Hadith no. 2768 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 371 :
Narrated by Urwa bin Az-Zubair
Hakim bin Hizam (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I asked Allah’s Apostle for something, and he gave me. I asked him again, and he gave me, and said to me. ‘O Hakim! This wealth is like green sweet (i.e. fruit), and if one takes it without greed, then one is blessed in it, and if one takes it with greediness, then one is not blessed in it, and will be like the one who eats without satisfaction. And an upper (i.e. giving) hand is better than a lower (i.e. taking) hand,’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! By Him Who has sent you with the Truth. I will not ask anyone for anything after you till I leave this world.” So, when Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) during his Caliphate, called Hakim to give him (some money), Hakim (radiallaahu `anhu) refused to accept anything from him. Once ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) called him (during his Caliphate) in order to give him something, but Hakim refused to accept it, whereupon ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Muslims! I give him (i.e. Hakim) his right which Allah has assigned to him) from this Fai ‘(booty), but he refuses to take it.” So Hakim (radiallaahu `anhu) never took anything from anybody after the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) till he died.
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 372 :
Narrated by Nafi
‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I vowed to observe Itikaf for one day during the Pre-lslamic period.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered him to fulfill his vow. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gained two lady captives from the war prisoners of Hunain and he left them in some of the houses at Mecca. When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) freed the captives of Hunain without ransom, they came out walking in the streets. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said (to his son), “O Abdullah! See what is the matter.” ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “Allah’s Apostle has freed the captives without ransom.” He said (to him), “Go and set free those two slave girls.”
(Nafi added:) Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not perform the ‘Umra from Al-Jarana, and if he had performed the ‘Umra, it would not have been hidden from ‘Abdullah.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 282 :
Narrated by Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Free the captives, feed the hungry and pay a visit to the sick.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 283 :
Narrated by Abu Juhaifa
I asked Ali (radiallaahu `anhu), “Do you have the knowledge of any Divine Inspiration besides what is in Allah’s Book?” ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “No, by Him Who splits the grain of corn and creates the soul. I don’t think we have such knowledge, but we have the ability of understanding which Allah may endow a person with, so that he may understand the Qur’an, and we have what is written in this paper as well.” I asked, “What is written in this paper?” He replied, “(The regulations of) blood-money, the freeing of captives, and the judgment that no Muslim should be killed for killing an infidel.”
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 284 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
Some Ansari men asked permission from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “O Allah’s Apostle! Allow us not to take the ransom of our nephew Al Abbas.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “Do not leave a single Dirham thereof.”
(In another narration) Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Some wealth was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) from Bahrain. Al Abbas came to him and said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Give me (some of it), as I have paid my and ‘Aqil’s ransom.’ The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Take,’ and gave him in his garment.”
Islam is the religion of mercy and justice; it commands us to call others to the religion of Allaah in a kind and good manner, and to encourage people to enter this great religion. If some people persist in rejecting the religion of Allaah and stand in the way of ruling by that which Allaah has revealed on earth, or they fight against the call to Allaah, then we give them the choice of three things:
Either they become Muslim; or if they refuse they pay the jizyah (whereby they pay a specified amount to the Muslims in return for being allowed to remain their land, and the Muslims undertake to protect them); or, if they refuse that, there is nothing left but the way which they themselves have chosen, which is fighting and dealing violently with those who have persecuted the Muslims and put obstacles in the path of the Islamic da’wah. In this way the Muslims will gain the upper hand and the enemies will be humiliated; then when we have killed and wounded many of them and gained the upper hand over them, we may take prisoners and bind a bond firmly on them [cf. Muhammad 47:4], because in that case it is more in tune with the idea of mercy by choice (not because we are afraid of them); at that point war should not continue any longer than is necessary. War in Islam should not be waged for the sole purpose of shedding blood or seeking vengeance. If the Muslims capture them and take them to a place that has been prepared for them, they should not harm them or torture them with beatings, depriving them of food and water, leaving them out in the sun or the cold, burning them with fire, or putting covers over their mouths, ears and eyes and putting them in cages like animals. Rather they should treat them with kindness and mercy, feed them well and encourage them to enter Islam.
Thumaamah ibn Athaal – the leader of Bani Haneefah – was brought (to Madeenah) as a prisoner and tied to one of the pillars of the mosque. The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to him and said, “What do you think, O Thumaamah?” He said, “What I think, O Muhammad, is good. If you kill me, you will kill one with blood on his hands – i.e., I will deserve to be killed because I have killed Muslims – and if you release me you will release one who will be grateful. If you want money, then ask, and I will give you whatever you want.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) left him for three days, and each day he would come and ask him similar questions, and Thumaamah would give similar answers. After the third day, he commanded that he should be released. Thumaamah went to a stand of date-palms near the mosque where he bathed (did ghusl), then he came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the slave of Allaah and His Messenger.” Then he said: “O Messenger of Allaah, by Allaah there was no one on earth whose face was more hateful to me than yours, but now your face is the most beloved of all faces to me. By Allaah, there was no religion that was more hateful to me than your religion, but now your religion has become the most beloved of all religions to me. By Allaah, there was no land more hateful to me than your land, but now your land has become the most beloved to me. Your cavalry captured me when I was on my way to perform ‘Umrah, so what do you think I should do?”
