peace, comforted him saying ‘you live well and you will die well’.
He also went into hiding after Allah revealed that He ‘loves not any arrogant boaster’ (39:18). On this occasion, the Messenger, upon him be peace, told him ‘you are not one of them, you live a praised life and you will die a martyr and enter the Garden.’ He was killed in the battle of Yamâma during the period of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq.
He was a man of great character and worship. On one occasion, the Messenger, upon him be peace saw a light emanating from a house and said ‘perhaps someone is reading Surat al-Baqara (the second chapter of the Quran)’. The next morning some of the companions went to the house and asked Thâbit what he was doing that night and he confirmed that he was indeed reading Surat al-Baqara.
Taken from Kitaba
Hadith no. 2473 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 79 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
On the day of the Conquest (of Mecca) the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “There is no emigration after the Conquest but Jihad and intentions. When you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 80 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Allah welcomes two men with a smile; one of whom kills the other and both of them enter Paradise. One fights in Allah’s Cause and gets killed. Later on Allah forgives the killer who also gets martyred (in Allah’s Cause).”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 80 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
I went to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while he was at Khaibar after it had fallen in the Muslims’ hands. I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Give me a share (from the land of Khaibar).” One of the sons of Sa’id bin Al-‘As said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Do not give him a share.” I said, “This is the murderer of Ibn Qauqal.” The son of Said bin Al-As said, “Strange! A Wabr (i.e. guinea pig) who has come down to us from the mountain of Qaduim (i.e. grazing place of sheep) blames me for killing a Muslim who was given superiority by Allah because of me, and Allah did not disgrace me at his hands (i.e. was not killed as an infidel).” (The sub-narrator said “I do not know whether the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave him a share or not.”)
The scenario is somewhat similar to what we discussed about a companion named Hartha (radiallaahu `anhu). The one who gets killed in Allah’s Cause is a martyr, no doubt. But what’s this about the killer going to Jannah (after getting martyred)?
Well, it’s about repentance. The killer seeks forgiveness for killing the first guy, Allah forgives him (maybe he was a non-Muslim before and now he has accepted Islam, or maybe he was a robber before and now he has repented). Once he’s forgiven, he participates in Jihad and gets martyred. Bingo!
All these narrations that talk about ‘unlikely’ people entering Jannah make me think more and more about how we can’t judge anyone’s fate. We can’t know for sure about anyone. The most pious person in the world can end up in Hell due to a bad end and the worst of all men can be blessed with gardens of Paradise. There’s just no saying.
Hadith no. 2462 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 69 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
For thirty days Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) invoked Allah to curse those who had killed the companions of Bir-Mauna; he invoked evil upon the tribes of Ral, Dhakwan, and Usaiya who disobeyed Allah and His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). There was reveled about those who were killed at Bir-Mauna a Quranic Verse we used to recite, but it was cancelled later on. The Verse was: “Inform our people that we have met our Lord. He is pleased with us and He has made us pleased”.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 70 :
Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
“Some people drank alcohol in the morning of the day (of the battle) of Uhud and were martyred (on the same day).” Sufyan was asked, “(Were they martyred) in the last part of the day?)” He replied, “Such information does not occur in the narration.”
The questioner means to ask about the fate of those martyrs considering they drank alcohol in the morning. The prohibition wasn’t established at that time so alcohol wasn’t haram for them. Ibn Kathir mentions a narration in the commentary of verses 90-91 of Surah Al-Maa’idah:
﴿يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ﴾
(O you who believe! Khamr, Maysir, Ansab, and Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan’s handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful.)﴿5:90-91﴾ So they said, `We abstained, O Lord!’ Later, some people said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Some people died in the cause of Allah, while some others died in their beds, but they used to drink alcohol and indulge in gambling, which Allah has made a Rijs of the work of Shaytan.’ So Allah sent down,
﴿لَيْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا طَعِمُواْ﴾
(Those who believe and do righteous good deeds, there is no sin on them for what they ate…) ﴿5:93﴾, until the end of the Ayah. The Prophet said,
«لَوْ حُرِّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَتَرَكُوهُ كَمَا تَرَكْتُم»
(Had they been made impermissible for them, they would have abandoned them as you have abandoned them.) Ahmad recorded this Hadith.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 67 :
Narrated by ‘Ikrima
That Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) told him and ‘Ali bin ‘Abdullah to go to Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu) and listen to some of his narrations; So they both went (and saw) Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu) and his brother irrigating a garden belonging to them. When he saw them, he came up to them and sat down with his legs drawn up and wrapped in his garment and said, “(During the construction of the mosque of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) we carried the adobe of the mosque, one brick at a time while ‘Ammar (radiallaahu `anhu) used to carry two at a time. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) passed by ‘Ammar (radiallaahu `anhu) and removed the dust off his head and said, “May Allah be merciful to ‘Ammar. He will be killed by a rebellious aggressive group. ‘Ammar will invite them to (obey) Allah and they will invite him to the (Hell) fire.”
