Volume 3, Book 48, Number 832 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) called me to present myself in front of him on the eve of the battle of Uhud, while I was fourteen years of age at that time, and he did not allow me to take part in that battle, but he called me in front of him on the eve of the battle of the Trench when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed me (to join the battle).” Nafi’ said, “I went to ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul Aziz who was Caliph at that time and related the above narration to him, He said, “This age (fifteen) is the limit between childhood and manhood,” and wrote to his governors to give salaries to those who reached the age of fifteen.
The common conception of a minor being under the age 18 is not in accordance with Islamic practice. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) let Ibn Umar and some other young companions participate in the Battle of Trench at the age of 15.
With the onset of puberty, the individual becomes subject to shar‘i rulings that apply to him, so he should not shake hands with women or look at them, and he should not be alone with a woman, because he has now become accountable and the things that are prohibited for adult men are also prohibited for him, because he is one of them. It is not permissible to be careless about this matter, and it is essential to take it seriously.
If a fourteen-year-old boy has not yet reached puberty, he is very close to it, and such a person should not be allowed to see women’s ‘awrahs. Women have to understand that and observe hijab in the presence of one who is very close to puberty.
Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like palms of hands or one eye or both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms, etc.) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands fathers, their sons, their husbands sons, their brothers or their brothers sons, or their sisters sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex”
Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex” that is, because they are so young, they do not understand anything about women and their ‘awrahs, such as their soft speech or alluring ways of walking and moving. If the child is small and does not understand such things, then there is nothing wrong with him entering upon women. But if he is adolescent or close to adolescence, such that he understands these things and can distinguish between who is unattractive and who is beautiful, then he should not be allowed to enter upon women.
End quote from Tafseer Ibn Katheer (6/45-46)
It was said to Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him): When should a woman cover her head in front of a boy? He said: When he reaches the age of ten years.
End quote from al-Mughni (7/100)
With regard to reaching the age of fifteen years, what is meant is that the boy has completed fourteen years and has entered his fifteenth year. This is often applicable to one who says that he is fourteen years old; he has completed fourteen years. Therefore this sign of puberty is applicable in his case.
Moreover, the years that count in this matter are Hijri years, not Gregorian. This means that his age will be less than if it is counted by Gregorian years.
Taken from IslamQA
Narrated Zaid bin Aslam from his father:
I was with Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) on the way to Mecca, and he got the news that Safiya bint Abu Ubaid was seriously ill. So, he hastened his pace, and when the twilight disappeared, he dismounted and offered the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ prayers together. Then he said, “I saw that whenever the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had to hasten when traveling, he would delay the Maghrib prayer and join them together (i.e. offer the Maghrib and the Isha prayers together).”
We know that prayers are shortened during travel only. But what about combining prayers? Does a person have to be travelling in order to combine two prayers, or is it allowed otherwise as well? Here’s a general answer from IslamQA:
It is not permissible for a Muslim man or woman to delay an obligatory prayer beyond the proper time, rather every accountable Muslim man and woman is obliged to perform the prayers on time as much as they can.
Work is not an excuse for delaying prayer, neither is impurity on clothes or clothes being dirty. None of these are acceptable excuses.
People should be excused from work at prayer times; at the time of prayer a worker has to wash the impurity from his clothes, or change into clean clothes. As for regular dirt (as opposed to impurities), this does not prevent one from praying in those clothes, so long as that dirt is not impure and does not have an offensive smell that would bother other worshippers. But if the dirt or its smell will bother others, then he has to wash it before praying, or change into clean clothes so that he can pray in congregation.
It is permissible for those who have legitimate shar’i excuses, such as those who are sick or are travelling, to combine Zuhr and ‘Asr at the time of either of them, and to combine Maghrib and ‘Isha’ at the time of either of them.
This was narrated in the saheeh Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). It is also permissible to join prayers when there is heavy rain or mud, which cause difficulty for people.
P.S. given below is a ‘general knowledge’ question for you.. Test yourself.
Kitaab-ul-`Umrah ends here.
