Kitaab-ul-Buyoo` [Book of Sales and Trade] starts today..
Volume 3, Book 34, Number 263:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
You people say that Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu) tells many narrations from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and you also wonder why the emigrants and Ansar do not narrate from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) as Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu) does. My emigrant brothers were busy in the market while I used to stick to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) content with what fills my stomach; so I used to be present when they were absent and I used to remember when they used to forget, and my Ansari brothers used to be busy with their properties and I was one of the poor men of Suffa. I used to remember the narrations when they used to forget. No doubt, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) once said, “Whoever spreads his garment till I have finished my present speech and then gathers it to himself, will remember whatever I will say.” So, I spread my colored garment which I was wearing till Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had finished his saying, and then I gathered it to my chest. So, I did not forget any of that narrations.
Imam Bukhari mentions this Hadith in the beginning of Book of Sales and Trade under the chapter:
فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَوةُ فَانتَشِرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَابْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Then when the Salah is complete, you may disperse through the land, and seek the bounty of Allah, and remember Allah much, that you may be successful. [Al-Jumu`ah: 10]
Ibn Kathir says in his tafsir about this ayah:
﴿فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَوةُ﴾
(Then when the Salah is complete,) means, when the Friday prayer is finished,
﴿فَانتَشِرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَابْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ﴾
(you may disperse through the land, and seek the bounty of Allah,) After Allah forbade Muslims from working after hearing the Adhan and ordered them to gather for the Friday prayer, He allowed them to spread throughout the earth and seek bounty after the prayer is finished. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that when the Friday prayer finished, `Irak bin Malik would stand by the gate of the Masjid and invoke Allah, saying, “O Allah! I have accepted and complied with Your Call, performed the prayer You ordered and dispersed as You ordered me. Therefore, grant me of Your favor and You are the best of those who grant provisions.” Allah’s statement,
﴿وَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ﴾
(and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.) means, while you are buying and selling, giving and taking, remember Allah much and do not let this life busy you from what benefits you in the Hereafter. There is a Hadith that states,
«مَنْ دَخَلَ سُوقًا مِنَ الْأَسْوَاقِ فَقَالَ: لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، كَتَبَ اللهُ لَهُ أَلْفَ أَلْفِ حَسَنَةٍ وَمَحَا عَنْهُ أَلْفَ أَلْفِ سَيِّئَةٍ»
(Whoever enters a marketplace and says, “La ilaha illallah, He is alone without partners, His is the sovereignty and His is the praise, and He is Able to do all things.” Then Allah will record a thousand-thousand (a million) good deeds for him and will erase a thousand-thousand evil deeds.) Mujahid said, “A servant (of Allah) will not be among those who remember Allah often, until he does so while standing, sitting and lying down.”
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 248:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) “I vowed in the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance to stay in Itikaf for one night in Al-Masjid al-Haram.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “Fulfill your vow.”
There are three main types of I`tikaaf:
- WAJIB: To vow or pledge to make I’tikaaf (on a fixed day) for the sake of Allah upon the fulfilment of some wish or desire.
- SUNNAT-MUAKKADAH: To reside the last ten nights and days of Ramadhan in the Masjid is Sunnat-Muakkadah, i.e. If a person from the community fulfills the obligation of I’tikaaf, the entire community will be absolved of this sacred duty. Otherwise all the residents will be sinful of neglecting this Sunnah.
- MUSTAHAB OR NAFL: This I’tikaaf can be for any amount of time, even for a few minutes.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 245:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to (put) bend his head (out) to me while he was in Itikaf in the mosque during my monthly periods and I would comb and oil his hair.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 246:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to let his head in (the house) while he was in the mosque and I would comb and oil his hair. When in Itikaf he used not to enter the house except for a need.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 247:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to embrace me during my menses. He also used to put his head out of the mosque while he was in Itikaf, and I would wash it during my menses.
The Fiqh of I`tikaaf
- If one observing I’tikaaf lets a part of his body out of the mosque, he is neither considered to have exited the premises nor does this affect the validity of his I’tikaaf. Therefore, he is allowed to take or give anything through the window or door of the mosque.
- It is acceptable in the Sharee’ah (Islamic jurisprudence) for one observing I’tikaaf to wash and comb his hair, apply perfume, perform Ghusl (ritual bath for purification), shave and groom himself.
