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Farming in Paradise? (Hadith No. 2035)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2028 – 2034 (below) are related to sharecropping (already covered).

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 531 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz. When Allah’s Apostle had conquered Khaibar, he wanted to expel the Jews from it as its land became the property of Allah, His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), and the Muslims. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to expel the Jews but they requested him to let them stay there on the condition that they would do the labor and get half of the fruits. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told them, “We will let you stay on thus condition, as long as we wish.” So, they (i.e. Jews) kept on living there until ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) forced them to go towards Taima’ and Ariha’.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 532 :

Narrated by Rafi bin Khadij
My uncle Zuhair (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade us to do a thing which was a source of help to us.” I said, “Whatever Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said was right.” He said, “Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent for me and asked, ‘What are you doing with your farms?’ I replied, ‘We give our farms on rent on the basis that we get the yield produced at the banks of the water streams (rivers) for the rent, or rent it for some Wasqs of barley and dates.’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Do not do so, but cultivate (the land) yourselves or let it be cultivated by others gratis, or keep it uncultivated.’ I said, ‘We hear and obey.’

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 533 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
The people used to rent their land for cultivation for one-third, one-fourth or half its yield. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise keep it uncultivated.” Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise he should keep it uncultivated.”

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 534 :
Narrated by ‘Amr
When I mentioned it (i.e. the narration of Rafi ‘bin Khadij: no. 532) to Tawus, he said, “It is permissible to rent the land for cultivation, for Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, ‘The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not forbid that, but said: One had better give the land to one’s brother gratis rather than charge a certain amount for it.’ “

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 535 :
Narrated by Nafi
Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) used to rent his farms in the time of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and in the early days of Muawiya (radiallaahu `anhum). Then he was told the narration of Rafi ‘bin Khadij that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) went to Rafi’ and I accompanied him. He asked Rafi who replied that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “You know that we used to rent our farms in the life-time of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) for the yield of the banks of the water streams (rivers) and for certain amount of figs.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 536 :
Narrated by Salim
Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I knew that the land was rented for cultivation in the life-time of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” Later on Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) was afraid that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden it, and he had no knowledge of it, so he gave up renting his land.

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 537 :
Narrated by Hanzla bin Qais
Rafi bin Khadij said, “My two uncles told me that they (i.e. the companions of the Prophet) used to rent the land in the life-time of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) for the yield on the banks of water streams (rivers) or for a portion of the yield stipulated by the owner of the land. The Prophet forbade it.” I said to Rafi, “What about renting the land for Dinars and Dirhams?” He replied, “There is no harm in renting for Dinars-Dirhams. Al-Laith said, “If those who have discernment for distinguishing what is legal from what is illegal looked into what has been forbidden concerning this matter they would not permit it, for it is surrounded with dangers.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 39, Number 538 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was narrating (a story), while a Bedouin was sitting with him. “One of the inhabitants of Paradise will ask Allah to allow him to cultivate the land. Allah will ask him, ‘Are you not living in the pleasures you like?’ He will say, ‘Yes, but I like to cultivate the land.’ ” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, “When the man (will be permitted he) will sow the seeds and the plants will grow up and get ripe, ready for reaping and so on till it will be as huge as mountains within a wink. Allah will then say to him, ‘O son of Adam! Take here you are, gather (the yield); nothing satisfies you.’ ” On that, the bedouin said, “The man must be either from Quraish (i.e. an emigrant) or an Ansari, for they are farmers, whereas we are not farmers.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) smiled (at this).

This just goes to show how hard it is for us humans to let go of our habits! Admit it, it’s funny!

On a serious note, this also shows that you will be in Paradise what you are now. Your habits/activities will go with you.. would you be happy being what you are for eternity? #FoodForThought

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Selling Unripe Fruit – Who Suffers the Loss? (Hadith No. 1898)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 1893 – 1897 (below) are repeats. Read the post here.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 398 :
Zaid bin Thabit (radiallaahu `anhu) said,
“In the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), the people used to trade with fruits. When they cut their date-fruits and the purchasers came to recieve their rights, the seller would say, ‘My dates have got rotten, they are blighted with disease, they are afflicted with Qusham (a disease which causes the fruit to fall before ripening).’ They would go on complaining of defects in their purchases. Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do not sell the fruits before their benefit is evident (i.e. free from all the dangers of being spoiled or blighted), by way of advice for they quarrelled too much.” Kharija bin Zaid bin Thabit said that Zaid bin Thabit (radiallaahu `anhu) used not to sell the fruits of his land till Pleiades appeared and one could distinguish the yellow fruits from the red (ripe) ones.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 399 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the sale of fruits till their benefit is evident. He forbade both the seller and the buyer (such sale).

