Chapter: “And (remember) Lout (Lot)!”
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “May Allah forgive Lot: He wanted to have a powerful support.”
Chapter: “Then when the messengers came unto the family of Lout…”
Volume 4, Book 55, Number 595 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) recited: ‘Hal-min-Muddakir’ (54.15) (Is there any that will remember) (and avoid evil).
The Story of Prophet Lut [Lot]
By Ibn Kathir
Prophet Abraham peace be upon him left Egypt accompanied by his nephew Lut peace be upon him, who then went to the city of Sodom (Sadum), which was on the western shore of the Dead Sea.
This city was filled with evil. Its residents waylaid, robbed and killed travelers. Another common evil among them was that men had sex with men instead of with women. This unnatural act later became known as sodomy (after the city of Sodom). It was practiced openly and unashamedly.
It was at the height of these crimes and sins that Allah revealed to Prophet Lut peace be upon him that he should summon the people to give up their indecent behavior, but they were so deeply sunk in their immoral habits that they were deaf to Lot’s preaching. Swamped in their unnatural desires, they refused to listen, even when Lot warned them of Allah’s punishment. Instead, they threatened to drive him out of the city if he kept on preaching.
Allah the Almighty revealed:
“The people of Lot (those dwelt in the towns of Sodom in Palestine) belied the Messengers when their brother Lot said to them, ‘Will you not fear Allah and obey Him? Verily! I am a trustworthy Messenger to you. So fear Allah, keep your duty to Him, and obey me. No reward do I ask of you for it (my Message of Islamic Monotheism) my reward is only from the Lord of the ‘alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists). Go you in unto the males of the ‘alamin (mankind), and leave those whom Allah has created for you to be your wives? Nay, you are a trespassing people!’
“They said, ‘If you cease not, O Lot! Verily, you will be one of those who are driven out!’
“He said, ‘I am indeed, of those who disapprove with severe anger and fury your (this evil) action (of sodomy). My Lord! Save me and my family from what they do.’
“So We saved him and his family, all except an old woman (this wife) among those who remained behind.”
The doings of Lot’s people saddened his heart. Their unwholesome reputation spread throughout the land, while he struggled against them. As the years passed, he persisted in his mission but to no avail. No one responded to his call and believed except for the members of his family, and even in his household, not all the members believed. Lot’s wife, like Noah’s wife, a disbeliever.
Allah the Almighty declared:
“Allah set forth an example for those who disbelieve, the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were under two of Our righteous slaves, but they both betrayed their (husbands, by rejecting their doctrines) so they (Noah & Lut) benefited them (their respective wives) not, against Allah, and it was said, ‘Enter the Fire along with those who enter!’ “
If home is the place of comfort and rest, then Lut found none, for he was tormented both inside and outside his home. His life was continuous torture and he suffered greatly, but he remained patient and steadfast with his people. The years rolled by, and still not one believed in him. Instead, they belittled his message and mockingly challenged him:
“Bring Allah’s Torment upon us if you are one of the truthful!”
Overwhelmed with despair, Lot prayed to Allah to grant him victory and destroy the corrupt. Therefore, the angels left Abraham peace be upon him and headed for Sodom the town of Lut peace be upon him. They reached the walls of the town in the afternoon. The first person who caught sight of them was Lot’s daughter, who was sitting beside the river, filling her jug with water. When she lifted her face and saw them, she was stunned that there could be men of such magnificent beauty on earth.
One of the tree men (angels) asked her, “O maiden, is there a place to rest?”
Remembering the character of her people she replied, “Stay here and do not enter until I inform my father and return.” Leaving her jug by the river, she swiftly ran home.
“O father,” she cried, “you are wanted by young men at the town gate and I have never before seen the like of their faces!”
Lot felt distressed as he quickly ran to his guests. He asked them where they came from and where they were going.
They did not answer his questions. Instead they asked if he could host them. He started talking with them and impressed upon them the subject of his people’s nature. Lot was filled with turmoil; he wanted to convince his guests without offending them, not to spend the night there, yet at the same time he wanted to extend to them the expected hospitality normally accorded to guests. In vain he tried to make them understand the perilous situation. At last, therefore, he requested them to wait until the night fell, for then no one would see them.
