Volume 4, Book 52, Number 264 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent a group of Ansari men to kill Abu-Rafi. One of them set out and entered their (i.e. the enemies) fort. That man said, “I hid myself in a stable for their animals. They closed the fort gate. Later they lost a donkey of theirs, so they went out in its search. I, too, went out along with them, pretending to look for it. They found the donkey and entered their fort. And I, too, entered along with them. They closed the gate of the fort at night, and kept its keys in a small window where I could see them. When those people slept, I took the keys and opened the gate of the fort and came upon Abu Rafi and said, ‘O Abu Rafi. When he replied me, I proceeded towards the voice and hit him. He shouted and I came out to come back, pretending to be a helper. I said, ‘O Abu Rafi, changing the tone of my voice. He asked me, ‘What do you want; woe to your mother?’ I asked him, ‘What has happened to you?’ He said, ‘I don’t know who came to me and hit me.’ Then I drove my sword into his belly and pushed it forcibly till it touched the bone. Then I came out, filled with puzzlement and went towards a ladder of theirs in order to get down but I fell down and sprained my foot. I came to my companions and said, ‘I will not leave till I hear the wailing of the women.’ So, I did not leave till I heard the women bewailing Abu Rafi, the merchant pf Hijaz. Then I got up, feeling no ailment, (and we proceeded) till we came upon the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and informed him.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 265 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent a group of the Ansar to Abu Rafi. Abdullah bin Atik entered his house at night and killed him while he was sleeping.
See similar narrations (list of) here.
The Expedition of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Atik (Arabic: عبد الله بن عتيك) also known as the Assassination of Abu Rafi’ ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq (Arabic: أبو رافع بن أبي الحُقَيْق), took place in December, 624AD.
Sallam ibn Abu al-Huqayq (Abu Rafi) was a Jew, who aided and abetted the Pagan enemies of the Muslims by provisioning and financing them, and denigrating Muhammad with his poetry (hija’). When the Muslims had settled their affair with Banu Quraiza’s betrayal of the Muslims in Medina; the Al-Khazraj tribe, a rival of Al-Aws, asked for Muhammad’s permission to kill him in order to merit a virtue equal to that of Al-Aws who had killed Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf.
According to the Sealed Nectar, a group of 5 men from the Banu Khazraj tribe with ‘Abdullah bin ‘Ateeq at their head, headed for Khaybar where ‘Abu Rafi‘’s fort was situated. When they approached the fortress, ‘Abdullah advised his men to stay a little behind, then went ahead disguised in his cloak, as if he had been relieving himself. When the people of the fort went in, the gate-keeper called him to enter thinking he was one of them. ‘Abdullah went in and lurked inside. He then began to unbolt the doors leading to Salam’s room. There it was absolutely dark but he managed to put him to the sword, and then leave in safety. On his way back, his leg broke so he wrapped it up in a band, and hid in a secret place until morning when someone stood on the wall and announced the death of Salam bin Abi Al-Huqaiq officially. On hearing this news he left and went to see Muhammad, who listened to the whole story, and then asked ‘Abdullah to stretch his leg, which he wiped and the fracture healed on the spot according to Muslim scholar “Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri”. In another version, all five of the group participated in killing that enemy of Islam. This incident took place in Dhul Qa‘dah or Dhul Hijjah in the year five Hijri.
Hassan b. Thabit mentioning the killing of Ka`b bin Ashraf and Sallam (Abu Rafi) said:
God, what a fine band you met,
O Ibnu’l-Huqayq and Ibnu’l-Ashraf!
They went to you with sharp swords,
Brisk as lions in a tangled thicket,
Until they came on you in your dwelling
And made you drink death with their swift-slaying swords,
Despising every risk of hurt.
Hadith no. 2636 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 240 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
On the day of the battle of the Trench, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) wanted somebody from amongst the people to volunteer to be a reconnoiter. Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu) volunteered. He demanded the same again and Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu) volunteered again. Then he repeated the same demand (thrice) and Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu) volunteered once more. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then said, ” Every prophet has a disciple and my disciple is Az-Zubair.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 241 :
Narrated by Ibn’ Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
From the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) the following Hadith (No. 242).