This post will focus on the story of the death of `Ammar (radiallaahu `anhu) instead of his life. Here’s a brief account of the Battle of Siffin (657 CE):
Muʿāwiyah, governor of Syria, refused to recognize ʿAlī as the new caliph before justice for the murder of his kinsman, the third caliph, ʿUthmān, was done; for his part, ʿAlī relied on the support of individuals who had been implicated in ʿUthmān’s murder and was therefore reluctant to prosecute them. ʿAlī gathered support in Kūfah, where he had established his centre, and invaded Syria. The two armies met along the Euphrates River at Ṣiffīn (near the Syrian-Iraqi border), where they engaged in an indecisive succession of skirmishes, truces, and battles, culminating in the legendary appearance of Muʿāwiyah’s troops with copies of the Qurʾān impaled on their lances—supposedly a sign to let God’s word decide the conflict. ʿAlī agreed to bring the matter to arbitration on the basis of the Qurʾān and delegated Abū Mūsā al-Ashʿarī as his representative, while Muʿāwiyah sent ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ. By agreeing to arbitration, ʿAlī conceded to deal with Muʿāwiyah on equal terms, thus permitting him to challenge ʿAlī’s claim as leader of the Muslim community. This concession aroused the anger of a large group of ʿAlī’s followers, who protested that “judgment belongs to God alone” (Qurʾān 6:57) and believed that arbitration would be a repudiation of the Qurʾānic dictum “If one party rebels against the other, fight against that which rebels” (49:9). A small number of these pietists withdrew (kharajū) to the village of Ḥarūrāʾ and so became known as Khārijites (Arabic: Khawārij).
Accounts of what precisely transpired at the arbitration vary. [Britannica]
It was in this battle that `Ammar (radiallaahu `anhu) was martyred. He was in the army of `Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) so it’s obvious which side killed him.
Coming to the hadith narrated above which says in the end: “May Allah be merciful to ‘Ammar. He will be killed by a rebellious aggressive group. ‘Ammar will invite them to (obey) Allah and they will invite him to the (Hell) fire.”
It’s important to know that there are other versions of this hadith available as well, having words less direct than these. For example:
- Abu Huraira narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: “Rejoice Ammar, the transgressing party shall kill you.”
(Sunan Thirmidhi : Hadith Number 3800)
- Allah’s messenger (PBUH) said to Ammar: “A group of rebels would kill you.”
(Sahih Muslim, English version, v4, chapter MCCV, Tradition #6968)
- Umm Salama narrated that Allah’s messenger (may peace be upon him) said: “A band of rebels would kill Ammar.”
(Sahih Muslim, English version, v4, chapter MCCV, Tradition #6970)
It’s safe to say that according to the hadith mentioned above, `Ammar (radiallaahu `anhu) made the right choice siding with `Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) since he was the caliph at that time and his obedience was waajib on all Muslims. But the question arises, what about those who sided with Mu`awiyah (radiallaahu `anhu)? He himself was a companion of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and many of the companions were on his side too. So what do we say about them? Were they calling `Ammar (radiallaahu `anhu) towards Hellfire?
The answer to that according to scholars is that they were doing the right thing in their opinion. It was a complex matter and everyone had their own views. They were mujtahids (those who do Ijtihad) so there’s no blame upon them because:
Amr ibn Al-As reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “If a judge makes a ruling, striving to apply his reasoning (ijtihad) and he is correct, then he will have two rewards. If a judge makes a ruling, striving to apply his reasoning and he is mistaken, then he will have one reward.” [Sahih Bukhari 6919, Sahih Muslim 1716]
And Allah has elevated the status of Sahabah in the Quran by saying He’s pleased with them and promising them Paradise. Who then are we to talk bad about any one of them?
“And the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhaajiroon and the Ansaar and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allaah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.” [al-Tawbah 9:100]
I’d like to end with these words of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him):
“Whoever among you wishes to follow (someone), let him follow one who has died, for the one who is still alive is not safe from fitnah. The companions of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) were the best of this ummah, the most righteous of heart and the deepest in knowledge and the most straightforward, people whom Allaah chose to accompany His Prophet and establish His religion. So acknowledge their virtue and follow in their footsteps, and adhere as much as you can to their morals and religion, for they were following right guidance.
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr in al-Jaami’, no. 1810.
May Allah forgive us our sins, remove doubts and ill feelings from our hearts concerning his slaves, may He make us love those whom He loves, and hate those whom He hates. May He guide us to the truth always, and enter us into Jannat-ul-Firdaws.