Volume 4, Book 52, Number 205 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
When we reached (Hudaibiya) in the next year (of the treaty of Hudaibiya), not even two men amongst us agreed unanimously as to which was the tree under which we had given the pledge of allegiance, and that was out of Allah’s Mercy. (The sub narrator asked Naf’i, “For what did the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) take their pledge of allegiance, was it for death?” Naf’i replied “No, but he took their pledge of allegiance for patience.”)
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 206 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu)
That in the time (of the battle) of Al-Harra a person came to him and said, “Ibn Hanzala is taking the pledge of allegiance from the people for death.” He said, “I will never give a pledge of allegiance for such a thing to anyone after Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 207 :
Narrated by Yazid bin Ubaid
Salama (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I gave the Pledge of allegiance (Al-Ridwan) to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and then I moved to the shade of a tree. When the number of people around the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) diminished, he said, ‘O Ibn Al-Akwa ! Will you not give to me the pledge of Allegiance?’ I replied, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! I have already given to you the pledge of Allegiance.’ He said, ‘Do it again.’ So I gave the pledge of allegiance for the second time.” I asked ‘O Abu Muslim! For what did you give he pledge of Allegiance on that day?” He replied, “We gave the pledge of Allegiance for death.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 208 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
On the day (of the battle) of the Trench, the Ansar were saying, “We are those who have sworn allegiance to Muhammad for Jihad (forever) as long as we live.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied to them, “O Allah! There is no life except the life of the Hereafter. So honor the Ansar and emigrants with Your Generosity.” And narrated Mujashi: My brother and I came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and I requested him to take the pledge of allegiance from us for migration. He said, “Migration has passed away with its people.” I asked, “For what will you take the pledge of allegiance from us then?” He said, “I will take (the pledge) for Islam and Jihad.”
Bay’ah can only be given to the leader of the Muslims, and bay’ah is given by the decision makers – i.e., the scholars and people of virtue and status. Once they give their allegiance to him, his position of leadership is confirmed, and the common folk do not have to give allegiance to him themselves, rather they have to obey him so long as that does not entail disobedience towards Allaah.
Al-Maaziri said: With regard to bay’ah being given to the leader of the Muslims, it is sufficient for the decision makers to give him their bay’ah. It is not essential for each individual Muslim to come to him and put his hand in his, rather it is sufficient to commit oneself to obeying him and submitting to him by not going against him or rebel against him.
Quoted from Fath al-Baari.
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Saheeh Muslim:
With regard to bay’ah (oath of allegiance): the scholars are agreed that in order for it to be valid it is not essential for all the people or all the decision makers to give their bay’ah. Rather, if bay’ah is given by those scholars and people of virtue and status who are present, that is sufficient. It is not obligatory for each person to come to the leader and put his hand in his and give his oath of allegiance to him. Rather what is required of each individual is to submit to him and not go against him or rebel against him.
What is narrated in the ahaadeeth narrated in the books of Sunnah about bay’ah refers to giving allegiance to the Muslim leader, such as when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever dies and did not make an oath of allegiance (to the Muslim leader) has died a death of jaahiliyyah.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1851).
And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever gives his oath of allegiance to a leader and gives him his hand and his heart, let him obey him as much as he can. If another one comes and disputes with him (for leadership), kill the second one.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1844)
And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If allegiance is given to two khaleefahs, then kill the second of them.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1853).
All of that undoubtedly has to do with giving allegiance to the Muslim leader.
Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said, answering a question about giving allegiance to the various groups: Bay’ah only has to do with the leader of the Muslims; these various bay’ahs are innovated and they are among the causes of division. The Muslims who are living in one country or one kingdom should have one allegiance to one leader; it is not permissible to have several kinds of bay’ah.al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, 1/367
With regard to how the allegiance should be given to the leader, in the case of men it is done in word and in deed, namely with a handshake. In the case of women, it is done by word only. This is proven in the ahaadeeth which speak of how allegiance was given to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
For example, ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “No, by Allaah, the hand of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) never touched the hand of any (non-mahram) woman. Rather he would accept their allegiance (bay’ah) in words only.”
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5288; Muslim, 1866)
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in his Sharh (commentary): “This indicates that for women, allegiance is given in words only, without taking the hand of the leader, and for men it is done in words and by taking his hand.
And Allaah knows best.