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 242 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If the people knew what I know about traveling alone, then nobody would travel alone at night.”
Imam Ahmad was asked about a man spending the night alone. He said: I prefer him to avoid that. Quoted from al-Adaab al-Shar’iyyah (1/428).
It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The (lone) rider is a devil, two riders are two devils and three are a travelling party.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1674), who said it is a hasan hadeeth. It was also classed as hasan by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Baari (6/53) and by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (62).
These ahaadeeth indicate that it is makrooh to be alone in situations where a man fears for himself because of weakness, severe exhaustion or hardship, or when he fears that the shaytaan may tempt him and mislead him. The benefit of being with righteous companions is not limited to help and support, rather the most important thing is that it helps him to remain steadfast and pious, for the shaytaan is further away from two.
Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari (6/53):
Ibn Khuzaymah reported it under the heading; “the prohibition on two travelling and that less than three are sinners,” because what is meant by “devil” is a sinner. Al-Tabari said: This is a rebuke aimed at disciplining and guiding because of the fear of loneliness for one, but it is not haraam. The one who travels alone in the wilderness and the one who stays alone in a house has no guarantee that he will not feel lonely, especially if he had bad thoughts and is weak in faith.
In fact people differ with regard to that and the prohibition concerning that is a measure of protection, but if there is need for that, it should be fine. It was said, commenting on the words “the (lone) rider is a devil” that his travelling alone is suggested to him by the shaytaan, or he is likened to the shaytaan in his actions. And it was said that it is disliked because if the person who is travelling alone dies on the journey, there will be no one who can take care of him; similarly, if two are travelling and both or one die, there will be no one to help, unlike three, because in most cases that fear will not be present. End quote.
The apparent meaning of the hadeeth is that the prohibition applies to the one who travels alone via empty and remote routes. As for well-travelled routes, and those in which there is no risk of being lost, and where there are likely to be helpers and companions, there is no report that it is makrooh or prohibited. The same applies to travelling nowadays on planes, ships and buses, because those who are in them are all regarded as traveling companions, so the one who travels by these means is not alone in the sense that is forbidden.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb (mutafarraqaat/al-adaab):
This points to the warning against travelling alone, but that applies to journeys where the route is not travelled by many. As for journeys where the route is travelled by many, and it is as if one is in the middle of a village, such as the route from al-Qaseem to Riyadh, or Riyadh to Dammam and other such routes where there are many travellers, and the road to the Hijaz during the Hajj season, this is not in fact regarded as being alone, because many people travel by these routes. So a person may be alone in his car but he is not alone on the journey, rather there are people around him, behind him and in front of him at every moment. End quote.
Shaykh al-Albaani said in his commentary on this hadeeth in al-Saheehah (62):
Perhaps the hadeeth refers to travelling in the deserts or wilderness where the traveller rarely sees anyone. It does not include travel nowadays on paved and well-travelled roads. And Allaah knows best. End quote.
Taken from IslamQA
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 243 :
Narrated by Hisham’s father
Usama bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu) was asked at what pace the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) rode during Hajjat-ul-Wada’ “He rode at a medium pace, but when he came upon an open way he would go at full pace.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 244 :
Narrated by Aslam
While I was in the company of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) on the way to Mecca, he received the news of the severe illness of Safiya bint Abi Ubaid (i.e. his wife), so he proceeded at greater speed, and when the twilight disappeared, he dismounted and offered the Maghrib and ‘Isha ‘prayers together and said, “I saw the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) delaying the Maghrib prayer to offer it along with the ‘Isha’ when he was in a hurry on a journey.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 245 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Journey is a piece of torture, for it disturbs one’s sleep, eating and drinking. So, when you fulfill your job, you should hurry up to your family.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 193 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Whenever Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) attacked some people, he would never attack them till it was dawn. If he heard the Adhan (i.e. call for prayer) he would delay the fight, and if he did not hear the Adhan, he would attack them immediately after dawn. We reached Khaibar at night.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 194 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Same as Hadith No. 193 above.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 195 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) set out for Khaibar and reached it at night. He used not to attack if he reached the people at night, till the day broke. So, when the day dawned, the Jews came out with their bags and spades. When they saw the Prophet; they said, “Muhammad and his army!” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, Allahu Akbar! (Allah is Greater) and Khaibar is ruined, for whenever we approach a nation (i.e. enemy to fight) then it will be a miserable morning for those who have been warned.”
