Volume 3, Book 31, Number 171:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Sometimes I missed some days of Ramadan, but could not fast in lieu of them except in the month of Sha’ban.” Said Yahya, a sub-narrator, “She used to be busy serving the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 172:
Narrated Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Isn’t it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect (a loss) in her religion.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 173:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever died and he ought to have fasted (the missed days of Ramadan) then his guardians must fast on his behalf.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 174:
Narrated Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
A man came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! My mother died and she ought to have fasted one month (for her missed Ramadan). Shall I fast on her behalf?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied in the affirmative and said, “Allah’s debts have more right to be paid.” In another narration a woman is reported to have said, “My sister died…”
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu): A woman said to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) “My mother died and she had vowed to fast but she didn’t fast.” In another narration Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) is reported to have said, “A woman said to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “My mother died while she ought to have fasted for fifteen days.”
How can he make up missed fasts?
If he did not fast for a reason, such as sickness or travelling, or menstruation in the case of women, then he must make it up after Ramadaan, and he must make up the number of days that he did not fast, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days”
‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: That (i.e., menstruation) would happen to us and we would be told to make up the fasts, but we were not told to make up the prayers. Narrated by al-Bukhaari (321) and Muslim (335).
The time for making up the fasts lasts until the next Ramadaan begins; he can make them up at any time during this period, on consecutive days or separately.
It is not permissible for him to delay making them up after the following Ramadaan, unless he has an excuse.
But if he did not fast deliberately, with no excuse, then one of two scenarios must apply:
- He did not decide not to fast from the night before, and he did not intend to fast. In this case making up the fast is not valid, because fasting is an act of worship that is linked to a specific time, and if a person fails to do it, it is not valid after that time, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever does an action that is not in accordance with this matter of ours will have it rejected. Narrated by al-Bukhaari (2697) and Muslim (1718).
- He did intend to fast from the night before, and he started the day fasting, then he broke his fast during the day with no excuse. He has to make up this day, because he started to do it, which makes it like a vow that he must fulfil. Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded the one who had intercourse during the day in Ramadaan to make up that day, and he said to him: “Fast one day in its place.” Narrated by Ibn Majaah (1671), classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majaah.
In addition to that, if he broke the fast during the day without any excuse by having intercourse, he must make it up and also offer expiation.
The one who breaks his fast with no excuse also has to repent to Allaah, regret what he has done, resolve never to do it again, and do a lot of righteous deeds such as observing naafil fasts and so on. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes (in My Oneness, and associates none in worship with Me) and does righteous good deeds, and then remains constant in doing them (till his death)”
And Allaah knows best.
[Taken from IslamQA]
The Prophet said, “If anyone forgets a prayer he should pray that prayer when he remembers it. There is no expiation except to pray the same.” Then he recited: “Establish prayer for My (i.e. Allah’s) remembrance.” (20.14).
No matter what time it is, what place it is, what situation it is; as soon as you remember that you missed a certain prayer, PRAY RIGHT THEN AND THERE (unless, of course, you have to perform wudhu first).
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:
On the day of Al-Khandaq (the battle of trench.) ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab came cursing the disbelievers of Quraish after the sun had set and said, “O Allah’s Apostle I could not offer the ‘Asr prayer till the sun had set.” The Prophet said, “By Allah! I, too, have not prayed.” So we turned towards Buthan, and the Prophet performed ablution and we too performed ablution and offered the ‘Asr prayer after the sun had set, and then he offered the Maghrib prayer.
- The ayaat of Salaat-ul-Khawf (Prayer of Fear/Danger) hadn’t been revealed yet.
- It was an exceptional situation: war.
- In case a prayer gets delayed and the time for next prayer enters, pray the delayed prayer first and then the next one, as the sequence described in the Hadith.
Hadith no. 568 is a repeat. Read it here.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Abi Qatada:
My father said, “One night we were traveling with the Prophet and some people said, ‘We wish that Allah’s Apostle would take a rest along with us during the last hours of the night.’ He said, ‘I am afraid that you will sleep and miss the (Fajr) prayer.’ Bilal said, ‘I will make you get up.’ So all slept and Bilal rested his back against his Rahila and he too was overwhelmed (by sleep) and slept. The Prophet got up when the edge of the sun had risen and said, ‘O Bilal! What about your statement?’ He replied, ‘I have never slept such a sleep.’ The Prophet said, ‘Allah captured your souls when He wished, and released them when He wished. O Bilal! Get up and pronounce the Adhan for the prayer.’ The Prophet performed ablution and when the sun came up and became bright, he stood up and prayed.”
This was an exceptional situation created by Allah to teach us some important things:
- If someone doesn’t break their word intentionally, it’s not their fault.
- Try to bring out the positives, even from unusual situations.
- There’s always something to learn and something to teach, if only we have the wisdom to say the right thing at the right time.
- Adhaan can be pronounced for a qadha (delayed) prayer.
- Qadha prayer can be prayed in congregation.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever misses the ‘Asr prayer (intentionally), then it is as if he lost his family and property.”
Imagine such a loss. And it’s not so hard to imagine. Some people have to through natural disasters like earthquakes and floods in order to lose their family and property. Some people do it simply: by not praying/delaying ‘Asr. Astaghfirullah!
Narrated Abu Al-Mahh:
We were with Buraida in a battle on a cloudy day and he said, “Offer the ‘Asr prayer early as the Prophet said, “Whoever leaves the ‘Asr prayer, all his (good) deeds will be annulled.”
You woke up, prayed, helped your mother in the kitchen, smiled at your brother, carried someone’s baggage for them, gave good advice to a friend, swallowed your anger for Allah’s sake, and left the ‘Asr prayer because you were busy playing/working. Guess what, all those good deeds, LOST. Like you never did them. And ‘all good deeds’ probably implies the good deeds you’ve done all your life. This is just a day’s work. SubhanAllah.
Remember, delaying the prayer intentionally and not praying at all are the same.
حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ
“Guard strictly (five obligatory) As-Salawat (the prayers) especially the middle Salat (i.e. the best prayer – ‘Asr).” [Al-Baqarah: 238]
No doubt, the middle prayer, ‘Asr, holds immense importance. This does not mean the other prayers are any less significant. It’s just to emphasize and remind us that we better not leave our prayers, especially the ‘Asr prayer. Because we usually tend to forget this one. Either we’re busy working, or studying, or even resting. That time of the day you find the roads jammed. So in all that rush, we’re likely to forget/delay our ‘Asr prayer. One word: DON’T!