Volume 3, Book 33, Number 248:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) “I vowed in the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance to stay in Itikaf for one night in Al-Masjid al-Haram.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “Fulfill your vow.”
There are three main types of I`tikaaf:
- WAJIB: To vow or pledge to make I’tikaaf (on a fixed day) for the sake of Allah upon the fulfilment of some wish or desire.
- SUNNAT-MUAKKADAH: To reside the last ten nights and days of Ramadhan in the Masjid is Sunnat-Muakkadah, i.e. If a person from the community fulfills the obligation of I’tikaaf, the entire community will be absolved of this sacred duty. Otherwise all the residents will be sinful of neglecting this Sunnah.
- MUSTAHAB OR NAFL: This I’tikaaf can be for any amount of time, even for a few minutes.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 245:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to (put) bend his head (out) to me while he was in Itikaf in the mosque during my monthly periods and I would comb and oil his hair.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 246:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to let his head in (the house) while he was in the mosque and I would comb and oil his hair. When in Itikaf he used not to enter the house except for a need.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 247:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to embrace me during my menses. He also used to put his head out of the mosque while he was in Itikaf, and I would wash it during my menses.
The Fiqh of I`tikaaf
- If one observing I’tikaaf lets a part of his body out of the mosque, he is neither considered to have exited the premises nor does this affect the validity of his I’tikaaf. Therefore, he is allowed to take or give anything through the window or door of the mosque.
- It is acceptable in the Sharee’ah (Islamic jurisprudence) for one observing I’tikaaf to wash and comb his hair, apply perfume, perform Ghusl (ritual bath for purification), shave and groom himself.
- It is permissible for one observing the I’tikaaf to look at his wife and be touched by her without lust. And it is valid under the Sharee’ah for the wife to serve her husband, such as cleaning and combing his hair, and washing his clothes, etc.
- It is impermissible for one in I’tikaaf to exit the mosque, save for the express purpose of fulfilling a natural inevitable necessity, such as urination, excretion and fetching food and water for himself, if there is no one else to bring it to him. The same applies to any essential need which he can not satisfy in the mosque; he has the right to go out for it without fearing for the validity of his I’tikaaf.
- If a person performing I’tikaaf goes out of the mosque due to a need, it is not binding upon him to move hastily. He should walk at his normal pace, provided that he returns to the mosque as soon as he has achieved his objective.
- According to the majority of religious scholars, the one observing I’tikaaf must not leave the mosque to visit a patient or even attend a funeral procession. But, he does have the right to inquire about the health of a patient while passing by, without going to him.
- If one observing I’tikaaf goes out for a necessity, such as the death of his father or son, and he has not previously stipulated that he may have to leave the mosque for a similar critical reason, he must restart his I’tikaaf after he has fulfilled his need.
- It can be derived from the aforementioned Hadeeth that a wife is to abide in her husband’s house, even if he will not go to her for any purpose or if a Sharee’ah-defined impediment hinders him from going home, such as traveling or I’tikaaf; in all cases, it is forbidden for the wife to go out of his home, without his permission.
- If one exits his place of seclusion without a necessity, hisI’tikaaf becomes invalid.
- There is a difference of opinion among scholars with regard to the prerequisites of I’tikaaf, [as it is said one must] be fasting and seclude himself only in a mosque where the Friday prayers are held in congregation. The sound view is that fasting is not a precondition, since the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam, observed I’tikaaf in Shawwaal. Furthermore, it is permissible to do I’tikaaf in the mosque in which, though congregational prayers are offered, the Friday prayer is not, necessarily. In that case, one should go out to attend the Friday prayer and his I’tikaaf will still be valid. But, it is better for one to seclude himself in a mosque in which the Friday prayers are held.
Ibn ‘Umar never offered the Duha prayer except on two occasions:
(1) Whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon. He would perform Tawaf round the Ka’ba and then offer two Rakat at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim.
(2) Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer. Ibn ‘Umar narrated that Allah’s Apostle used to visit the Mosque of Quba (sometime) walking and (sometime) riding. And he (i.e. Ibn ‘Umar) used to say, “I do only what my companions used to do and I don’t forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset.”
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Dinar:
Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding.” ‘Abdullah (Ibn ‘Umar) used to do the same.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba (sometimes) walking and sometimes riding. Added Nafi (in another narration), “He then would offer two Rakat (in the Mosque of Quba).”