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 494 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) (wife of the Prophet)
Since I reached the age when I could remember things, I have seen my parents worshipping according to the right faith of Islam. Not a single day passed but Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) visited us both in the morning and in the evening. When the Muslims were persecuted, Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) set out for Ethiopia as an emigrant. When he reached a place called Bark-al-Ghimad, he met Ibn Ad-Daghna, the chief of the Qara tribe, who asked Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu), “Where are you going?” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “My people have turned me out of the country and I would like to tour the world and worship my Lord.” Ibn Ad-Daghna said, “A man like you will not go out, nor will he be turned out as you help the poor earn their living, keep good relation with your Kith and kin, help the disabled (or the dependents), provide guests with food and shelter, and help people during their troubles. I am your protector. So, go back and worship your Lord at your home.” Ibn Ad-Daghna went along with Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and took him to the chiefs of Quraish saying to them, “A man like Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) will not go out, nor will he be turned out. Do you turn out a man who helps the poor earn their living, keeps good relations with Kith and kin, helps the disabled, provides guests with food and shelter, and helps the people during their troubles?” So, Quraish allowed Ibn Ad-Daghna’s guarantee of protection and told Abu- Bakr that he was secure, and said to Ibn Ad-Daghna, “Advise Abu Bakr to worship his Lord in his house and to pray and read what he liked and not to hurt us and not to do these things publicly, for we fear that our sons and women may follow him.” Ibn Ad-Daghna told Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) of all that, so Abu- Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) continued worshipping his Lord in his house and did not pray or recite Qur’an aloud except in his house. Later on Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) had an idea of building a mosque in the court yard of his house. He fulfilled that idea and started praying and reciting Qur’an there publicly. The women and the offspring of the pagans started gathering around him and looking at him astonishingly. Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) was a softhearted person and could not help weeping while reciting Qur’an. This horrified the pagan chiefs of Quraish. They sent for Ibn Ad-Daghna and when he came, they said, “We have given Abu Bakr protection on condition that he will worship his Lord in his house, but he has transgressed that condition and has built a mosque in the court yard of his house and offered his prayer and recited Qur’an in public. We are afraid lest he mislead our women and offspring. So, go to him and tell him that if he wishes he can worship his Lord in his house only, and if not, then tell him to return your pledge of protection as we do not like to betray you by revoking your pledge, nor can we tolerate Abu Bakr’s public declaration of Islam (his worshipping).” ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) added: Ibn Ad-Daghna came to Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and said, “You know the conditions on which I gave you protection, so you should either abide by those conditions or revoke my protection, as I do not like to hear the ‘Arabs saying that Ibn Ad-Daghna gave the pledge of protection to a person and his people did not respect it.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I revoke your pledge of protection and am satisfied with Allah’s protection.” At that time Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was still in Mecca and he said to his companions, “Your place of emigration has been shown to me. I have seen salty land, planted with date-palms and situated between two mountains which are the two Harras.” So, when the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told it, some of the companions migrated to Medina, and some of those who had migrated to Ethiopia returned to Medina. When Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) prepared for emigration, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “Wait, for I expect to be permitted to emigrate.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) asked, “May my father be sacrificed for your sake, do you really expect that?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied in the affirmative. So, Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) postponed his departure in order to accompany Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and fed two camels which he had, with the leaves of Samor trees for four months.
I keep thinking I’ve covered this Hadith before, but the blog search results keep disappointing me. Very well.
Ibn ad-Daghna pledged to protect Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and he announced this to the people of Makkah. It was also a kind of guarantee that he gave to the people of Makkah that Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) won’t be a ‘problem’ anymore. That’s why every time the Quraysh had an issue concerning him, they went to Ibn ad-Daghna to resolve it instead of going directly to him.
And it’s profound how Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) tells him he’s satisfied with Allah’s protection and doesn’t need his. Only a man of faith and trust can say these words when surrounded by danger.. that too, from his own people.
The promises we make, we tend to break so easily. Mostly because we forget. Earthquakes remind us.
Narrated ‘Ubada bin As-Samit:
who took part in the battle of Badr and was a Naqib (a person heading a group of six persons), on the night of Al-‘Aqaba pledge: Allah’s Apostle said while a group of his companions were around him, “Swear allegiance to me for:
1. Not to join anything in worship along with Allah.
2. Not to steal.
3. Not to commit illegal sexual intercourse.
4. Not to kill your children.
5. Not to accuse an innocent person (to spread such an accusation among people).
6. Not to be disobedient (when ordered) to do good deed.”
The Prophet added: “Whoever among you fulfills his pledge will be rewarded by Allah. And whoever indulges in any one of them (except the ascription of partners to Allah) and gets the punishment in this world, that punishment will be an expiation for that sin. And if one indulges in any of them, and Allah conceals his sin, it is up to Him to forgive or punish him (in the Hereafter).” ‘Ubada bin As-Samit added: “So we swore allegiance for these (points to Allah’s Apostle).”
Another pledge. Another promise.
Make it. Don’t break it.
This statement is a consolation after last night’s earthquake: punishments in this world are an expiation for the sins. In other words, you won’t be punished for those sins in the Hereafter, inshaAllah.