This is really interesting because Muslims had the perfect opportunity to use the element of surprise when they reached Khaibar. They could’ve raided the whole town, plundered and looted, but they didn’t. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) waited till dawn so the Jews could come out and see that they were under attack and prepare for retaliation/defense. Fair and square. The Jews still lost and nobody could say that the Muslim army wasn’t strong enough to handle theirs. The wait would’ve helped rejuvenate the soldiers too as they got to get some rest after travelling. So that was a plus.
This is all my own theory and understanding, not a scholar’s commentary. And based on the words of Anas (radiallahu `anhu), I chose the title of this post. Now there could have been some exceptions to this in the Seerah that I can’t think of right now. But this was a norm of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), so yeah, surprise attacks are not from the Sunnah.
Modern warfare need not use all the same strategies as the Prophet’s (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), since it’s a different time and our ways have changed, but as long as the basic rules laid down by the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (for example, not cutting trees unnecessarily, not killing women and children etc.) are being followed, we’re good. (Y)
Ahadith 2554 – 2558 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 159 :
Narrated by Sahl (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he was asked about the wound of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) on the day (of the battle) of Uhud. He said, “The face of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) as wounded and one of his front teeth as broken and the helmet over his head was smashed. Fatima (radiallaahu `anhaa) washed of the blood while Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) held water. When she saw that bleeding was increasing continuously, she burnt a mat (of date-palm leaves) till it turned into ashes which she put over the wound and thus the bleeding ceased.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 160 :
Narrated by ‘Amr bin Al-Harith (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not leave behind him after his death, anything except his arms, his white mule, and a piece of land at Khaibar which he left to be given in charity.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 161 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
As above (Hadith No. 158).
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 162 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he participated in a Ghazwa (Holy-Battle) in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). Midday came upon them while they were in a valley having many thorny trees. The people dispersed to rest in the shade of the trees. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) rested under a tree, hung his sword on it, and then slept. Then he woke up to find near to him, a man whose presence he had not noticed before. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “This (man) took my sword (out of its scabbard) and said, ‘Who will save you from me.’ I replied, ‘Allah.’ So, he put the sword back into its scabbard, and you see him sitting here.” Anyhow, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not punish him.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 163 :
Narrated by Abu Qatada (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he was in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and when they had covered a portion of the road to Mecca, he and some of the companions lagged behind. The latter were in a state of Ihram, while he was not. He saw an onager and rode his horse and requested his companions to give him his lash but they refused. Then he asked them to give him his spear but they refused, so he took it himself, attacked the onager, and killed it. Some of the companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ate of it while some others refused to eat. When they caught up with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) they asked him about that, and he said, “That was a meal Allah fed you with.” (It is also said that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Have you got something of its meat?”)
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 164 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), while in a tent (on the day of the battle of Badr) said, “O Allah! I ask you the fulfillment of Your Covenant and Promise. O Allah! If You wish (to destroy the believers) You will never be worshipped after today.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) caught him by the hand and said, “This is sufficient, O Allah’s Apostle! You have asked Allah pressingly.” The Prophet was clad in his armor at that time. He went out, saying to me: “There multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time (for their full recompense) and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter (than their worldly failure).” (54.45-46) Khalid (radiallaahu `anhu) said that was on the day of the battle of Badr.
Once Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allahu-alayhi-wa-sallam) passed by a people who were suffering from some affliction. “Why don’t they make dua (prayer) to Allah for protection?” he (sal-Allahu-alayhi-wa-sallam) said. With all the suffering and disasters Muslims are facing in various parts of the world, the question can be directed to all of us today.