Al-Tirmidhi (324) narrated from Usayd ibn Zuhayr al-Ansaari, who was one of the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Prayer in the mosque of Quba’ is like ‘Umrah.
Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.
Al-Nasaa’i (699) narrated that Sahl ibn Hunayf said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Whoever goes out to this mosque, the mosque of Quba’, and prays therein, will have (a reward) like that of ‘umrah.
Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i.
So when you have the opportunity to visit Masjid Quba, do so. And pray two nawafil there. (y)
Is it necessary to visit Masjid Quba during Hajj or Umrah? Read this for the answer.
There are only three special mosques on this Earth. Period.
I heard Abu Saeed saying four words. He said, “I heard the Prophet (saying the following narrative).” He (Abu Saeed) had participated in twelve holy battles with the Prophet.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-Al-Haram, the Mosque of Allah’s Apostle, and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa (Mosque of Jerusalem).”
Making special visits to other mosques is not allowed. This doesn’t mean we can’t visit any other mosques. But setting out on a journey only to visit a mosque (other than these 3) is wrong.
Travelling to another country/city just to pay a visit to a mosque = wrong.
Travelling to another city/country for work/leisure, and visiting mosques = right.
Intention is different, you see. Intention matters.
Narrated Abu Huraira
Allah’s Apostle said, “One prayer in my Mosque is better than one thousand prayers in any other mosque excepting Al-Masjid-Al-Haram.”
The best of all mosques is al-Masjid al-Haraam (The Sacred Mosque in Makkah), then al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet’s Mosque in Madeenah), then al-Masjid al-Aqsa.
Prayer in Masjid al-Haram: reward multiplied by 100,000.
Prayer in Masjid an-Nabwi: reward multiplied by 1,000.
Prayer in Masjid al-Aqsa: reward multiplied by 250.
The multiplication of reward for prayer in al-Masjid al-Haraam is proven in the report narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Majaah (1406) from Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him), that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
One prayer in my mosque is better than one thousand prayers elsewhere, except al-Masjid al-Haraam, and one prayer in al-Masjid al-Haraam is better than one hundred thousand prayers elsewhere.
This hadeeth was classed as saheeh by al-Mundhiri and al-Busayri. Al-Albaani said: Its isnaad is saheeh according to the conditions of the two Shaykhs [al-Bukhaari and Muslim]. End quote from Irwa’ al-Ghaleel (4/146).
One prayer in al-Masjid al-Aqsa is equivalent to two hundred and fifty prayers offered elsewhere.
It was narrated that Abu Dharr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: We were discussing when we were with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), which is better, the Mosque of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
One prayer in my mosque is better than four prayers offered there (in Bayt al-Maqdis), and what a good place of prayer it is. Soon there will come a time when, if a man has a piece of land the size of a horse’s rope from which he can see Bayt al-Maqdis, that will be better for him than the whole world.
Narrated by al-Haakim, 4/509; he classed it as saheeh and al-Dhahabi and al-Albaani agreed with him, as it says in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, at the end of the discussion on hadeeth no. 2902.
One prayer offered in the Prophet’s Mosque is equivalent to one thousand prayers (offered elsewhere), so one prayer offered in al-Masjid al-Aqsa is equivalent to two hundred and fifty prayers.
Volume 2, Book 13, Number 757:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Umar:
Allah’s Apostle used to pray two Rakat before the Zuhr prayer and two Rakat after it. He also used to pray two Rakat after the Maghrib prayer in his house, and two Rakat after the ‘Isha’ prayer. He never prayed after Jumua prayer till he departed (from the Mosque), and then he would pray two Rakat at home.
- Don’t miss the Sunnah prayers:
2 rak`aat before Fajr
4 before Dhuhr, 2 after it
2 after Jumu`ah
4 (optional*) before `Asr
2 after Maghrib
2 after `Ishaa’
It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever prays twelve rak’ahs during the night and day, a house will be built for him in Paradise: four before Zuhr and two after, two rak’ahs after Maghrib, two rak’ahs after ‘Isha’ and two rak’ahs before Fajr prayer.”
Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, no. 380; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 6362.
- Pray the Sunnah prayers at home (for men). Especially the 2 rak`aat after Jumu`ah. Prophet (SAW) never prayed after Jumu`ah till he departed from the Mosque. So make it a point.
*Prophet (SAW) sometimes prayed these rak`aat, and sometimes he didn’t. The other Sunnah prayers were offered regularly by him. He never missed them unless an exceptional situation came up.