- It is permissible for one observing the I’tikaaf to look at his wife and be touched by her without lust. And it is valid under the Sharee’ah for the wife to serve her husband, such as cleaning and combing his hair, and washing his clothes, etc.
- It is impermissible for one in I’tikaaf to exit the mosque, save for the express purpose of fulfilling a natural inevitable necessity, such as urination, excretion and fetching food and water for himself, if there is no one else to bring it to him. The same applies to any essential need which he can not satisfy in the mosque; he has the right to go out for it without fearing for the validity of his I’tikaaf.
- If a person performing I’tikaaf goes out of the mosque due to a need, it is not binding upon him to move hastily. He should walk at his normal pace, provided that he returns to the mosque as soon as he has achieved his objective.
- According to the majority of religious scholars, the one observing I’tikaaf must not leave the mosque to visit a patient or even attend a funeral procession. But, he does have the right to inquire about the health of a patient while passing by, without going to him.
- If one observing I’tikaaf goes out for a necessity, such as the death of his father or son, and he has not previously stipulated that he may have to leave the mosque for a similar critical reason, he must restart his I’tikaaf after he has fulfilled his need.
- It can be derived from the aforementioned Hadeeth that a wife is to abide in her husband’s house, even if he will not go to her for any purpose or if a Sharee’ah-defined impediment hinders him from going home, such as traveling or I’tikaaf; in all cases, it is forbidden for the wife to go out of his home, without his permission.
- If one exits his place of seclusion without a necessity, hisI’tikaaf becomes invalid.
- There is a difference of opinion among scholars with regard to the prerequisites of I’tikaaf, [as it is said one must] be fasting and seclude himself only in a mosque where the Friday prayers are held in congregation. The sound view is that fasting is not a precondition, since the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam, observed I’tikaaf in Shawwaal. Furthermore, it is permissible to do I’tikaaf in the mosque in which, though congregational prayers are offered, the Friday prayer is not, necessarily. In that case, one should go out to attend the Friday prayer and his I’tikaaf will still be valid. But, it is better for one to seclude himself in a mosque in which the Friday prayers are held.
Kitaab-ul-I`tikaaf [Book of Retiring to a Mosque for Remembrance of Allah] starts today..
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 242:
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practise Itikaf in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 243:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practice Itikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan till he died and then his wives used to practice Itikaf after him.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 244:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practice Itikaf in the middle ten days of Ramadan and once he stayed in Itikaf till the night of the twenty-first and it was the night in the morning of which he used to come out of his Itikaf. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever was in Itikaf with me should stay in Itikaf for the last ten days, for I was informed (of the date) of the Night (of Qadr) but I have been caused to forget it. (In the dream) I saw myself prostrating in mud and water in the morning of that night. So, look for it in the last ten nights and in the odd ones of them.” It rained that night and the roof of the mosque dribbled as it was made of leaf stalks of date-palms. I saw with my own eyes the mark of mud and water on the forehead of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (i.e. in the morning of the twenty-first).
The i’tikaaf which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) always observed at the end of his life is i’tikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan. These few days may indeed be regarded as an intensive course of spiritual education which brings immediate positive results in a person’s life during the days and nights of Ramadaan and in the coming days, until the next Ramadaan comes.
The basic goal of the Prophet’s i’tikaaf was to seek Laylat al-Qadr.
Muslim (1167) narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days of Ramadaan, then he observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days in a small tent at the door of which was a reed mat. He took the mat in his hand and lifted it. Then he put his head out and spoke to the people, and they came close to him. He said: “I observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days seeking this night, then I observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days. Then someone came and said to me that it is in the last ten days, so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.” So the people observed i’tikaaf with him.
This hadeeth teaches us a number of things:
- That the basic goal of the i’tikaaf of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was to seek Laylat al-Qadr and to prepare to spend that night in worship. That is because of the great virtue of that night of which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “The Night of Al‑Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allaah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, i.e. 83 years and 4 months)” [al-Qadr 97:3].
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) strove to seek that night before he was told when it is. So he started with the first ten days, then he observed it during the middle ten, then he continued to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten days, when he was told that it is in the last ten days. This is the utmost effort to seek Laylat al-Qadr.
