Obedience to the Ruler (Ahadith 2598 – 2599)
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 203 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The ‘Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It is obligatory for one to listen to and obey (the ruler’s orders) unless these orders involve one disobedience (to Allah); but if an act of disobedience (to Allah) is imposed, he should not listen to or obey it.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 204 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
That heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “We are the last but will be the foremost to enter Paradise).” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, “He who obeys me, obeys Allah, and he who disobeys me, disobeys Allah. He who obeys the chief, obeys me, and he who disobeys the chief, disobeys me. The Imam is like a shelter for whose safety the Muslims should fight and where they should seek protection. If the Imam orders people with righteousness and rules justly, then he will be rewarded for that, and if he does the opposite, he will be responsible for that.”
The ruler who does not rule according to the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger should be obeyed in matters that do not involve disobedience towards Allaah and His Messenger, and it is not obligatory to fight him because of that; rather it is not permissible to do so unless he reaches the level of kufr, in which case it becomes obligatory to oppose him and he has no right to be obeyed by the Muslims.
Ruling according to anything other than that which is in the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger reaches the level of kufr when two conditions are met:
1. When he knows the ruling of Allaah and His Messenger; if he is unaware of it, then he does not commit kufr by going against it.
2. When what makes him rule by something other than that which Allaah has revealed is the belief that it is a ruling that is not suitable for our time and that something else is more suitable than it and more beneficial for people.
If these two conditions are met, then ruling by something other than that which Allaah has revealed constitutes kufr which puts a person beyond the pale of Islam, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And whosoever does not judge by what Allaah has revealed, such are the Kaafiroon (i.e. disbelievers)” [al-Maa’idah 5:44]. The authority of the ruler becomes invalid and he has no right to be obeyed by the people; it becomes obligatory to fight him and remove him from power.
But if he rules by something other than that which Allaah has revealed whilst believing that ruling by that – i.e. that which Allaah has revealed — is what is obligatory, and that it is more suitable for the people, but he goes against it because of some whims and desires on his part or because he wants to wrong the people under his rule, then he is not a kaafir; rather he is a faasiq (evildoer) or a zaalim (wrongdoer). His authority remains, and obeying him in matters that do not involve disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger is obligatory, and it is not permissible to fight him or remove him from power by force or to rebel against him, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) forbade rebelling against rulers unless we see blatant kufr for which we have proof from Allaah. End quote.
[Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (2/118)]
Is it permissible to rebel against the ruler?
The basic comprehensive principle of sharee’ah is that it is not permitted to remove an evil by means of a greater evil; evil must be warded off by that which will remove it or reduce it. Warding off evil by means of a greater evil is not permitted according to the scholarly consensus (ijmaa’) of the Muslims. If this group which wants to get rid of this ruler who is openly committing kufr is able to do so, and can bring in a good and righteous leader without that leading to greater trouble for the Muslims or a greater evil than the evil of this ruler, then that is OK. But if rebellion would result in greater trouble and lead to chaos, oppression and the assassination of people who do not deserve to be assassinated, and other forms of major evil, then that is not permitted. Rather it is essential to be patient and to hear and obey in matters of good, and to offer sincere advice to the authorities, and to pray that they may be guided to good, and to strive to reduce evil and increase good. This is the correct way which should be followed, because that is in the general interests of the Muslims, and because it will reduce evil and increase good, and because this will keep the peace and protect the Muslims from a greater evil.
[Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah li Samaahat al-Shaykh al-‘Allaamah ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him), vol. 8, p. 202]
Rights of a non-Muslim Mother (Hadith No. 2287)
Hadith no. 2286 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 47, Number 788:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) saw a silken cloak over a man for sale and requested the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to buy it in order to wear it on Fridays and while meeting delegates. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “This is worn by the one who will have no share in the Hereafter.” Later on Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got some silken cloaks similar to that one, and he sent one to ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu). ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “How can I wear it, while you said about it what you said?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I have not given it to you to wear, but to sell or to give to someone else.” So, ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) sent it to his brother at Mecca before he embraced Islam.