When darkness fell on the town, Lot escorted his guest to his home. No one was aware of their presence. However, as soon as Lot’s wife saw them, she slipped out of the house quietly so that no one noticed her. Quickly, she ran to her people with the news and it spread to all the inhabitants like wildfire. The people rushed towards Lot quickly and excitedly. Lot was surprised by their discovery of his guests. and he wondered who could have informed them. The matter became clear, however, when he could not find his wife, anywhere, thus adding grief to his sorrow.
When Lot saw the mob approaching his house, he shut the door, but they kept on banging on it. He pleaded with them to leave the visitors alone and fear Allah’s punishment. He urged them to seek sexual fulfillment with their wives, for that is what Allah had made lawful.
Lot’s people waited until he had finished his short sermon, and then they roared with laughter. Blinded by passion, they broke down the door. Lot became very angry, but he stood powerless before these violent people. He was unable to prevent the abuse of his guests, but he firmly stood his ground and continued to plead with the mob.
At that terrible moment, he wished he had the power to push them away from his guests. Seeing him in a state of helplessness, and grief the guests said, “Do not be anxious or frightened, Lot for we are angels, and these people will not harm you.”
On hearing this, the mob was terrified and fled from Lot’s house, hurling threats at him as they left. The angels warned Prophet Lut peace be upon him to leave his house before sunrise, taking with him all his family except his wife.
Allah had decreed that the city of Sodom should perish. An earthquake rocked the town. It was as if a mighty power had lifted the entire city and flung it down in one jolt. A storm of stones rained on the city. Everyone and everything was destroyed, including Lot’s wife.
Allah the Almighty recounted this story:
“And tell them about the guests (angels) of Abraham. When they entered unto him, and said, ‘Salaman (peace)!’ Abraham said, ‘Indeed! We are afraid of you.’
“They (the angels) said, ‘Do not be afraid! We give you glad tidings of a boy (son) possessing much knowledge and wisdom.’ (Abraham) said, ‘Do you give me glad tidings (of a son) when old age has overtaken me? Of what then is your news?’ They (the angels) said, ‘We give you glad tidings in truth. So be not of the despairing.’
“Abraham said, ‘And who despairs of the Mercy of his Lord except those who are astray?’ (Abraham again) said, ‘What then is the business on which you have come, O Messengers?’
“They (the angels) said, ‘We have been sent to a people who are mujrimin (criminals, disbelivers, polytheists, sinners). (All) except the family of Lot. Them all we are surely going to save (from destruction).’
“Except his wife, of whom We have decreed that she shall be of the those who remain behind (she will be destroyed).
“Then when the Messengers (the angels) came unto the family of Lot, he said, ‘Verily! You are people unknown to me.’ They said, ‘Nay! we have come to you with that (torment) which they have been doubting. And we have brought to you the truth (the news of the destruction of your nation) and certainly, we tell the truth. Then travel in a part of the night with your family, and you go behind them in the rear, and let no one amongst you look back, but go on to where you are ordered.’
“And We made known this decree to him, that the root of those (sinners) was to be cut off in the early morning.
“The inhabitants of the city came rejoicing (at the news of the young men’s arrival). Lot said, ‘Verily! These are my guests, so shame me not. And fear Allah and disgrace me not.’ They (people of the city) said, ‘Did we not forbid you to entertain (or protect) any of the ‘alamin (people, foreigners strangers etc) from us?’ Lot said, ‘These (the girls of the nation) are my daughters to marry lawfully if you must act so.’
“Verily, by your life (O Muhammad), in their wild intoxication they were wandering blindly. So as-salihah (torment, awful cry, etc.) overtook them at the time of sunrise; and We turned (the towns of Sodom in Palestine) upside down and rained down on them stones of baked clay. Surely! In this are signs for those who see (or understand or learn the lessons from the Signs of Allah). And verily! They (the cities) are right on the highroad (from Makkah to Syria, i.e. the place where the Dead Sea is now). Surely! Therein is indeed a sign for the believers.”
Allah the Exalted also declared:
“So we saved him and his family, all, except an old woman (his wife) among those who remained behind. Then afterward We destroyed the others. We rained on them a rain of torment. How evil was the rain of those who had been warned. Verily, in this is indeed a sign yet most of them are not believers. Verily! Your Lord, He is indeed the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.“
The book was closed on the people of Lot peace be upon him. Their towns and names have been erased from the face of the earth. Gone are they from memory. One book was closed of the books of corruption.