It is not that we have forgotten dua completely; we refer to it regularly. But our ideas and practice regarding dua have become distorted. Often it is reduced to the level of a ritual. Generally it is considered when all our efforts have failed — an act of last resort. It is belittled through actions and sometimes even with words. Is it any wonder that today mostly a mention of dua is meant to indicate the hopelessness of a situation?
What a tragedy, for dua is the most potent weapon of a believer. It can change fate, while no action of ours ever can. It is the essence of ibadah or worship. With it we can never fail; without it we can never succeed. In the proper scheme of things, dua should be the first and the last resort of the believer, with all his plans and actions coming in between.
The most empowering conversation
Dua is conversation with Allah, out Creator, our Lord and Master, the All Knowing, the All Powerful. This act in itself is of extraordinary significance. It is the most uplifting, liberating, empowering, and transforming conversation a person can ever have. We turn to Him because we know that He alone can lift our sufferings and solve our problems. We feel relieved after describing our difficulties to our Creator. We feel empowered after having communicated with the All Mighty. We sense His mercy all around us after talking to the Most Merciful. We get a new commitment to follow His path for that is the only path for success. We feel blessed with each such commitment.
Our first and last action
In every difficulty our first action is dua, as is our last. We ask Allah to show us the way to handle that difficulty; we seek His help in following the path He shows to us; we seek His aid in making our efforts successful. When we fall sick, we know that we cannot find the right doctor without His Will; that the best doctor may not be able to diagnose our condition without His Command; that the best treatment plan will not succeed without His Permission. We make dua for all of these. We make dua before we seek medical help, while we are receiving it and after it has been delivered.
The essence of worship
Dua is the essence of ibadah. A person engaged in dua affirms his belief in Tawheed (monotheism) and shuns belief in all false gods. With each dua his belief in Allah grows. He beseeches Him, affirming his own powerlessness. A person seriously and sincerely engaged in dua understands exactly the relationship between himself and the Creator and affirms it through his actions. That is the essence of worship! Additionally, such a person can never become arrogant or proud, a logical result of true worship.
Our most potent weapon
Dua is our most potent weapon in all struggles of life as well as in jihad in the battlefield. During the battle of Badr, the Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allahu-alayhi-wa-sallam) stood up all night in prayer seeking Allah’s help in the battle between unequal armies that would follow the next day. In the decisive battles against the crusaders, Sultan Salatuddin Ayyubi was busy day and night. His days were devoted to Jihad. His nights were spent making dua, crying, seeking Allah’s help. This has been the practice of all true mujahideen.
Big and small
We should make it a point to make dua for all things big and small. It is the beginning of wisdom to realize that big and small are arbitrary labels that are totally irrelevant in this context. Nothing is too big for Whom we are asking from; nothing is too small for the one who is asking. That is why we have been taught to ask Allah when we need something as small as shoelaces. We should ask as a beggar, as a destitute person, for that is what we in reality are in relationship to Allah. At the same time we should ask with great hope and conviction that we shall be granted our prayers. We should remember the Hadith: “There is nothing more dear to Allah than a servant making dua to Him.” On the other hand, a prayer lacking concentration and conviction is no prayer at all.
All times and all needs
We should make dua at all times, not only during times of distress. The Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allahu-alayhi-wa-sallam) said: “Whosoever desires that Allah answers his duas in unfavorable and difficult conditions, he should make plentiful dua in days of ease and comfort.” Also he (sal-Allahu-alayhi-wa-sallam) said: “The person who does not ask from Allah, Allah becomes angry with him.”
We should ask for all of our needs: those related to this world as well as those related to the Hereafter. Those who only concentrate on the former are, in effect, announcing that they don’t care for their life in the permanent abode. They should blame nobody but themselves for the total ruin in that world that Qur’an assures us awaits them. Those who only concentrate on the later are also showing lack of balance, for we need Allah’s help to lead a good life here as well.