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Traveling is a kind of torture as it prevents one from eating, drinking and sleeping properly. So, when one’s needs are fulfilled, one should return quickly to one’s family.”
It’s a coincidence that I’m travelling at the moment, and I love such coincidences. Moreover, these words of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) resonate with my current situation. (LOL!)
No matter how comfortable your travelling is, it’s always tiring. One way or the other, your food and sleep get disturbed. And Alhamdulillah for Islam, we’re given relaxations in prayer and fasting during travel. It makes it so much easier, and I’m sure you’ll agree with me.
Side note: I’m travelling with my family in order to visit relatives and get some other stuff done. We planned the time of our return this morning only. And when I read this Hadith a while ago, I sort of streamlined my intention. You see, I could just return to my hometown because I need to return, or I could return to my hometown thinking I’m obeying the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). His words:
So, when one’s needs are fulfilled, one should return quickly to one’s family.
Difference is, the former gets me relief from torture, but I get relief and reward for the latter inshaAllah. And I, for one, am extremely greedy (for reward). ;)
Narrated Abu Ishaq:
I heard Al-Bara’ (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, “The above Verse was revealed regarding us, for the Ansar on returning from Hajj never entered their houses through the proper doors but from behind. One of the Ansar came and entered through the door and he was taunted for it. Therefore, the following was revealed: —
“It is not righteousness That you enter the houses from the back, But the righteous man is He who fears Allah, Obeys His order and keeps away from What He has forbidden So, enter houses through the proper doors.” (2.189)
The ayah in Arabic:
وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَن تَأْتُواْ الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا وَلَـكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقَى وَأْتُواْ الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَبِهَا وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back, but Al-Birr is from Taqwa. So enter houses through their proper doors, and have Taqwa of Allah that you may be successful.)
Ibn Kathir says:
Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, they used to enter the house from the back upon assuming the Ihram. Thereafter, Allah revealed (the following Ayah):
﴿وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَن تَأْتُواْ الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا وَلَـكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقَى وَأْتُواْ الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَبِهَا﴾
(It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back but Al-Birr is from Taqwa. So enter houses through their proper doors.)
Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded the same Hadith from Al-Bara’ but with the wording; “The Ansar used to enter their houses from the back when returning from a journey. Thereafter, this Ayah (2:189 above) was revealed…”
Al-Hasan said, “When some people during the time of Jahiliyyah would leave home to travel, and then decide not to travel, they would not enter the house from its door. Rather, they would climb over the back wall. Allah the Exalted said:
﴿وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَن تَأْتُواْ الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا﴾
(It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness) that you enter the houses from the back,).”
﴿وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ﴾
(…and have Taqwa of Allah that you may be successful.) Have Taqwa of Allah, means to do what He has commanded you and refrain from what He has forbidden for you,
(that you may be successful.) tomorrow when you stand before Him and He thus rewards you perfectly.
This generally proves two things:
- Not all things common in society/culture conform with Islam and its practices. It’s wise to check authenticity of all norms and myths, lest you commit bid`aat thinking you’re collecting great reward.
- Omens are baseless. And so are superstitions. True taqwa and piety are not judged by actions like entering one’s house from front or behind. Instead, it’s judged by the level of obedience to Allah’s commands. (It goes without saying that Allah alone is the Judge for it.)
If you get separated from someone or something you love, you want to get back to it as soon as you can, right?
Volume 3, Book 27, Number 28:
Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned from a journey, he, on seeing the high places of Medina, would make his she-camel proceed faster; and if it were another animal, even then he used to make it proceed faster.”
Narrated Humaid that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to make it proceed faster out of his love for Medina.
Volume 3, Book 27, Number 29:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
As above, but mentioned “the walls of Medina” instead of “the high places of Medina. Al-Harith bin Umar agrees with Anas (radiallaahu `anhu).
Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) loved his city Madinah. It’s obvious that he would want to get back to it quickly after returning from a long journey. Isn’t it cute? :)
May Allah instill its love in our hearts as well. <3