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) congratulated him, and told him to go for ‘Umrah. When he came to Makkah, someone asked him, “Have you changed your religion?” He said, “No, but I have submitted with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and by Allaah you will not get a grain of wheat from al-Yamaamah unless the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gives permission.”
Think about this story, may Allaah bless you, and how the kind treatment of Thumaamah led to his embracing Islam, which could not have happened were it not primarily by the grace of Allaah, and also the kind treatment which Thumaamah received.
In the Qur’aan, Allaah says of the righteous (interpretation of the meaning):
“And they give food, in spite of their love for it (or for the love of Him), to the Miskeen (the poor), the orphan, and the captive,
(Saying): ‘We feed you seeking Allaah’s Countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you’”
Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “Ibn ‘Abbaas said: in those days their prisoners were mushrikeen; on the day of Badr the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded them to be kind to their prisoners, so they used to put them before themselves when it came to food… Mujaahid said, this refers to the one who is detained, i.e., they would give food to these prisoners even though they themselves desired it and loved it.”
The ruling on tying up prisoners:
It is well known that if prisoners are able to escape they will not hesitate to do so, because they may be afraid of dying and they do not know what awaits them. Hence the Muslims were commanded to tie up their prisoners and to tie their hands to their necks, lest they run away. This is something that still happens and is well known to all people.
The wisdom behind permitting the taking of prisoners is so as to weaken the enemy and ward off his evil by keeping him away from the battlefield so that he cannot be effective or play any role; it also creates a means of freeing Muslim prisoners by trading the prisoners whom we are holding.
Prisoners should be detained until it is decided what is the best move. The ruler of the Muslims should detain prisoners until he decides what is in the Muslims’ best interests. He may ransom them for money, or exchange them for Muslim prisoners, or release them for nothing in return, or distribute them among the Muslims as slaves, or kill the men, but not the women and children, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade killing the latter. The purpose behind detaining prisoners is so that the Muslims may be protected from their evil. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to enjoin the Muslims to treat prisoners well, whereas the Romans and those who came before them the Assyrians and Pharaohs, all used to put out their prisoners’ eyes with hot irons, and flay them alive, feeding their skins to dogs, such that the prisoners preferred death to life.
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 41:
Narrated ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Layla:
Ka’b bin ‘Ujra (radiallaahu `anhu) said that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him (Ka’b), “Perhaps your lice have troubled you?” Ka’b replied, “Yes! O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Have your head shaved and then either fast three days or feed six poor persons or slaughter one sheep as a sacrifice.”
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 42:
Narrated Ka’b bin ‘Ujra (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) stood beside me at Al-Hudaibiya and the lice were falling from my head in great number. He asked me, “Have your lice troubled you?” I replied in the affirmative. He ordered me to get my head shaved. Ka’b (radiallaahu `anhu) added, “This Holy Verse:–‘And if any of you is ill, or has ailment in his scalp (2.196), etc. was revealed regarding me. “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then ordered me either to fast three days, or to feed six poor persons with one Faraq (three Sas) (of dates), or to slaughter a sheep, etc (sacrifice) whatever was available.
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 43:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Ma’qal:
I sat with Ka’b bin ‘Ujra (radiallaahu `anhu) and asked him about the Fidya. He replied, “This revelation was revealed concerning my case especially, but it is also for you in general. I was carried to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the lice were falling in great number on my face. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I have never thought that your ailment (or struggle) has reached to such an extent as I see. Can you afford a sheep?” I replied in the negative. He then said, “Fast for three days, or feed six poor persons each with half a Sa of food.” (1 Sa = 3 Kilograms approx.)
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 44:
Narrated Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Layla:
(Reporting the speech of Ka’b bin Ujra (radiallaahu `anhu)) Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saw him (i.e. Ka’b) while the lice were falling on his face. He asked (him), “Have your lice troubled you?” He replied in the affirmative. So, he ordered him to get his head shaved while he was at Al-Hudaibiya. At that time they were not permitted to finish their Ihram, and were still hoping to enter Mecca. So, Allah revealed the verses of Al-Fidya. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered him to feed six poor persons with one Faraq of food or to slaughter one sheep (as a sacrifice) or to fast for three days.
Here’s the full ayah that was revealed in Ka`b (radiallaahu `anhu)’s case:
﴿وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْىِ وَلاَ تَحْلِقُواْ رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْىُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ فَإِذَآ أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْىِ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَـثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِى الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴾
(196. And complete Hajj and `Umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady that you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either fasting or giving Sadaqah or a sacrifice. Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the `Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast for three days during Hajj and seven days after his return, making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allah much and know that Allah is severe in punishment.)
He was asked to give fidyah (ransom) because he had to do something that wasn’t allowed in Ihraam i.e. shave his hair.
Ayyub (one of the narrators of the Hadith) commented, “I do not know which alternative was stated first.” The wording of the Qur’an begins with the easiest then the more difficult options: “Pay a Fidyah of fasting (three days), feeding (six poor persons) or sacrificing (an animal).” Meanwhile, the Prophet advised Ka`b with the more rewarding option first, that is, sacrificing a sheep, then feeding six poor persons, then fasting three days. Each Text is suitable in its place and context, all the thanks and praises are due to Allah.