Vows (Ahadith 1583 – 1585)
Hadith no. 1582 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 87:
Narrated Qaza’a, the slave of Ziyad:
Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu) who participated in twelve Ghazawat with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I heard four things from Allah’s Apostle (or I narrate them from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) which won my admiration and appreciation. They are:
1. “No lady should travel without her husband or without a Dhu-Mahram for a two-days’ journey.
2. No fasting is permissible on two days of ‘Id-al-Fitr, and ‘Id-al-Adha.
3. No prayer (may be offered) after two prayers: after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun set and after the morning prayer till the sun rises.
4. Not to travel (for visiting) except for three mosques: Masjid-al-Haram (in Mecca), my Mosque (in Medina), and Masjid-al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem).”
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 88:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw an old man walking, supported by his two sons, and asked about him. The people informed him that he had vowed to go on foot (to the Ka’ba). He said, “Allah is not in need of this old man’s torturing himself,” and ordered him to ride.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 89:
Narrated ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir (radiallaahu `anhu):
My sister vowed to go on foot to the Ka’ba, and she asked me to take the verdict of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it. So, I did and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “She should walk and also should ride.”
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 90:
Narrated Abu-l-Khair from ‘Uqba (radiallaahu `anhu) as above.
I’ve had to do a detailed study on this matter. Bear with me till the end please. I hope I’m able to make the reader understand the concept fully inshaAllah.
Vows are of two types:
- Conditional vows, in which the vow is dependent upon something happening, as when a person says, “If Allaah heals me, I will give such and such in charity, or I will fast such and such a number of days,” and so on.
- Unconditional vows (which are not connected to anything), such as saying, “I will fast such and such a number of days for Allaah.”
Both types of vows must be fulfilled, if what is vowed is to do an act of worship. (Because if it’s not, it’s impermissible to do it anyway.)
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Whoever vows to obey Allaah, let him obey Him, and whoever vows to disobey Him let him not disobey Him.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 6696.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) condemned those who made vows but did not fulfill them. Muslim (2535) narrated from ‘Imraan ibn Husayn that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
The best of you are my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.
‘Imraan said: I do not know whether the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “and those who follow them” two times or three.
Then after them will come people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, who will betray and not be trustworthy, who will make vows but not fulfill them, and fatness will appear among them.
One must do everything in his capacity to fulfill his vow. If he falls short, he has to offer kaffaarah as mentioned in Surah al-Maa’idah:
“Allaah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masaakeen (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families, or clothe them or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allaah makes clear to you His Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful.
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:
Whoever swears an oath then sees that something else is better than it, let him do that and offer expiation for his oath.
Narrated by Muslim, 1650
Exception/Difference of Opinion
The scholars have differed on this: if the vow entails extreme unnecessary hardship, should it still be fulfilled? The sound and more correct opinion is that it’s better to break that vow. And no expiation is to be offered for breaking (only) this kind of vow as the narrations above indicate. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not order that man to offer any expiation. He was only asked to break his vow since it was bringing unnecessary hardship.
Book of Penalty Of Hunting While on Pilgrimage ends here.
Giving Preference to Others (Ahadith 1580 – 1581)
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 85:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A woman should not travel except with a Dhu-Mahram (her husband or a man with whom that woman cannot marry at all according to the Islamic Jurisprudence), and no man may visit her except in the presence of a Dhu-Mahram.” A man got up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I intend to go to such and such an army and my wife wants to perform Hajj.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Go along with her (to Hajj).”
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 86:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned after performing his Hajj, he asked Um Sinan Al-Ansari (radiallaahu `anhaa), “What did forbid you to perform Hajj?” She replied, “Father of so-and-so (i.e. her husband) had two camels and he performed Hajj on one of them, and the second is used for the irrigation of our land.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to her), “Perform ‘Umra in the month of Ramadan, (as it is equivalent to Hajj or Hajj with me (in reward).”
1. The ruling on a woman travelling alone can be read upon here.
2. I repeat this statement to emphasize on it: “no man may visit her except in the presence of a Dhu-Mahram“. PLEASE follow this advice. Visiting can be physical and virtual (online/phone etc.), if you know what I mean..
3. Sometimes one must give preference to their spouse’s needs instead of their own. In the above (top) narration, Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked the husband to (forget about going with the army and) take his wife to Hajj. Aww. :P
And in the second narration, the wife herself stayed back and sacrificed so her husband could perform Hajj easily.. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) consoled her advising her to perform `Umrah in Ramadan so she wouldn’t miss out on the reward.
Jihaad for Women (Hadith No. 1579)
Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
I said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! Shouldn’t we participate in Holy battles and Jihad along with you?” He replied, “The best and the most superior Jihad (for women) is Hajj which is accepted by Allah.” ‘Aisha added: Ever since I heard that from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) I have determined not to miss Hajj.