Lot peace be upon him proceeded towards Abraham peace be upon him. He visited him, and when he recounted the story of his people, he was surprised to learn that Abraham peace be upon him already knew. So Lut peace be upon him continued to invite people to Allah, as did Abraham peace be upon him, the patient one who turned to Allah repentantly, and the two held firm to their mission.
Hadith no. 2682 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 285 :
Narrated by Jubair (who was among the captives of the Battle of Badr)
“I heard the Prophet reciting ‘Surat-at-Tur’ in the Maghrib prayer.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 286 :
Narrated by Salama bin Al-Akwa
“An infidel spy came to the Prophet while he was on a journey. The spy sat with the companions of the Prophet and started talking and then went away. The Prophet said (to his companions), ‘Chase and kill him.’ So, I killed him.” The Prophet then gave him the belongings of the killed spy (in addition to his share of the war booty).”
The spy is the one who spies on the Muslims and transmits information to their enemies.
The evidence for that is the report narrated by al-Bukhaari (3007) and Muslim (2494) which says that Haatib ibn Abi Balta’ah wrote to some of the mushrikeen in Makkah telling them some information about the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “O Haatib, what is this?” He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, do not hasten to judge me. I was a man closely connected to Quraysh, but I did not belong to this tribe, while the other Muhaajireen with you had their relatives in Makkah who would protect their families and property. So I wanted to make up for my lack of blood ties to them by doing them a favor so that they might protect my family. I did not do this because of disbelief or apostasy nor out of preferring kufr (disbelief) to Islam.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “He has told you the truth.” ‘Umar said, “O Messenger of Allaah! Let me chop off the head of this hypocrite!” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “He was present at the battle of Badr, and you do not know, perhaps Allaah looked at the people of Badr and said, ‘Do whatever you like, for I have forgiven you.’”
The point in this hadeeth is that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) agreed with ‘Umar that Haatib deserved to be executed for this action, but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told him that there was a reason why he should not be killed, which is that he was one of those who was present at the battle of Badr.
Ibn al-Qayyim said in Zaad al-Ma’aad (2/115) concerning the hadeeth of Haatib ibn Abi Balta’ah:
This was quoted as evidence by those who do not think that the Muslim spy should be killed, such as al-Shaafa’i, Ahmad and Abu Haneefah (may Allaah have mercy on them). And it was quoted as evidence by those who think that the spy should be killed, such as Maalik and Ibn ‘Aqeel among the companions of Ahmad, and others. They said: This is because the reason for not killing him was that he had been present at Badr. If being Muslim was the reason for not killing him, he would not have given a reason that is more specific, which is the fact that he had been present at Badr.
And he said elsewhere in Zaad al-Ma’aad (3/422):
The correct view is that execution of a spy depends on the opinion of the ruler; if executing him is in the Muslims’ interests, he should be executed, but if letting him live serves a greater interest, then he should be allowed to live. And Allaah knows best.
Hadith no. 2676 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 279 :
Narrated by Abu Ishaq
A man asked Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu), “O Abu ‘Umara! Did you flee on the day (of the battle) of Hunain?” Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu) replied while I was listening, “As for Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) he did not flee on that day. Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith was holding the reins of his mule and when the pagans attacked him, he dismounted and started saying, ‘I am the Prophet, and there is no lie about it; I am the son of ‘Abdul Muttalib.’ On that day nobody was seen braver than the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)'”.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 280 :
Narrated by Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the tribe of Bani Quraiza was ready to accept Sa`d’s (radiallaahu `anhu) judgment, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent for Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) who was near to him. Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) came, riding a donkey and when he came near, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to the Ansar), “Stand up for your leader.” Then Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) came and sat beside Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who said to him. “These people are ready to accept your judgment.” Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I give the judgment that their warriors should be killed and their children and women should be taken as prisoners.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then remarked, “O Sa`d! You have judged amongst them with (or similar to) the judgment of the King Allah.”
Ruling on standing up for who comes in..
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah gave a detailed answer to this question based on shar’i evidence:
It was not the custom of the salaf at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the Rightly-Guided Caliphs to stand up every time they saw him [the Prophet] (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as many people do. Rather Anas ibn Maalik said: “No person was dearer to them than the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but when they saw him they did not stand up for him because they knew that he disliked that.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2754; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. But they may have stood up for one who was returning from away, in order to greet him, as it was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood up for ‘Ikrimah, and he said to the Ansaar when Sa’d ibn Mu’aadh came: “Stand up for your chief.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3043; Muslim, 1768. That was when he [Sa’d] came to pass judgement on Banu Qurayzah, because they said that would accept his verdict.
