Is it necessary to make an intention before fasting? If yes, when to make that intention?
Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa (radiallaahu `anhu):
Once the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered a person on ‘Ashura’ (the tenth of Muharram) to announce, “Whoever has eaten, should not eat any more, but fast, and who has not eaten should not eat, but complete his fast (till the end of the day).
It was narrated by Ibn ‘Umar from Hafsah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Whoever does not have the intention of fasting before Fajr, there is no fast for him.
Narrated by Imam Ahmad, the authors of al-Sunan, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibbaan; they classed it as saheeh and marfoo’.
Obligatory or Voluntary?
Summary: For obligatory fasts, intention has to be made before Fajr that day. But for voluntary fasts, intention can be made later on during the day if one hasn’t eaten/drunk/had intercourse after Fajr that day. Read below for details.
It is essential to make the intention to fast the month of Ramadan at night, before Fajr. It is not sufficient to start fasting it that day without the intention. Whoever finds out at the time of Duha that today it is Ramadan and makes the intention of fasting has to refrain from eating until sunset, and he also has to make up that day. This is with regard to obligatory fasts. With regard to naafil (voluntary) fasts it is permissible to make the intention to fast on the day, if you have not eaten or drunk or had intercourse after Fajr, because it was proven in the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered upon her one day at duha time and said, “Do you have anything (any food)?” She said, “No.” He said, “Then I am fasting.” Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Hafsa (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! What is wrong with the people; they finished their Ihram after performing ‘Umra, but you have not finished it after your ‘Umra?” He replied, “I matted my hair and have garlanded my Hadi. So, I cannot finish my Ihram till I slaughter (my Hadi).”
Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not change his intention and continued with Qiraan, but he commanded others who had not brought the hadiy with them to change their intention to Tamattu`.
Question: can we change intention during Hajj or on our way to Hajj? A very simple answer is yes, and no. For details, read on.
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Baaz answered a question concerning the ruling on one who intends to do Hajj as Tamattu’ then after passing the Meeqaat he changes his mind and starts to recite Talbiyah with the intention of doing Hajj al-Ifraad – does he have to offer the sacrifice?
It depends. If his intention before reaching the Meeqaat had been to do Tamattu’, then after reaching the Meeqaat he changed his intention and entered ihraam for Hajj only [Ifraad], there is nothing wrong with that and he does not have to offer the fidyah (penalty). But if he had recited the Talbiyah with the intention of doing ‘Umrah and Hajj together from the Meeqaat or from before the Meeqaat, then he wanted to make it Hajj only, he cannot do that, but there is nothing to stop him making it ‘Umrah, but he cannot make it Hajj. Qiraan cannot be changed to Hajj (ifraad) but it can be changed to ‘Umrah because that is easier for the believer and because that is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded. So if a person enters the state of ihraam with the intention of doing ‘Umrah and Hajj together (Qiraan) from the Meeqaat, then he decides to make it Hajj only, he cannot do that but he can change it to ‘Umrah only, which is better for him. So he can do Tawaaf and Sa’ee, then cut his hair and exit the state of ihraam, then he can enter ihraam for Hajj, and thus he will be doing Tamattu’.
If the pilgrim who is doing tamattu’ is not able to do ‘umrah before Hajj, then he should change his intention from tamattu’ to qiraan, and intend to do Hajj and ‘umrah together.
This is what happened to ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her). She was doing tamattu’, then her menses came and she was not able to do ‘umrah before Hajj, so she joined Hajj with ‘Umrah and it became qiraan. This was narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
It is not permissible for the pilgrim who is doing tamattu’ to change his intention to ifraad, because when he intended to do ‘umrah, it became binding upon him to complete it, because Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), the Hajj and ‘Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allaah” [al-Baqarah 2:196].
The meaning of ifraad is that the pilgrim will not do ‘umrah; rather he will do Hajj only. Based on that, your changing your intention to ifraad is not valid. Thus your Hajj became qiraan and you have to offer the hadiy.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about a group of young men who were afraid that they would not be able to do ‘umrah before Hajj, so they changed their intention to ifraad. He replied:
If the intention was changed before entering ihram, then there is nothing wrong with that. But if it was after entering ihram, then their Hajj became qiraan and not ifraad. What is meant by it being qiraan is that they joined Hajj with ‘umrah, because qiraan takes two forms:
1. When the pilgrim enters ihram for Hajj and ‘umrah together when he first enters ihram
2. When he enters ihram for ‘umrah first, then joins Hajj to it before starting tawaaf.
Based on that, so long as you entered ihram for ‘umrah first, then you decided to make it Hajj, you were doing qiraan. If you slaughtered a hadiy on Eid al-Adha during your Hajj in that year, then you have done what was required of you and have completed your Hajj and ‘Umrah. If you did not slaughter a hadiy, then you have to do so now, and eat some of it and give the rest in charity. If any of you cannot find a hadiy – i.e., cannot afford to buy one – then he must fast for ten days now. End quote.
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
السلام علیکم ورحمتہ اللہ و برکاتہ
Today I was going through a book and read a Hadeeth which many of us Alhaamdulilaah already know and have read many times. But still wanted to share with you people, though it’s just a little word “Intention” or “Niyyaah” but it has great importance according to the saying of Holy Prophet ﷺ:
Actions are but by intention and every man shall have but that which he intended.
Narrated’ Umar bin Khataab (May Allaah be pleased with him) reported, Messenger of Allaahﷺ said:
The deeds are considered by the intentions and the person will get the reward according to his intentions. So whoever emigrated for Allaah and His Messengerﷺ, his emigration will be for Allaah and His Messenger; and whoever emigrated for wordly benefits, or for a woman to marry, his emigration would be for what he emigrated for.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
According to another Hadith, the reason for this Hadith is that a person sent a proposal of a marriage to a woman named Umm Qais, which she turned down saying that he should have to emigrate to Al-Madina for it. Accordingly he did it, for a specific purpose and the two were married there.
On the basis of Hadith the real basis of one’s action is Niyyah (Intention) and every one will be judged and answerable for his Niyyah. So Ikhlas (Sincerity) is important for every action or in other words every righteous deed is done to seek the Pleasure of Allaah Subahanahu wa Ta`ala.
May Allaah Subahanahu wa Ta`ala show us the path of righteous people and save us from riyaa (showing off). Aameen.