Jihaad against the kuffaar by fighting is not obligatory for women, but they must make jihaad by calling others to the truth (da’wah) and teaching them about Islam, within the limits that will protect them and wearing the clothes that cover their ‘awrah. They should not mix with non-mahram men or speak in soft voices or be alone with non-mahram men. Allaah said concerning the wives of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him):
“And remember (O you members of the Prophet’s family), the Graces of your Lord), that which is recited in your houses of the Verses of Allaah and Al-Hikmah (i.e. Prophet’s Sunnah)” [al-Ahzaab 33:34]
It was reported that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: I said, O Messenger of Allaah, do women have to do any kind of jihaad? He said, “Yes, they have to do the kind of jihaad in which there is no fighting: Hajj and ‘Umrah.” (Reported by Ahmad, 6/68; Ibn Maajah, 2/968).
Hajj of Boys (Ahadith 1575 – 1578)
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 80:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent me (to Mina) with the luggage from Jam’ (i.e. Al-Muzdalifa) at night.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 81:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
I came riding on my she-ass and had (just) then attained the age of puberty. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was praying at Mina. I passed in front of a part of the first row and then dismounted from it, and the animal started grazing. I aligned with the people behind Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (The sub-narrator added that happened in Mina during the Prophet’s Hajjat-ul-wada.)
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 82:
Narrated As-Sa’ib bin Yazid (radiallaahu `anhu):
(While in the company of my parents) I was made to perform Hajj with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and I was a seven-year-old boy then.
Volume 3, Book 29, Number 83:
Narrated Al-Ju’aid bin ‘AbdurRahman:
I heard ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul Aziz telling about As-Sa’ib bin Yazid that he had performed Hajj (while carried) with the belongings of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).
Children who have not yet reached the age of puberty will be rewarded for the good deeds they do. Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both), said: “A woman lifted up a child and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, will his Hajj (pilgrimage) be counted?’ He said, ‘Yes, and you will be rewarded.’” [Muslim]
The author of Mawaahib al-Jaleel said, concerning children entering ihraam (sacred state) for Hajj and ‘Umrah:
“The scholars do not differ concerning the fact that children will be rewarded for whatever acts of obedience (to Allaah) they do, and will be let off for any bad deeds that they do, and any bad deeds they do deliberately will be counted as mistakes. It says in Mukhtasar al-Waadihah: ‘Hajj is not an obligation for boys and girls until boys reach puberty and girls begin menstruating, but there is nothing wrong with taking them for Hajj. It is recommended (mustahabb), and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did so.’”
Then he reported that Talhah ibn Musarrif said: “It was one of the customs of the Muslims to take their children for Hajj and expose them to the mercy of Allaah.”
Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said in al-Tamheed that it is encouraged to take children for Hajj, and that the majority of scholars say this. He also said: “It is nothing strange that a child should earn reward and status in the Hereafter for his salaah (prayers), zakaah (paying poor-due), Hajj and other good deeds if he does them as they should be done, (because this is) grace and mercy from Allaah, just as Allaah shows mercy to the dead by rewarding them for acts of charity done on their behalf by the living. Do you not see that they (the scholars) are agreed that a child should be commanded to pray when he reaches the age of understanding and that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) led Anas and the orphan in prayer? Most of the salaf (pious predecessors) said that zakaah has to be paid on the property of orphans, and it is impossible that they would not be rewarded for that. Their guardians and the one who does this on their behalf will also certainly be rewarded, as will the one who takes them for Hajj, as a blessing and mercy from Allaah. It was reported that ‘Umar said: ‘Children’s good deeds will be recorded and their bad deeds will not be recorded.’ I do not know of anyone whose opinion is worth following who said anything to the contrary.”
More on it here.
Breaking Someone’s Teeth (Hadith No. 1569)
Hadith No. 1568 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Narrated Ya’li (radiallaahu `anhu):
While I was with Allah’s Messenger () there came to him a man wearing a cloak having a trace of yellowish perfume or a similar thing on it. `Umar used to say to me, “Would you like to see the Prophet () at the time when he is inspired divinely?” So, it happened that he was inspired (then) and when the inspiration was over the Prophet () said (to that man), “Do in your `Umra the same as you do in your Hajj.”
Narrated Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
A man bit the hand of another man but in that process the latter broke one incisor tooth of the former, and the Prophet () forgave the latter.
Two people were fighting, one bit the hand of the other, while the latter broke the tooth of the former while snatching away his hand. When they went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to judge between them, he forgave the latter (who had snatched away his hand) and said that there will be no diyat (blood money: 5 camels for one tooth) in this case. He said:
يَعَضُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَخَاهُ كَمَا يَعَضُّ الْفَحْلُ، لَا دِيَةَ لَك
[roughly translated:] “One of you bit the hand of the other like a horse/stallion bites. There’s no diyat (blood money) for you.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
So the scholars have said that there’s no kaffaarah for the one who bit the hand. Also, the one who snatched away his hand should’ve freed himself some other way instead of breaking the other’s tooth.
P.S. I don’t know why, but this incident seems sort of funny to me.