Volume 3, Book 47, Number 789:
Narrated Asma’ bint Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhaa):
My mother came to me during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and she was a pagan. I said to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (seeking his verdict), “My mother has come to me and she desires to receive a reward from me, shall I keep good relations with her?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Yes, keep good relation with her.”
One must continue to do good to the non believing mother and remember that her disbelief does not justify disobedience by the son or daughter and that doing her good does not contradict with their innocence of her as a non believer, on the contrary as it is stated in Verse 31:15 below, Allah has commanded us to treat the non believing parents kindly even if they strive to make their child a polytheist because of their rights as parents hoping that they will embrace Islam.
“But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that if which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to me in repentance and in obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.” (31:15)
Read more here.
The Forbidden and the Disliked (Hadith No. 2088)
Volume 3, Book 41, Number 591 :
Narrated by Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Allah has forbidden for you, (1) to be undutiful to your mothers, (2) to bury your daughters alive, (3) to not to pay the rights of the others (e.g. charity, etc.) and (4) to beg of men (begging). And Allah has hated for you (1) vain, useless talk, or that you talk too much about others, (2) to ask too many questions, (in disputed religious matters) and (3) to waste the wealth (by extravagance).
The Difference between “Forbidden” (Haraam) and “Hated/Disliked” (Makrooh):
Makrooh in Arabic means the opposite of liked or loved.
In the terminology of sharee’ah it means that which the Lawgiver asks us not to do, but not in a definitive manner. It may be said that it means that for which the person who does not do it out of obedience will be rewarded, but the one who does it will not be punished.
Haraam in Arabic means forbidden.
In the terminology of sharee’ah it means, that which the Lawgiver requires us not to do, in a definitive manner. Haraam is the opposite of halaal (permitted). A person will be rewarded for not doing that which is haraam, if he does so out of obedience, and not out of fear, shyness or the inability to do it; in those cases he will not be rewarded for not doing it.
Keeping all this in mind, we’re all in big trouble when it comes to being dutiful to our mothers! May Allah make us more obedient, respectful and loving towards our parents.
Respect -> Obedience (Hadith No. 1364)
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 664:
Narrated Abu Wail: (One day) I sat along with Shaiba on the chair inside the Ka’ba. He (Shaiba) said, “No doubt, Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) sat at this place and said, ‘I intended not to leave any yellow (i.e. gold) or white (i.e. silver) (inside the Ka’ba) undistributed.’ I said (to ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)), ‘But your two companions (i.e. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu)) did not do so.’ ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, They are the two persons whom I always follow.’ “
Distribution of money = (financial) fiqh issue. I’m not competent enough to delve into that. Yet.
There’s something else in this narration. Something so minute, yet of great importance. Notice how `Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) wants to do one thing, but ends up doing the other because the latter was what Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) preferred in their lifetime. It’s called respect for your elders (in age and rank). He stopped where they stopped. No questions asked. It’s simple, right? Why then do we ask questions? Why do we want to go beyond our limits? Why can’t we just accept? Why can’t we just hear and obey? Why can’t we just submit?
One more thing, Allah wasn’t pleased with Sahabah for nothing. They had great qualities and they exercised them. They did more than they said. They sacrificed, they proved their worth. They were wonderful people. :)
Obedience (Ahadith 1196 – 1197)
Volume 2, Book 24, Number 497:
Narrated Abu Masud Al-Ansar:
Whenever Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) ordered us to give in charity, we used to go to the market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a special measure of grain) and then give it in charity. (Those were the days of poverty) and today some of us have one hundred thousand.
Imagine that. Prophet (SAW) encouraged them to spend in the way of Allah which, not to forget, is not something obligatory, and they went out to make money so that they could do sadaqah. O_O I’m surprised. Really. Such obedience!
They spent in the way of Allah, and Allah returned to them manifold. “..and today some of us have one hundred thousand.”
Volume 2, Book 24, Number 498:
Narrated ‘Adi bin Hatim heard the Prophet saying:
“Save yourself from Hell-fire even by giving half a date-fruit in charity.”
What’s left to say. Must. Do. Sadaqah.