What people should do is get accustomed to following the salaf in their customs at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), for they are the best of generations and the best of speech is the Word of Allaah, and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). No one should turn away from the guidance of the best of mankind and the guidance of the best of generations and follow something that is inferior to it. And the chief or leader should not approve of that among his companions, so that when they see him they should not stand up for him, rather they should simply greet him in the usual manner.
With regard to standing up for one who has come from a journey and the like, to greet him, that is fine. If it is the custom of the people to honour one who comes by standing up for him, and if that may make him feel insulted if they do not do it, and he does not know the custom that is in accordance with the Sunnah, then it is better to stand up for him, because that will create a good relationship between them and will remove rancour and hatred. But if a person is familiar with the custom of some people that is in accordance with the Sunnah, not doing that will not offend him.
Standing up for a newcomer is not the standing mentioned in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “Whoever likes the people to stand up for him, let him take his place in Hell.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2755; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. That refers to when they stand up for him when he is seated; it does not refer to when they stand up to welcome him when he comes. Hence the scholars differentiated between the two types of standing, because those who stand up to greet a newcomer are equal with him, unlike those who stand for one who remains seated.
It was proven in Saheeh Muslim that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) led them in prayer sitting down, because he was ill, and they prayed standing, he told them to sit down and said: “Do not venerate me as the Persians venerate one another.” And he forbade them to stand in prayer whilst he was sitting, lest they resemble the Persians who used to stand for their leaders whilst the leaders were seated. In conclusion, the best is to follow the customs and attitude and views of the salaf as much as possible.
If a person does not believe in that and is not familiar with this custom, and if not dealing with him in the manner in which people are accustomed to showing respect will lead to a greater evil, then we should ward off the greater of two evils by doing the lesser of them, and do that which serves a greater interest at the expense that which serves the lesser interest.
How should we greet scholars and leaders?
The correct way to greet scholars is to greet them with salaam and shake their hand. Many ahaadeeth have been narrated concerning the virtue of these actions. It is also permissible to kiss their heads or hands sometimes, but that should not be taken as a habit or custom, especially if it is done instead of shaking hands.
With regard to embracing, that is permissible when someone comes from a journey or after a long absence, or to express one’s deep love for the sake of Allaah and so on.
Muslim (54) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, you will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I not tell you something which, if you do it, you will love one another? Spread the greeting of salaam amongst yourselves.”
And it was narrated that Qataadah said: I said to Anas: Did the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) shake hands with one another? He said: Yes. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5908.
And it was narrated that Anas said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met they would shake hands with one another, and if they came from a journey they would embrace one another.
Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Awsat (1/37); classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 2647.
It was narrated from ‘Awn ibn Abi Juhayfah that his father said: When Ja’far came after he had migrated to Abyssinia, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) embraced him and kissed him between the eyes.
Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer (2/108); there are many corroborating reports which were mentioned by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar in al-Talkhees al-Habeer, 4/96/ it was classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 2657.
It was narrated that Usaamah ibn Shareek said: We stood up for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and kissed his hand.
Narrated by Abu Bakr ibn al-Muqqari in Juz’ Taqbeel al-Yad, p. 58. Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said: Its isnaad is qawiy. Fath al-Baari, 11/56
Read more on IslamQA
Hadith no. 2674 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 277 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was the (most handsome), most generous and the bravest of all the people. Once the people of Medina got frightened having heard an uproar at night. So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) met the people while he was riding an unsaddled horse belonging to Abu Talha and carrying his sword (slung over his shoulder). He said (to them), “Don’t get scared, don’t get scared.” Then he added, “I found it (i.e the horse) very fast.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 278 :
Narrated by Salama (radiallaahu `anhu)
I went out of Medina towards Al-Ghaba. When I reached the mountain path of Al-Ghaba, a slave of ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf (radiallaahu `anhu), met me. I said to him, “Woe to you! What brought you here?” He replied, “The she-camels of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) have been taken away.” I said, “Who took them?” He said, “Ghatafan and Fazara.” So, I sent three cries, “O Sabaha-h ! O Sabahah !” so loudly that made the people in between its (i.e. Medina’s) two mountains hear me. Then I rushed till I met them after they had taken the camels away. I started throwing arrows at them saying, “I am the son of Al-Akwa’; and today perish the mean people!” So, I saved the she-camels from them before they (i.e. the robbers) could drink water. When I returned driving the camels, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) met me, I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Those people are thirsty and I have prevented them from drinking water, so send some people to chase them.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O son of Al-Akwa’, you have gained power (over your enemy), so forgive (them). (Besides) those people are now being entertained by their folk.”