- The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) followed the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because they started i’tikaaf and continued with him until the end of the month, because they were so keen to follow his example.
- The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was compassionate towards his companions and showed mercy to them, because he knew that i’tikaaf was difficult for them. So he gave them the choice between staying with him or of leaving, and said: “…so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.”
There are other aims of i’tikaaf as well, including the following:
- Being alone with Allaah and cutting oneself off from people if possible, so that one may focus completely on Allaah.
- Renewing oneself spiritual by focusing totally on Allaah.
- Cutting oneself off completely in order to worship Allaah with prayer, du’aa’, dhikr and reading Qur’aan.
- Protecting one’s fast from everything that may affect it of whims and desires.
- Reducing permissible worldly pleasures and refraining from many of them even though one is able to enjoy them.
Narrated Mahmud bin Ar-rabi’ Al-Ansari,
that he remembered Allah’s Apostle and he also remembered a mouthful of water which he had thrown on his face, after taking it from a well that was in their house. Mahmud said that he had heard Itban bin Malik, who was present with Allah’s Apostle in the battle of Badr saying, “I used to lead my people at Bani Salim in the prayer and there was a valley between me and those people. Whenever it rained it used to be difficult for me to cross it to go to their mosque. So I went to Allah’s Apostle and said, ‘I have weak eye-sight and the valley between me and my people flows during the rainy season and it becomes difficult for me to cross it; I wish you would come to my house and pray at a place so that I could take that place as a praying place.’ Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I will do so.’ So Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr came to my house in the (next) morning after the sun had risen high. Allah’s Apostle asked my permission to let him in and I admitted him. He did not sit before saying, ‘Where do you want us to offer the prayer in your house?’ I pointed to the place where I wanted him to pray. So Allah’s Apostle stood up for the prayer and started the prayer with Takbir and we aligned in rows behind him; and he offered two Rakat, and finished them with Taslim, and we also performed Taslim with him. I detained him for a meal called “Khazir” which I had prepared for him.–(“Khazir” is a special type of dish prepared from barley flour and meat soup)–
When the neighbors got the news that Allah’s Apostle was in my house, they poured it till there were a great number of men in the house. One of them said, ‘What is wrong with Malik, for I do not see him?’ One of them replied, ‘He is a hypocrite and does not love Allah and His Apostle.’ On that Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Don’t say this. Haven’t you seen that he said, ‘None has the right to be worshipped but Allah for Allah’s sake only.’ The man replied, ‘Allah and His Apostle know better; but by Allah, we never saw him but helping and talking with the hypocrites.’ Allah’s Apostle replied, ‘No doubt, whoever says “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah”, and by that he wants the pleasure of Allah, then Allah will save him from Hell.” Mahmud added, “I told the above narration to some people, one of whom was Abu Aiyub, the companion of Allah’s Apostle in the battle in which he (Abu Aiyub) died and Yazid bin Mu’awiya was their leader in Roman Territory. Abu Aiyub denounced the narration and said, ‘I doubt that Allah’s Apostle ever said what you have said.’ I felt that too much, and I vowed to Allah that if I remained alive in that holy battle, I would (go to Medina and) ask Itban bin Malik if he was still living in the mosque of his people. So when he returned, I assumed Ihram for Hajj or ‘Umra and then I proceeded on till I reached Medina. I went to Bani Salim and Itban bin Malik, who was by then an old blind man, was leading his people in the prayer. When he finished the prayer, I greeted him and introduced myself to him and then asked him about that narration. He told that narration again in the same manner as he had narrated it the first time.”
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar,
Allah’s Apostle said, “Offer some of your prayers in your houses and do not make them graves.”
- One may pray at home if the weather conditions are severe (for men).
- Treat your guests well. Food is good hospitality. (y)
- When someone invites you over for a purpose, stick to that purpose.
- NEVER judge someone and/or his Imaan. You don’t know what’s in their heart.
- Whoever says la ilaha illa-llah and seeks Allah’s pleasure, Allah will admit him into Paradise inshaAllah. Prophet (SAW)’s words, not mine.
- Pray at your homes some of your prayers. Don’t let them become graves.
Graves symbolize death. Meaning, your house is dead unless Allah is remembered in it. Bring it to life with Allah’s name!