We should make dua not only for ourselves but also for our parents, brothers and sisters, spouses and children, relatives and friends, teachers and other benefactors, and destitute and struggling Muslims everywhere. We should pray for them for the good in this world as well as in the Hereafter. The Prophet (sal-Allahu-alayhi-wa-sallam) said: “The dua of a Muslim for his brother (in Islam) in his absence is readily accepted. An angel is appointed to his side. Whenever he makes a beneficial dua for his brother the appointed angel says, ‘Aameen. And may you also be blessed with the same.‘”[Sahih Muslim]
In the dark ages that we are living in today, everyday brings fresh news about atrocities committed against our brothers in Palestine, Kashmir, India, Afghanistan, Iraq, Chechnya, and the list goes on. And what do we do? We can continue to just feel frustrated and depressed. We can petition the determined perpetrators or a fictional “International Community”. We can just forget all this and move on to some other subject. Or we can stand up before Allah and pray for His help, who alone can help. The dua can change our life, our outlook, and our fate. It is the most potent weapon. But it works only for those who try sincerely and seriously to use it.
[Taken from Islam.ru]
Must watch this video on the importance of dua and its power:
Kitaab-ul-I`tikaaf [Book of Retiring to a Mosque for Remembrance of Allah] starts today..
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 242:
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practise Itikaf in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 243:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practice Itikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan till he died and then his wives used to practice Itikaf after him.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 244:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practice Itikaf in the middle ten days of Ramadan and once he stayed in Itikaf till the night of the twenty-first and it was the night in the morning of which he used to come out of his Itikaf. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever was in Itikaf with me should stay in Itikaf for the last ten days, for I was informed (of the date) of the Night (of Qadr) but I have been caused to forget it. (In the dream) I saw myself prostrating in mud and water in the morning of that night. So, look for it in the last ten nights and in the odd ones of them.” It rained that night and the roof of the mosque dribbled as it was made of leaf stalks of date-palms. I saw with my own eyes the mark of mud and water on the forehead of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (i.e. in the morning of the twenty-first).
The i’tikaaf which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) always observed at the end of his life is i’tikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan. These few days may indeed be regarded as an intensive course of spiritual education which brings immediate positive results in a person’s life during the days and nights of Ramadaan and in the coming days, until the next Ramadaan comes.
The basic goal of the Prophet’s i’tikaaf was to seek Laylat al-Qadr.
Muslim (1167) narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days of Ramadaan, then he observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days in a small tent at the door of which was a reed mat. He took the mat in his hand and lifted it. Then he put his head out and spoke to the people, and they came close to him. He said: “I observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days seeking this night, then I observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days. Then someone came and said to me that it is in the last ten days, so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.” So the people observed i’tikaaf with him.
This hadeeth teaches us a number of things:
- That the basic goal of the i’tikaaf of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was to seek Laylat al-Qadr and to prepare to spend that night in worship. That is because of the great virtue of that night of which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “The Night of Al‑Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allaah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, i.e. 83 years and 4 months)” [al-Qadr 97:3].
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) strove to seek that night before he was told when it is. So he started with the first ten days, then he observed it during the middle ten, then he continued to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten days, when he was told that it is in the last ten days. This is the utmost effort to seek Laylat al-Qadr.
- The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) followed the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because they started i’tikaaf and continued with him until the end of the month, because they were so keen to follow his example.
- The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was compassionate towards his companions and showed mercy to them, because he knew that i’tikaaf was difficult for them. So he gave them the choice between staying with him or of leaving, and said: “…so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.”
There are other aims of i’tikaaf as well, including the following:
- Being alone with Allaah and cutting oneself off from people if possible, so that one may focus completely on Allaah.
- Renewing oneself spiritual by focusing totally on Allaah.
- Cutting oneself off completely in order to worship Allaah with prayer, du’aa’, dhikr and reading Qur’aan.
- Protecting one’s fast from everything that may affect it of whims and desires.
- Reducing permissible worldly pleasures and refraining from many of them even though one is able to enjoy them.