Forgiving someone when you have power over them is one of the hardest things to do, I suppose. If a ‘big guy’ took your lunch money in school, you probably had to let it go because standing up to him would mean more bullying. But if the same crime were committed by a weak little person, would you have done the same thing considering you could smash his entire being into the wall? I don’t know why there’s so much violence in my example today. :/ :P
The robber will get the punishment he deserves, in this life or the next, but your reward for forgiving him after overpowering him will be much greater than the satisfaction of seeing him get punished for his crime. Allah knows. :)
Ibn Kathir writes in the beginning of Surah al-Mumtahinah’s tafseer:
The story of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah is the reason behind revealing the beginning of this honorable Surah. Hatib was among the Early Emigrants and participated in the battle of Badr. Hatib had children and wealth in Makkah, but he was not from the tribe of Quraysh. Rather, he was an ally of `Uthman. When the Messenger of Allah decided to conquer Makkah, after its people broke the peace treaty between them, he ordered the Muslims to mobilize their forces to attack Makkah, and then said,
«اللْهُمَّ عَمِّ عَلَيْهِمْ خَبَرَنَا»
(O Allah! Keep our news concealed from them.) Hatib wrote a letter and sent it to the people of Makkah, with a woman from the tribe of Quraysh, informing them of the Messenger’s intent to attack them. He wanted them to be indebted to him ﴿so that they would grant safety to his family in Makkah﴾. Allah the Exalted conveyed this matter to His Messenger , because He accepted the Prophet’s invocation ﴿to Him to conceal the news of the attack﴾. The Prophet sent someone after the woman and retrieved the letter. This story is collected in the Two Sahihs.
And then he goes on to mention this narration..
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 251 :
Narrated by ‘Ubaidullah bin Abi Rafi
I heard ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, “Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent me, Az-Zubair and Al-Miqdad (radiallaahu `anhumaa) somewhere saying, ‘Proceed till you reach Rawdat Khakh. There you will find a lady with a letter. Take the letter from her.’ ” So, we set out and our horses ran at full pace till we got at Ar-Rawda where we found the lady and said (to her). “Take out the letter.” She replied, “I have no letter with me.” We said, “Either you take out the letter or else we will take off your clothes.” So, she took it out of her braid. We brought the letter to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and it contained a statement from Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah (radiallaahu `anhu) to some of the Meccan pagans informing them of some of the intentions of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Hatib! What is this?” Hatib (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “O Allah’s Apostle! Don’t hasten to give your judgment about me. I was a man closely connected with the Quraish, but I did not belong to this tribe, while the other emigrants with you, had their relatives in Mecca who would protect their dependents and property . So, I wanted to recompense for my lacking blood relation to them by doing them a favor so that they might protect my dependents. I did this neither because of disbelief not apostasy nor out of preferring Kufr (disbelief) to Islam.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Hatib has told you the truth.” Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, O Allah’s Apostle! Allow me to chop off the head of this hypocrite.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Hatib participated in the battle of Badr, and who knows, perhaps Allah has already looked at the Badr warriors and said, ‘Do whatever you like, for I have forgiven you.”
Surah al-Mumtahinah’s first ayah was revealed about Hatib (radiallaahu `anhu):
﴿يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَتَّخِذُواْ عَدُوِّى وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ﴾
“O you who believe! Take not my enemies and your enemies as protecting friends.” [60:1]
The ayah goes on to say: “while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth”. It refers to the idolators and the disbelievers who are combatants against Allah, His Messenger and the believers. It is they whom Allah has decided should be our enemies and should be fought. Allah has forbidden the believers to take them as friends, supporters or companions. [Ibn Kathir]
I have one question. If the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) can forgive a man for treason (more or less) based on his past record, why can’t we forgive people for much less complicated mistakes that they make? [Partly referring to the recent NAK incident and partly a general statement..]
Further reading: ruling on revealing secrets.