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 400 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the sale of date fruits till they were ripe. Abu ‘Abdullah (Al-Bukhari) said, “That means till they were red (can be eaten).”

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 401 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the s of (date) fruits till they were red or yellow and fit for eating.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 402 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the sale of fruits till their benefit is evident; and the sale of date palms till the dates are almost ripe. He was asked what ‘are almost ripe’ meant. He replied, “Got red and yellow.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 403 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the sale of fruits till they are almost ripe. He was asked what is meant by ‘are almost ripe.’ He replied, “Till they become red.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) further said, “If Allah spoiled the fruits, what right would one have to take the money of one’s brother (i.e. other people)?” Narrated Ibn Shihab: If somebody bought fruits before their benefit is evident and then the fruits were spoiled with blights, the loss would be suffered by the owner (not the buyer). Narrated Salim bin ‘Abdullah from Ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu): Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do not sell or buy fruits before their benefit was evident and do not sell fresh fruits (dates) for dried dates.”

If someone bought unripe/spoiled fruit from someone, the loss will be suffered by the seller, not the buyer. Re-exchange of money and fruit to take place so the owner ends up with his fruit and the buyer has his money.

Selling Unripe Fruit (Ahadith 1262 – 1264)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 563:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the sale of dates till they were good (ripe), and when it was asked what it meant, the Prophet said, “Till there is no danger of blight.”

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 564:

Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu):

The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had forbidden the sale of fruits till they were ripe (free from blight).

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 565:

Narrated Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu):

Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the selling of fruits until they were ripe. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, “It means that they become red .”

It is not permissible to sell fruits before their condition is known, according to scholarly consensus, because it is proven from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that that is forbidden.

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade selling fruits before their condition is known, and he forbade both the seller and the buyer. Narrated by al-Bukhaari (2194) and Muslim (1534).

So it is more appropriate that it is not permissible to sell fruits before they appear. The scholars are also unanimously agreed that this is forbidden.

The reason why it is forbidden to sell fruits before their condition is known is the fear that the crop may be destroyed and stricken with blight before its condition is known. Fruits are often destroyed before their condition is known, and it is proven in the hadeeth of Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do you think that if Allaah withholds the crop, why would you regard your brother’s wealth as permissible?” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1488) and Muslim (1555).

What is meant by their condition becoming known is when the fruit first appears and becomes fit to eat. It does not mean when it is fully ripe. Hence it says in the hadeeth, “until their condition is known” and it does not say, “until they become fully fit to eat.”

Muslim (1536) narrated from Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade selling produce until it is fit to eat, and according to another report, until it is ripe.

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Majmoo’ (11/150):

Its condition becoming known has to do with a change in the produce, so it varies from one type to another. Despite the differences between them, it comes down to one thing which they all have in common, which is when it is fit to be eaten. End quote.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti’ (4/33):

The guideline is when it can be eaten and becomes palatable, because when it reaches that point it can be benefited from, but before that it cannot be benefited from except with difficulty, When it reaches that point of ripeness, it is less likely to be affected by blight. End quote.

But some exceptions may be made to the ruling that it is haraam to sell crops until their condition is known, in which case it may be permissible to sell the crops even though they are not yet fit to eat.

1 – When the fruits are sold along with the trees. This is permissible, whether the condition of the fruits is known or not, and there is no difference of opinion among the fuqaha’ concerning this, because the sale of the fruit in this case is connected to the trees, and the basic principle according to the scholars is that rules may be relaxed when an item is sold along with another item, but not when it is sold on its own.

2 – The fruits may be sold before their condition is known so long as the purchaser cuts them down straight away, and does not wait until they ripen. This sale is valid according to scholarly consensus, and the scholars gave the reason that the prohibition on selling before the condition of the fruits is known is due to the fear that the fruits may be destroyed by blight before they are picked, but there is no risk of that if they are cut down straight away.

The condition of cutting them down straight away applies in some cases where the fruits may be used before they ripen, such as if they may be used as animal feed and other ways of benefiting from them.

Read full post on IslamQA here.

As for zakah on unripe fruit, read this.

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